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443 & 445 BBOADWAT. 



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XmoD, aooordlng to Aet of Coagreas, in tho jut 1860^ Ij 


In tlio Okik^B Office of tbe DUtrlot Gout of the United BUtes for the Boathen Biitriflt of 


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Tei gramnuur which is here submitted to the public, is founded on the 
ChrieehUeh$ SehulfframmaHk of Gsobo Cfbtius, Professor in the Uniyersity of 
Kiel. The work of Professor Curtius was first published in 1852, and was re- 
ceiyed in Germany with marked fayor: a second edition was called for in 
1855, a third in 1867, and a fourth in 1859. Haying been led, soon after it ap- 
peared, to study it with some care, I became satisfied that it possessed impor- 
tant advantages of plan and execution ; and I was therefore easUy induced, 
more than three years ago, to undertake the task of bringing it before the 
American public. My first thought went no further than to reproduce it in an 
EngUife yersion, with only such changes as might seem necessary to adapt it to 
the wants and habits of instructors in our country. But in carrying out this 
purpose, it happened, by what is probably a common experience in such cases, 
that one change led on to another, until at length the alterations had assumed 
an extent out of all proportion to the original design. ■ To giye the book, as it 
stands here, the name of Curtius, would be to make him responsible in appear- 
ance for many things which he has not said, and might perhaps fiedl to approye. 
Under these circumstances, it has seemed to be the only proper course, that I 
should assume the responsibility of the work, while making, as I cheerfully do, 
the fullest acknowledgments of obligation to the German scholar. Should this 
Tolume proye to be of service in the work of clasrical instruction, the result 
. win be perhaps mainly due to his broad and thoughtful scholarship, and his 

--i^ sound, practical judgment. 

9^ It may be proper for me here to follow the example of Professor Curtius, 

J I by calling attention, at the outset, to some features in the plan and arrange- 

S ment of this Grammar. 

It is a fiict generally understood, that the Greek, in oommon with the other 
Indo-European languages, has of late received, and is still receiving, much 
fight from the scientific comparative study of the whole class to which it be- 

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longs. The new Tiews of Greek etTmology and ftraetore, developed and ea 
tabllfihed bj that atudy, bare been made the object of special attention in the 
preparation of this work ; and hare been taken up into it, as £ur aa seemed to 
be consistent with the practical ends which must always be paiamoont in an 
elementary grammar. 

The multiplicity of^forms presented by the different Greek dialects is the 
occasion of considerable embarrassment to the grammarian. Scattered 
through the sections which describe the Attic language, they interfere seri- 
ously with the unity of exhibition and impresdon which it is important to 
secure : but when thrown together by themsdyes at the end of the book, they 
lose in clearness and significance, by being serered from those common facts 
and principles with which they are naturally associated. In this Grammar, 
will be found a sort of compromise between the opposite difSculties. The 
peculiarities of euphony and inflection which belong to the other dialects, are 
given in smaller type at the foot of each page, under the corresponding Attic 
forms, BO as to be kept clearly distinct from the latter, while yet presented 
with them in the same yiew. 

It is hardly necessary to say that a ecmpUU exhibition of the dialects is 
not attempted in these pages. The multitude of forms which appear only in 
lyric fragments, or in ancient inscriptions, or in the writings of grammarians, 
are passed oyer without notice. The object has been simply to supply what 
is necessary in this respect for a proper reading of the classic authors, and 
particularly Homer, Herodotus, Pindar, and Theocritus. For the language of 
Homer, I have derived much assistance from the Homeric Grammar of Ahrens 
{Chiechiiche FormenUhn de$ EonurUehen wid AUitehen IHalektea : Gdttingen, 
1852) ; and for that of Herodotus, from the careful and thorough investiga- 
tions of Bredow (Quaestume9 CfriticM de Dialeeto HerodoUa: Upsiae, 1846). 

In the sections on the verb, the forms of voice, mode, and tense are re- 
duced to a small number of groups, called " tense-systems.** Under this ar- 
rangement, which is mmilar to those already adopted by Ahrens and Curtius, 
the inflection of the verb is represented as the inflection of a few tense-stems, 
which are formed, each in its own way, from the common verb-stem. It Is 
hoped that the arrangement may commend itself in use, not only as conristent 
with the obvious analogies of verb-formation, but also aa calculated to make 
the structure of the verl) simpler and more intelligible to the learner. 

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Aaaoag tiiMe tenaM^iteiiis, tha mott prominent is tliat which includes the 
present snd imperfect, the tenses of continQed action ; and it is also the one 
which shows the greatest Tarietj of formation. Hence the formation of the 
present is taken as the basis of a new dassiflcation, the whole mass of yerbs 
being dirided into nine classes, according as the stem of this tense coincides 
with that of the rerb, or raries f^om it by diifersnt clianges. 

The special formation of partienlar yeibs—** anomalous " formation, as it 
has been generally, but to a great extent inappropriately, termed— Is exhibited 
with considerable Mnees, snd aocording to a uniform method, intended to 
asBist the apprehension and memory of the learner. 

In the Syntax, the leading aun has been— not to construct a philosophical 
system of human expression, with Greek sentences for illustrations — ^but to 
represent, as foUy and clearly as possible within the prescribed limits, t}ie ac- 
tual usage and idiom of the Greek language. It has also been an object to 
acoompany the fliU statement of rules and principles with brief phrases, de- 
scribing their substance, and conyenient for use in the recitation-roouL 

In regard to the examples by which the Syntax is illustrated, it has not 
been thought necessary to give for each one the name of the author from 
whom it is cited* Only those taken from non-Attic sources, as Homer and 
Herodotus, are credited to their authors: those which come from Attic poets 
are marked simply as poetic : while those which come from Attic prose-writen, 
and constitute perhaps nine-tenths of the whole number, are giyen without 
any indication of their source. The examples are trandated throughout, un- 
translated examples bemg (if I may trust my own observation) of but littie 
use, in general, eren to the better class of students. Regarded as illustrations, 
they are imperfect, since it is only with difficulty, and perhaps witii uncertidn- 
ty, that the learner recognizes their relation to the rule or principle to be illus- 
trated. And if we view them as exercises in translation, it may be questioned, 
whether detached sentences, torn from the cozmections in which they stood, 
and iuTolring often peculiar difficulties of language and construction, ard best 
suited for this purpose. A similar rule has been followed eyen in the earlier 
portions of the Grammar; except, indeed, in the first part (Orthography and 
Euphony), where it could hardly be carried out with conyenience : but in the 
second and third parts, which treat of Inflection and Formation, the Greek 
words mtroduced are accompanied reguUrly by a statement of their fjgnifiea- 

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tion. Thia eonne has been adopted, partly, from the feeling that a stade&t 
cannot fairly be expected to take much interest in words that hare no meaning 
to his mind ; and partly, in the belief that it is possible for a student, In this 
way, as he goes through his grammar, to acquire, with little trouble, a nsefbl 
vocabulary of Greek ezpresnon. 

In preparing this division of the work, I hare made frequent use of the 
Syntax dtr CfrUchUehmi Bpraehe (Braunschweig, 1846), by the late Professor 
MadTig of Copenhagen. But my obligations are much greater— not for the 
Syntax only, but for almost every part of the book— to E. W. Eriiger, whose 
Greek Grammar (Eke that of Buttmann before it) marks a new epoch in the 
scientific treatment of its subject Important aid has been •received also from 
the school-grammars of Buttmann and Kuhner, which are familiar to American 
students in the skilful translntions of Dr. Robmson and Dr. Taylor. Nor must 
I omit to acknowledge myself indebted, for many valuable suggestions, to the 
excellent grammars produced in our own country by Professor Sophocles and 
Professor Crosby. 

In the appended chapter on Versification, I have relied, partly on Hunk's 
Metre* of the Greeke and Eomane (translated by Professors Beck and Felton, 
Cambridge, 1844), but still more on the able treatises of Bossbach and West- 
phal (Orieehitehe Jihythmikf Leipiig, 1864; and OrUekUeht Metrik, Leip- 
xig, 1856> 

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Greek Language and Dialects, 




iJphabet 6 

Vowels .... 



. 11 

Breathings . 




Enphony of Vowels 
Vowels Interchanged 


. 25 

Vowels Lengthened . 


Vowels Contracted . 


Vowels Omitted . 


Enphon J of Consonants 
Consoi^mts Doubled . 



Enphon J of Final Sounds 



Elifflon '.'.*.' 


Final Consonants . 


MoTable Consonants • 


SyUables . . . 

. 81 

Quantity . . 


Accent .... 


Punctuation • • . 




K0U58 114 

First Declension (A-Decl.) 


Second Declension (O-Decl.) 
Attic Second DecL . 

. 138 



Labial and FaUtal Stems 


Lingual Stems 


Uquid Stems . 


Stems ini 

. 176 

Stems in i and u . 


Diphthong Stems . 

. 189 

Stems in . 


Irregular Declension . 

. 197 

Local Endukgs 


Adjectires 207 

Comparison of Adjectiyes . 220 

Form, and Compar. of Adrerbs 226 

Pronouns • . • « 280 

Numerals 258 

VSRBB 260 

Paradigms of Verbs . . . 269 

Elements of the Verb . . 806 
Augment . . . .807 

Reduplication . . . 818 

Stem and Changes of Stem . 324 

Classes of Verba. . 825 

Passive-Sign .... 843 

Tense-Signs ... 344 

Connecting Vowels, Mode-Signs 846 

Endings .... 864 

Accent of the Verb . • 865 

Formation of Tense-Systems • 869 

Present and Imperfect . . 869 

Future Actiye and Middle • 872 

ilrst Aorist Act and Mid. . 880 

Second Aorist Act. and Mid. 883 

Perfect and Pluperfect Actire. 885 

Pert, Pluperf.,Fut.Per£, Middle 888 

Aorist and Future Passiye . 895 

Verbal AdiectiTes . . 898 

Systems of the /u-form • . 899 

Enumeration of /u-forms . 408 

Verbs in ^ of Eighth Class . 408 

Verbs in ^ of First Chss . 404 

Verbs in ^ of Fifth Class • 407 

Second Aorists of /u-form . 408 

Second Perfects of /u-form . 409 

Dialectic Formations . . 410 
Irregularities of Meaning . .412 

Special Formation . . . 418 

First Class (Stem-ClasB) . . 419 

Second (Protracted) Class . 425 

Third Class (Tau-Class) . . 427 

Fourth Class (lota-Ckss) . 428 

imh (Nasal) Class ... 485 

Sixth (Inceptiye) Class . 444 

Seventh Glass (Epsaon-CIass) . 448 

Eighth (Reduplicating) Class 449 

Ninth (Mixed) Class . . 450 

Index of Verbs ... 451 

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rqixATioN Of woBiMk 
Fonnation of Simple Words 

A(i|jectiTe8 . . • . 
Denominatiye Verba . 
Gompositioii of Worda 
Form of Compoond Worda • 
Meaning of Compound Words. 



sniTAZ. • 


Agreement (general rules) 
Omitted Subject, Predicate, and 

Object .... 
dumber and Gender • 
The Article .... 

'O in the Dialects . 

*0 aa a Demonstrative . 

'Gas an Article 
The Gases .... 
Nominatiye .... 
Yocatiye .... 

Two Accus. with one verb • 
Genitiye ..... 

with Substantiyes 

with Verbs . . . . 

with Adjectiyes and Adyerbs 

in looser Relations . 

of Influence . . . . 

of Interest .... 

of Association and likeness . 

of Instrument, Means, Manner, 
Cause ..... 

of Place and Time 
Prepositions with Gases 

with Accusative only . 

with Genitive only'. 

with Dative only . 

with Ace. and Gen. 

with Ace. and Dat. 

with Ace., Gen., and Dat 
Adiectives .... 

j)egrees of Comparison . 
Pronouns .... 
The Voices .... 

Active . • • • 





Middle 681 

Passive .... 698 

The Tenses .... 695 

Tenses of the Indicative . 697 

Tenses in other Modes • .714 

The Modes .... 719 

finite Modes 

in ^mple Sentences . . 719 

in Compound Sentences . .724 

Indirect .... 788 

Final 789 

Conditional ... 744 
Relative . . . .766 

Infinitive .... 769 
Dependence of the Infin. . .768 

Subject and Predicate . . 778 

Infin. with Neuter Article . 778 

Infin. with &^ ... 788 

Infin. for Imperative • . 784 

Participle .... 786 

Attributive Participle . . 786 

Predicate-Participle . . 787 

Circumstantial Participle. . 788 

Part with Case Absolute . 790 

Adjuncts of the Participle . 796 

Supplementanr Participle . 796 
Participle with tu^ . . .808 

Verbal Adjectives in r4os 804 

Relative Seotencea ... 807 

Attraction, Incorporation . 807 

Other Peculiarities . • . . 818 

Interrogative Sentences . . 824 

Negative Sentences . . . 882 

Particles .... 849 

Coigunctions .... 868 

figures of Syntax ... 880 


ViBSincATiOH .... 887 

Trochaic Rhythms ... 899 
Iambic Rhythma . . .908 

Dactylic Rhythms ... 908 

Anapaestic Rhythms • • . 912 

Logaoedic Rhythms . . 916 
Cretio Rhythms . . • .922 

Choriambic Rhythms . . 924 

Ionic Rhythms .... 926 

Dochmiac and Bacchic Rhythms 928 

Gbxik Indkx 

684|£Hau8H Iin»z 

page 882 
page 866 

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Oreeh Langiboge and Dialects. 

1. The inhabitants of ancient Greece called themselyos BelUnea 
("EXXiyycff), and their countiy ffellas (*EXXdf). The name " Hellenes " 
was applied also to the members of the ssune race, dispersed by coloniza- 
tion orer the islands and coasts of tho Mediterranean. Bj the Romans 
they were called Grecians (Graeci). Their language — the Greek — is con- 
nected with the languages of the Indians, Persians, Romans, the Slayonic, 
Germanic, and Celtic nations. These are all kindred languages, and to- 
gether form the Indo-European family of languages, f 

2. The Hellenes referred themselves for the most part to three prin- 
cipal divUi&ns, — Acolians, Dorians, and lonians. To these belonged three 

principal dialects : the Aeolic, spoken in Ae51is, Boeotia, and Thessaly ; 

the Doric, in Peloponnesus, Isthmus, and north-western Greece, — 

also in Crete and Caria, Sicily ana southern Italy ; the Ionic, in Ionia 

and Attica, and in most of the Aegean islands. Each of them was early 
used in poetry, — for a long time the only species of literature. They 
were spoken under many different forms — secondary Elects — ^in different 
times and places. But as regards the written works which have come 
down to us, it is enough to specify the following forms: 

3. a. The Aeolie (of Lesbos), found in the lyric fragments of Alcaeus 
and the poetess Sappno (600 b. c). 

b. The Doric, found in the lyric poetry of Pindar (470 b, c.) and 
the bucolic (pastoral) poetry of Theocritus (270 b. c). Even the Attic 
dramas in tneir lyric parts contain some Doric forms. The language of 
Pindar has some peculiarities derived from the Aeolic, and still more from 
the Epic. 

c. The Ionic, including 

1) The Old Ionic, or JE^, found in the poetry of Homer (before 
800 B. c.) and Hesiod (before 700 b. c). In all the poetry of later times 
(though least of all in the dramatic dialogue) we find more or less ad- 
mijcture of Epic words and forms. 

2) The i^ew Ionic, the language of Ionia about 400 b. c, found in 
the histoxy of Herod5tus and the medical writings of Hippocrates. 

1 D. In Homer^ Hellas is only a district in northern Greece, the Hellenes 
its lobabitants. For the Greeks at large, he uses the names *Axeuo/, 'Apyetoif 
Atamoif which, strictly taken, belong only to a part of the whole people. 

2 D. The division into Aeolians, Dorians, lonians, is unknown to Homer. 

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The following dialect, though in Btnctness the Ionic of Attica, and 
closely related to the two preceding, is always -distinguished as 

d. The Attie^ the language of Athens in her flourishing period (from 
490 B. c), found in many works of poetry and prose, especially the tra- 
gedies of Aeschylus, Soph5cles, and Euripides, the comedies of Aristo- 
philnefiL the histories of Thucydldes and Xen5phon, the philosophical writ- 
ings of Plato, and the orations of Lysias, Isocr&tes, Aeschlnes, and De- 
mosthenes. The political importance of Athens and the superiority of 
her literature gaye a great ascendancy to her dialect, which at length 
banished the others from literary use ; though the Doric and the Old 
Ionic were still retained, the latter for epic, the former for lyric and bu- 
colic poetry. The Attic tiius became the common language of all culti- 
vated Greeks ; but at the same time began to lose its earlier purity. In 
this state, commendng abput the time of Alexander (who died 323 b. c), 
it is called 

e. The Common dialect (17'icoii^ duiXcieror), in distinction from the 
purer Attic On the border between the two, stands the great philo- 
sopher Aristotle, with his pupil Theophrastus. Among later authora, the 
most important are the historians Polybius (140 b. c), Plutarch (100 ▲. d.), 
Arrian (150 a. d.), and Dio Gassius (200 ▲. d.), the geographer Strabo 
(1 A. D.;, and the rhetoricians Dionysius of Halicamassus (30 b. c), and 
Ludan (170 a. d.). 

Remark. There is a noticeable difference between the ewrlier and 
later Attic. The first is seen in the tragic poets and Thucydides; the 
last, in most other Attic writers. The language of Plato has an inter- 
mediate character. The tragic language is further marked by many pe- 
culiarities of its own. 

4. For completeness, we may add 

f. The Hellenistic^ a variety of the Conunon dialect, found in the New 
Test, and in the LXX., or Septuagint version of the Old Test. The 
name comes from the term Eellmiet CEXXi/vtor^r from cXXi/pt^oi), applied 
to Hebrews, or others of foreign birth, who used the Greek language. 

g. The Modem Oreeky or popular language for the last thousand 
years, found in written works since about 1150 a. n. It is also called 
Romaic from *Po>fia(ot {Romans^ the name assumed in place of ^EXXi^vc c 
by the Greeks of the middle ages. 

Note. Through the first two Parts of the Grammar, the forms of 
Attic Greek, especially the Attic prose, are described in the body of the 
text ; while the peculiarities of other dialects (particularly those of Homer 
and Herodotus) are added in smaller type at the foot of each page. 

Hm, stands for Horner^ and Ed, for HerodotuB; — cf. is used for Lat. 
e(mfer (compare),--«<;. for scilicet (to wit), — ib. for ibidem (in the same 
place), — i. e, for id est (that is), — «. g, for exempli gratia (for example), 
— kt\. for Koi ra \0c7rd (Lat. et cetera). Other abbreviations will explain 

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5. The Greek is written with twenty-four letters, viz. 

























*E f/flXoV 















































*0 fit#cp<Jv 














<r 5 











'Y ^^iXoV 























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4 VOWELS. [5 

Rbhabk. a. Sigma has the form o- in the beginning and 
middle of a word, s at the end of a word : arrauns faction. 

The final s is retained by some editors, even when it is brought by 
composition into the middle of a word : thus the compound word made 
up of 8vs ill (never used separately), irpos to, and 6d6s way^ is written by 
some hvsiTpoiohoi, by others hv(Tirp6<To^ot<i difficult of access. 

Rem. b. Abhreviations. For many combinations of two or three letters, 
and for many short words in frequent use, the manuscripts and old edi- 
tions have peculiar forms, connected and abridged. Two of these arc still 
occasionally used: a for ov, and r (named <rrl or arlyfxa) for or. 

G. Rem. c. The term alphabet is formed from the names of the first 
two letters. The Qreek alphabet is not essentially different from the 
Roman, and from those of modem Europe. They are all derived from 
the alphabet of the Phoenicians. 

Note. d. Various other signs, beside the letters of the alphabet, are 
used in writing Greek. Such are the breathings (14), the coronis (68) 
and the apostrophe (70), the accents (89) and the marks of punetuatuni 


7. The vowels are a, e» 17, i, o, w, v. 

Of these, c, o, are always shorty 

rj, w, always long^ 

CL, L, V, short in some words, long in 

others, and hence called doubtful vowels. 

8. The short sounds of a, c, v, are indicated in the grammar by d, r, ; 
the long sounds, by a, r, v. We have then 

the short vowels, 5, c, t, o, v, and 
the long vowels, a, 77, Z, co, v. 

9. The long vowels were sounded as a, e, i, o, u^ in the English words 
par, prey, capr/ce, pr<>ne, prt/ne, slowly and fully uttered. The short 
vowels had the same sounds, only less prolonged in utterance, — a little 
different, therefore, from the English short sounds in the words pat, p^t, 
pit, ^t, pt^t 

10, The vowels (sounded as above) are dose or open. The 
most open vowel is a ; less open are c, 17, o, w ; the close vowels 
are t, v. Thus we have 

the open short vowels, a, c, o, 

the open long vowels, o, rj, w, 

the close vowels, 1, v. 

Digitized by 


12] OIFBTH0NQ8. 


11. The diphthongs {^t^crfyoi. double-bounds) combino two 
vowels — ^an open and a close Towel — ^in one syllable. They are 

ai, cc, otj av, cv, ov, 

^ V' ^f ^^ V^> ^*^> 2^^ ^' • 

but in VI, both the vowels are close. 

Of these, a, rj, w, are called improper diphthongs. Their 
second vowel is called iota subscript (written below the first). 
But when the first vowel is a capital letter, i stands npon the 
line : OIAHI = 'OtSp = ^. 

Rem. a. In the diphthongs, as at first prononnced, each vowel receiv- 
ed its proper sound, while the two, being uttered without break, coales- 
ced in one syllable. Thus ac, pronounced dh'€4^ giving the sound of £ng. 
ay affirmative: av, ahroo^ like Eng. ou in our: tv, ot^ vc, not quite like eu 
infeudj oi in fail, ui in quit: ri, ov, still further from ei in height, ou in 
youth; though ov afterward!^ assumed the latter sound (12 b). 

Rem. b. In a, ;;, oi, the second vowel was at first written on the line 
and sounded, as in other diphthongs. But it early ceased to be pro- 
nounced, being swallowed up by the long a, ?;, », before it. For a long 
time it was generally omitted in writing, and, when afterwards restored, 
was placed as a silent letter under the line. Hence a, ^, ^, were called 
improper diphthongs, their second vowel having no effect upon the sound. 
The same name has sometimes been extended to include lyv, cov, and v<, 
which are distinguished from the other diphthongs by special peculiarities. 
Thus ijv is always the result of augment (310) or of crasis (68), wu of 
crasis only ; vc is composed of two close vowels, and is never followed by 
a consonant in the same word. 

12. In Roman letters the diphthongs were represented, 

at, fc, o(, av, (V, ov, vt, a, 77, ^, 

by ae, 6ori, oe, au, eu, 1i, yi, ft, 6, 6. 

Exc. a. For at, oi, in a few proper names, we have Roman at, oi; 
Maia Maia, Tpoia Troia or Troja, Alat Ajax, For «>, in a few compounds 
oi^rj sang, we have oe: rpay^is tragoedus. 

Rem. b. From the representation of Greek words by Roman letters, 
it appears that at an early time (as early as 100 b. c.) several of tlje 
diphthongs had become simple sounds. Thus ct had assiuned the sound 

11 D.b. The Ionic has ijv also in yijvs (Hm. Hd.) Att. yavs ihip^ and y^vs 

(Um.) Att. 7pavs old womatu mu is scarcely Attic. The New Ionic has it In 

m\n6i, rwhri, etc., by crasia for 6 aMs, rh a^6 (68 D) ; — also in reflexive pro- 
Douns, as iwirrov (235 D), which seems to hare arisen by crasis from co aWov ; 
—farther in ^mv/ca Att. dw/M toonder, and words derived from it; though 
here some deny the diphthong and write ^Ofia or ^fta. 

Digitized by 


6 B&BATHINaS. [12 

of Eng. ei in rein or in seize — most oommonly the latter ; ov that of au 
in your. For ^, j;, ^, see 11 b. 

Rem. c. It appears also that, prior to the same time, v had taken the 
sound of French u, or German ft. intermediate between Eng. oo and ee — 
which the Romans, not having this sound, represented (as they did the 
sound of f) by using the Greek letter for the purpose (y=v). The 
diphthong vi underwent a corresponding change. But v at the end of a 
diphthong retained its earlier sound. 

' 13. Diaeresis. Sometimes two vowels, which might coalesce 
aa a diphthong, are separated in pronunciation. A mark of 
diaeresis {separation) is then placed over the second vowel: 

pa'i^ovTwv, irfiovTrapyiiiy fiorpvi. 

Rem. a. The diaeresis is sometimes omitted, when it is evident from 
a breathing (14), or an accent (89), or from i written on the line (11), that 
the two vowels do not unite as a diphthong. Thus in avrri^ 'X^i^^i ^i/'Co' 
/xerar, the vowels are evidently separate (== avrri^ ^x^^I, Xi^i^uficvor), while 
in alrr^^ ^xdvi, \rj(6iitvofy they unite as diphthongs. 


14. The weak sound A, at the beginning of a word, was in- 
dicated by the mark * placed over the initial vowel, and called 
the rough breathing (spiritus asper) : thus tcmi (pronoimced Ai- 
i^nai) to sefid. 

The absence of this sound was also indicated by a mark * 

!)laced over the initial vowel, and called the smooth breathing 
spiritus lenis) : thos uWt (pronounced i-e-nai) to go. 

Words beginning with a diphthong take the breathings over 
the second vowel : avrov of himself^ avrov of him. But in the 
improper diphthongs, t never takes the breathings, even when it 
stands upon the line : 'OiSi; = w^ song. 

15. All words which begin with v have the rough breathing. 
Further, the initial consonant p always has the rough breathing 

(thus p, Roman rh) : prfnap rhetor orator. pp appears in most 

editions as pp (Roman rrh) : IIvppos Pyrrhxis / though some 
write IIvppos. 

Rem. a. Except in pp, the breathings belong onlv to initial letters ; 
if brought into the middle of a word by composition, they disappear : n-po- 
i€pai (from np6+ Uvat and from irp6-\- livai) ; thougti the Roman form in 
some such cases shows an A.* cwdpii enhydris,7ro\vto-ra>p Poly his tor. 

15 D. The Epic pronouns tf/ificf, IffifUf Iffi/At (238 D) have the smooth 
breathing. The Aeolic dialect had other exceptions. 

Digitized by 




16. The consonants were sounded, for the most part, as we sound the 
Boman letters used to represent them (5). To e, g^ «, ^, we give a yariety 
of sounds : the corresponding Greek letters #c, y, o-, t, had only the 
sounds which are heard in Eng. coo^ go^ ao^ to : thus in Avieca Lyeia, ^pv 
yia Fhrygia, Mvo-ia My^ia^ Bot<»Tia Boeotia, But 

Gamma (y) before k, y, x» or 6 liad the sound of n in anger^ 
anxious^ and was represented by a Roman n : ayicvpa Lat. an- 
c5ra anchor^ HXeyxps elenchus^oq/". 

17. The letters 6, 3, x« ^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^d at first the sounds of pTi, th^ 
eh, in Eng. upMl, notAouse, blockAead. But afterwards they came to 
sound as in Eng. graphic,. pa^Aos, and German macAen (the last being a 
rough palatal sound no longer heard in English). 

Bem. a. Every consonant was sounded : thus k was heard in Kvd<o to 
scratch, KTTffia pcaaeaaion, and in <fai<ris phthisis canaurnptian. Similarly 
$evos stranger, ^afifios sa/nd^ were pronounced Jcslnos, psammoa, vrith h 
and p distinctly heard. 

Among consonants, we distinguish semivowels, mutes, and 
double consonants. 

18. The sJSMiyowELS are A, ft, v, p, o- ; of which, 

<r is called a sibilant, from its hissing sound, 
K fj^9 v» p> liquids, from their flowing sound, 
fi, V, nasals, being sounded with the nose. 

To the semivowels must be added also y nasal, that is, y be- 
fore K, y, X, i (16). 

19. The MUTES are 

ir-mutes TT )3 <^ or IcAidl mutes, 
r-mutes r 8 ^ lingual vavXes, 

K-mutes 'c y X jpoAz^ mutes. 

Those in the same horizontal line are said to be cognate, or 
mutes of the same organ. # 

20. According to another division, the mutes are 

^moo^A mutes v r k (tenues), 
middle mvLton p h y (mediae), 
rough mutes ^ ^ X (aspiratae). 

Those in the same horizontal line are stud to be co-ordinate^ 
or mutes of the same order. 

Bek. a. The middle mutes ^, d, y, are so named from the place given 
them in the arrangement. They are also called soncmt (sounding with 
loud voice), in distinction from tt, r, «r, <^ 3, x> which are surd (hushed 

Digitized by 



or whispered). Of the latter, 0, 3, ^i ^® called r&tighy aspiratae, on ac- 
count of the h ^rough breathing, spiritus asper) contained in them (17) ; 
while TT, T, ic, wnich have no A, are called smooth. 

21. The DOUBLE CONSONANTS are t fc ^l of which, ij/ is 
written for ttct, and f for ico-. 

Hem. a. Zeta (() is not written for ra^ a combination of sounds re- 
jected by the Greek ear as offensiye. But it has in prosody the force of 
two consonants, — ^placed after a short vowel, it makes a syllable long by 
position (86). Many scholars pronounce it as (2s; but it is at least very 
doubtful whether it ever had that sound. 

22. The relations of the consonants may be seen from the following 

SemiTowels. Hates. Double 

/ * X , * * Conso- 

Sibilant. Liquids. Smooth. Middle. Rough. nants. 

I ' Nasals. Ill I 

Labials ft, v p ^ ^ 

Linguals o-X,p, v t8^ t 

Palatals (y) *^ y X i 

Rem. a. o-, V^, f , are Burd like the smooth and rough mutes ; the 
other consonants and all the vowels are sonant (20 a). 

2S D. DiOAicMA. The oldest Greek had another* consonant sound, repre- 
sented by the sixth letter of the primitive alphabet. This was the semiyowel 
F^ named Fav Van, — ^named also firom its form Digamma {Biyofifta i. e. double 
gamma, one placed upon another). It corresponds in place and form to Lat. 
/ but in power to Lat. u consonant (v), being sounded probably much like 
Eng. to. Thus ots sheep was originally oFii Lat. oris. It is sometimes called 
Aeolic digamma, having been retained by the Aeolians and Dorians long after 
it was lost by the lonians : thus ^toj ^ear Aeol. reroj, T5wj own Dor. riStos. 
It must have existed, however, in the old Ionic of Homer, although not written 
in the text of his poems. Thus it must have been sounded by Hm., more or 
less constantly, at the beginning of these words : 

^yyvfu to breaks SXis in numberSy enough^ hxtaKoiJuu to be taken^ ftvol lord^ 
lydtrxra to be lordy avidvu to please, hkfMi6s slender^ turrv city^ tap (ver) spring^ 
€9yov bride-gift^ t^os host^ people^ itKociHwenty (Dor, Ffirari, Lat. vigiuti), cfirw 
to yields cfXw to press, ^icrjri by will of iKvp6s father-in^laWj ixtay willing^ l\iro- 
/AOi to hope, the pronoun-stem I (eo sui), ftroj . loord (clvoy I said), tpyov work, 
(lpSa» to do), tpy» to shut in or out, tfftto to go to harm, ipiu to draw, i(r^s 
dress, cT/ia vest Troot rcy, Lat. ves-tis), t<nrfpos (vesper) evening, trris clansynan^ 
ili6s pleMant, lixv to cry, root i9 (ISetv videre, ol9a I know), root uc {UtKos and 
clfKcXof like, touca I am like, seein), "lAioj Troy, l<ro5 equal, oIkos house, oJyos 
(vinum) wine, Zs, 4}, By suus, -a, -um. 

Reh. a. At the beginning of some words, Hm. has c at times in place of an 
original r : U him, Mkoci twenty, it<ni fem. of la'os equal. 

For effects of the digamma in Hm., see 67 1) a, 86 B, 87 B. 

Digitized by 



Vowels Interchanged. 

25. The open short vowels (a, c, o) are often interchanged in 
the inflection and formation of words : rpi<f>-io to nourish^ i'^pd<l>' 
r^v toas nourished^ rc-rpo^a have nourished; yo'os (for ycvcs) race, 
Gen. ycFcos for ycveow)? ; \vk€ (for Xvico) firom Xvico-s wolf. 

In like manner, ci (when made by lengthening X, 30) is inter- 
changed with ot: Xc»r-<i> (stem \hr) to leave^ Xc-XoiTr-a Aat7e le/t^ Xol- 

iros Ze/^. ^And Tf is sometimes interchanged with m : ofy^y-ai 

to help, apo>y-os hdper. 

26. ooy aa>9 interchange with ceo : vdos and vc(o$ temple, /jLeri' 
«pos (for furdopoq) raised aloft, tc^cios (for rc^nycDs, earlier form 
rc^dctfs) €^<^. 

27. A e2o«e and open yowel are much less often interchanged : c'orc w, 
io-3t fte thou; ^Ktt, poet. (ICO), am come; 6vofia name, dvawfios nameless; 

24 D. DiTSBSiTT OF Vowels in the Dialects. The other dialects, in many 
words and forms, have different vowels from the Attic, The most important 
differences are these : 

a. The Ionic (Epic and New Ionic) has ri for Attic a : Ion. reip^tris for 
Att. r€dyids young man, S^pii^ for ^pa^ breoit-plate : so also ycvcp for ytytf 

to birth, vrfis for yavs ship. But not so, when a arises bj contraction, or 

v-I^n a is lengthened on account of y omitted after it (48, 49) : Ion. and Att. 
rifM (for W/M-e) honor thotk, yucf (for yucd-tt) he conquers, fi4\&s (for ficAor-i) 

black. (Converselj. Hd. in a few instances has a fori; : futroftfiplri for fic^ 

fififipla mid-day, south,) 

b. The Done, on the other hand, has a for Attic 17 : Dor. 80^0$ for Att. 
Kipuos people, fjuenip (Lat. mater) for /i^njp mother, *AJ^^a (found also in Trag.) * 

for 'A^iyya the goddess Athena ; so Mo^o^ for liloi<rp to a Muse, ^But not so, 

when i| arises from a lengthening of c : Dor. and Att. ridripn (stem ^t) to put, 
Xif^y (Oen. Xt^^y-of) harbor. 

The Attic dramatists in lyric passages use the Dor. a for t; (3 b). 

c. The Ion. often lengthens c to ci, and o to ov : ^uyos for ^4yos stranger^ 
guest, €ly€Ka (found also in later Att.) for Ivcjca on account of, fiovyos for fjL6yos 

alone, oCyopui for 6yopM name. Hm. sometimes lengthens o to ot : iiyyoirjo's 

for ^TT^trc from hyyoita to be ignorant of; and a to m : rrapai for leapd by, near. 

d. The Dor. sometimes has « for Att. ov : M»<ra for fHovaa (Aeolic Motcro, 
usual in Pindar and Tlieocritus), 8»Xof (Theoc.) for ZovKos slave. So &y Dor. 
(and Hd.) for oly therefore. 

25 D. A similar variation of cv to ov is seen in ciX^XovJ^ ^Hm.) for ^X^Xt^ 
I have come (stem cXv^, lengthened cXiu;^, 80). Even in tne Attic, we find 
owovS^ Aa«^6 from owci^Sw /o Xa«fon. 

26 D. So Ion. 'ArpclSco*, originally 'ArpcfSoo, Att. 'Arpc/Sov (/ Atrides; 
Ion. wX^tfy, orig. wuXdUv, Att. %vK&y of gates ; Ion. no<rci8^«ir, orig. no<rci* 
SdW, Att. UwrsJM»y the god Poseidon, 


Digitized by 



poetic fi&iios hlamej dfivfjMv hlamelesa^ illustrioui; nSki -s city^ ^XV^ 
cubit^ Gen. froXf-o>r, »r^Y«-«r; oyimjfu (for ov-omjfxi) to ien^t; poetic 
drtrciXXo) (for ar-ar(^a>) to foster. 

Vowels Lengthened. 

28. Lengthening of Vowels {JProtraction) is 

A. Formative^ when it is nsed as a means for the inflection 
and formation of words. 

By this, a, Cy I, o, V, 

become 17 or a, tj, I, cd, v. 

l^hus the yerhs rifidn^ 0tXc«», ^d^M>, dfj\6a, tpvn (v), 
make the futures rcfi^(ro», ^iX^(rfi», ^dio-tt, dijXcoartt, (pvan, 

29. After c, i, f>, the lengthened form of a is. d, not 17 : thus 
the verbs cao) <a permit^ Idofjuai to heal^ vepdui to pass through^ 
make the futures idata, laxrofuu, ir€pda'u}. 

Rem. a. In general, the use of 17 was avoided in the Attic after «, t, p, 
and a was used instead. 

30. The close vowels (c, v) are sometimes lengthened by a 
prefixed c, giving ci^ cv, instead of i, v. Thus from the stems 
kXv, <^uy, are formed XctVw to leave^ ^cvyw tojlee. 

31. B. VtcarioitSj when it takes the place of an omitted 

By this, a, €, t, o, V, 
become a, ct, Z, ou, v. 

Thus for Anarvr'a-ij cnrf-vd-co), yt-yvofuit^ Xvo-i'-cri, rirXCi^cr-a, 
we haye STrdtri^ cnretVo), yivofiai^ Xvovai^ tiikvva. 

* For an exception in which a becomes 17, see 337 : for one in which 
c, 0, heoome 17, «>, see 156. 

28 D. Hm. lengthens a short yowel in manj words which would otherwise 
be excluded from his yerse, or could only come in by orasis (68^ or elision 
(70). This occurs chiefly under the rhythmic accent (in arsis^ 894), and most 
frequently in the first syllable of a word. Thus, where otherwise three short 
syllables would stand in succession: ^opi^ (for avoptri) from 'arfip man, tlapiySs 
from fop spring^ ob\6iifwos for 6x6fi€vo5 aestroyingy oCp€OSf oCpta, from 6pos 
(never oipos) mountain^ ti^twirnKot from viroKor leafy rtd^fitros for rt^4fitvos 

putting^ ivsaficfy for Zvsaitw from Svnt^s ill-blowing, Also, where two long 

syllables woidd stand between two short oiies : OhKipMoio (for *0\{ff»jrow) of 
OlympuSy tlkfiKov^a (for cAi^Xovda) / have come. 

29 D. In the Ionic (Old and New), the combinations ctj, 117, pij, are not 
avoided : Irdij for Ir^ willotOy ltiTp6s for larp6t physician^ vtipiicofuu for vetpd* 
a-o/uu I shall try. 

The Doric, on the other hand, uniformly lengthens a to a: Tt/uurA for 
rifiiio'v I shall honor (24 D b). 

Digitized by 









a «i-o 


























d. €-€ 




























a before 1 give 

« ?: y^po- 

ti y^p? 0>^ 

It see 183). 

Vowds Contracted. 

82. Contraction unites concnrrent vowels of different syl- 
lables into one long vowel or dipbthong. 

Concnrrent vowels are generally contracted, when the first 
is short and open (a, ^ o). Thus, 

An open short vowel (a, c, o), 

a. before a dose vowel (^ v), forms a diphthong with it ; 

b. before a, €, rj, goes into the open long; 

c. before o, 10, gives co. 

d. But cc gives ct ; €o, oc, 00 give ov. 



33. Concurrent vowels are not generally contracted, when 
the first is either long or chse. But sometimes, 

a, €, I, after a close or long vowel, are absorbed. ^ when 

it is thus absorbed in an open long vowel, becomes i subscript. 
— rjo gives <i). 

liflv-as lifivf inf^wog vc»bvvO£ rjpo^a rjpoi 

p&'tav p^av TtfiTi^VTi Ttfujim Xtt-iaro; X^oror 

S2 P. The dialects di£fer widely in respect to the contraction of Yowels. 

e. The Ionic (Old and' New) has uncontraeted forms in yerj manj cases, 
where the Attic contracts : v6os for vovs mindy rttx*^ for rttxn toalU, ^4na 

for ^»f thou mayst love^ hdiemy for Axwy unwilling, iatH for ^ aona, In 

a few ukstances, however, these dialects have contracted forms, where the 
Attic does not contract : Ion. *ip6s (and Up6t) Att. Itp69 Moeredf fi^erofuu for 
fioiffofuu from fiodu to cry. 

i, The Ionic (especially the New Ionic) contracts co, cov, into cv (instead 
of ov) : Touv/iGtf irotcv<riy (from voii^ftiotf woi^twi,) for Att. woioS/icf 100 do^ 
voutwri they do. This contraction is found also in the Doric. 

g. The Doric often contracts atf aci, to 17, y: BpTi^ SppSf (from 5pa-c, 
6p4rtUf) for Att. 9pd see thou^ 6pfs thou eeett 

h. The Doric sometimes contracts aoy cw, to a : 'Arpc/Sa, orig. 'ArpcfSSo, 
Att. *Arpc(8ov ; IXoo'ciSoy (or norci9ay), Hm. Hoo'ciSivv, Att. HweM¥\ dtoTt 
ozig. fMMp dearom, Att. ^e&p. 

Digitized by 





a diphthong is often contracted 
vowel is then rejected, unless it 
























27 XU17-CU Xu27 

ov olvo^is 

o-ov ov diyXd-ou 

f-Oi ot ^iXc-oft 

o-ot oi oiyXcJ-ot 



34. A simple vowel before 
with its first vowel ; the last 
can be written as i subscript. 

Exa a. €0( and ooi give 01. 


\vrf ^ 

e-ov ou (^(Xc'ou <jE>tXot) 

35. In a few exceptional cases, the contraction is made with the latt 
vowelof the diphthong. Thus, 

a. an sometimes gives at instead of 9 : cuktis unseemly from detxi;;, 
atpoi to take up from d^ipa. 

b. cat in the second person singular of verbs gives both jj and ct: 
Xt);; or Xvrt from \v€at, 

c Oct and 017, in the second and third persons of verbs in <>«, give ot : 
drjKotg from drjKoeis and di;Xdi7r. 

36. Important cases of irregular contraction depend upon the follow- 
ing rules : 

a. In contracts of the vowel-declension (Decl. L and 11.), a short 
vowel followed by a, or by any long vowel-sound, is absorbed : oorc-o, 
oarra (not oa-n;) ; dpyvpi-av^ dfiyvpaui AnXd-tj^ AirXrj (not dirXai) ; dtfrXd- 

acff, ^iTrXair. Only in the singidar, ca, after any consonant but p, is 

contracted to 17 : xpvo-c-cr, XP^^' 

b. In the consonantrdeclension (DecL m.}, the contracted aecusO' 
five plural takes the form of the contracted nominative plural: thus 
Nom. PI. tvytye-tSj ruyri^tr, Acc PL €vyfv€-aj, tvytvfU (not €vytvrjs') ; 
Nom. PI. fi€i(oP€^ [/ififo-fff] fi€i(ovs^ Acc PL /iri^orar [/let^o-ar] fitiCovf 
(not /z€t^a)f). 

Other cases of irregular contraction will be noticed as they occur. 

37. Stnizssis. Sometimes two vowels, which could not form a 
diphthong, were yet so far united in pronunciation, as to pass for one 
syllable : thus 2i«or god^ used in poetxy for one syllable. This is called 
synizem (settling together). It is not indicated in the writing, and 
therefore appears only in poetry, where it is detected by the measure of 
the verse. 

W D. Synizesis is very frequent in Era., especially after c: bvp4»y ofdoort^ 
^ /oil golden^ irHi^ta bretutSf v6\jua cities^ 6y9oos eighth, all used as words 
vi two syllables. 

Digitized by 



Yowds Omitted. 

38. A short Towel between two consonants is sometimes drop- 
ped {syncope) : irarpds (for iraripos) from varfip father^ ^A^ov (for 
i/Xv^ov) from ipxofjuu to come. 

39. V at the end of a stem is often dropped between two 
vowels : paxriXi-tav (for ^oo-tXcu-wv) from PaxrSjcv^ hing^ dico-i} (for 
dxou-^) hearing from <&xoimi> to hear. 

In this case, v was first changed to the cognate semivowel, the di- 
gamma Oao-iXf f^v, oKori;), which afterwards went out of use (23 D). 

Rem. a. Similarly, t is sometimes dropped between two vowels : xa-o 
for «u-c» to hurny irXc-tfv for frXc i-ttv more, 


Consonants Doubled, 

40. The semivowels are often found doubled ; less often, the smooth 
and rough mutes ; the middle mutes and double consonants, never. Thus 
/SoXXtf to thravD. ^dftftot sand^ iwia nine^ i^opprj temple^ rda-a-m = rdrrv to 
arrange^ Imro^ horse, k6kkv$ euehoo, 

B£M. a. Double gamma (yy=ng) is not an exception; the two 
letters^ though alike in form, are different in sound. 

Rem. b. When the rough mutes are doubled (which occurs mostly in 
proper names), the first goes into the cognate smooth, making ir<^, rS, icXf 
instead of 0^, 33, xx ' ^^ Sofr^o), *Ar3tf , Bclkxos. 

41. Double tau (tt) occurs mostly as the later Attic form, 
for aa in the earlier Attic and the other dialects : Torrfa to ar- 
range^ Kptimov stronger, later Attic for rda-crto, KpeCa-atav, 

42. Double sigma (ara-) is sometimes produced by composition of 
words : (rv<r<riT09 messmate from avy with and crlrosfock (52). But usu- 
ally it is the result of euphonic changes described in 58-60. Only in the 
latter case does it become tt in the later Attic. 

88 D. Syncope is frequent in Hm. : t/ttc for r/iroTf viktrtfare, iKiieKero for 
€-iC6-iecX-€T0 he erUd, 

40 D.Hm. in many words doubles a consonant which is single in the com- 
mon form, espec. a semivowel : tWafit for I-Xai3c he took^ ^iXofifutlHis for ^iXo- 
fifiHs /and of smiles, ityrnros for tff-yrrros well-spun, Bo'coy for Zo-oy quantum, 

ovUrtrv for M<r» backward; ^less often a mute : Ihrmos for Ztus as, trri for 

9ri thaty tSSture for I5cure he feared. In some words he has both a single and 
a double form: *hxjXKw6sy 'OSwro't^s, less often "Ax*A.€^j, 'OZvfft^s. 

For some cases in Hm. (ica89v<rw, bfifidxxsiVf etc.), in which a middle mute 
is found doubled, see 73 P. 

Digitized by 



43. Bho (p) at the be^iimiiig of a word is dotibled, when, by 
formation or by composition, a simple vowel is brought before 

it : pew tofloiDy e/ipct was flowing^ Karw-ppitdv flowing down, 

Ailer a diphthong^ p remains single : ev-poo^ /air flowing. 

Rem. a. In other cases, pp is the later Attic form, for p<r in the 
earlier Attic and the other dialects : k6^ tempU^ Sa^^ cour- 
age^ for Kopirq, ^apaos. 

Consonant- Changes. 

Mutes befobb Mutes. 

44. Before a r-mute, a tt^ or #c-mate becomes coordinate. 

/9r and (fyr become irr yr and x^ become kt 

Trd " d>d " /3d led " X* " 7* 

ir3 " i33 " ^3 kS " y3 " x^ 

r€Tp«irra« for rfrpijS-riai XcXerroi for XtXtyrai 

yiypcnrrai y€ypa<f)'T€U dcdriercu Ikdix-rai 

ypd^driv ypa<f>'drjv nXiybrfv nXtK-Briv 

fX€i<f>'S5r)v cXccTT-di^v ivrXix^rjv cirXfJC-Siyi' 

€Tpiifarjv rrpiff'^t}V iX^x^rfv c\€y-Si;v 

Rem. a. The combiDations allowed by this rule (rrr, icr, i9d, yd, ^3, x^), 
and the double mutes in 40 (wtt, wt^, rr, t3, imc, icx), are the only combi- 
nations of mutes with mutes, which occur m Greek. 

45. A T-mute before another r-mute is changed to c. 

tart for id-T€ TreVctorai for ircirctS-rat 

TcrSt i5-3t €n€ia^T}v ffl-ci3-3i;v 

But rr and r3 stand without change, when both letters belong to the 
stem : rarrw, 'ArStV. 

Mutes befobe Liquids. 

46. Before /x, a ?r.mute becomes fi ; 



a ic-mute " 
a T-mute " 

for XtXtvifiuLi 


Mtyfioi fbr dedfx~M<u 
TTfVctcrpat frr9rf(3-/iai 

43 D. In Hm., ^ sometimes remains single, eyen after a simple vowel : If-pt^t 
from p4{u to do^ wK^poos awift-Jlowinff. 

46 D. In Hm., a final jc-mute or r-mute in the stem often remains un* 
changed before p, in the ending : XK-pwos favorina (stem Uc : /itdbw to com9\ 
htaX'P^^i tharnmed (stem ox or ax : Lat. acuo\ i^-p4i Att. ^oyx^ f^f^U (stem 
o8 : ({(» to smell, Lat. odor), li^/i€ir Att. Xfffuy toe know (stem iB : oiia), itcKO/wd« 
uei^5 equipped (stem iro^ud^ : KopCtram), 

Digitized by 



BsM. a. This xole seldom fails, when a final mute in the stem is fol 
lowed bj /i in the ending : cU-/a^ acme. In other cases it is not much 
observed: Kt-Kfirf-Ka am wearied out^ i-TfiTj^^iijv teas cut, pvHiios rhythm^ 
i-a^fi6t isthmus, 

Reic. b. Before the other liquids, X, p, v, the mutes remain unchang- 
edk Yet we find atfivog revered for at^-vo^ {aip-oftat to revere), and 
tptfivos murky for fptfi-vot (JUpe^s thieh darhnees). 

Mutes befosb 2. 

47. Before o-, a w^mute forms ^ (= va) ; 

a ic-mute forms ( {=z ko) ; 

a T-mute is dropped without further change. 
\f/^fi» for Xfftir-crco K6pa^ for Kopcucs fT^^iatn for (ra>fuir-o'i 
Tpiyftta rpi^ara <^X<Jf <f)\oys iXma-i cXirtd-o-i 

ypai/roi ypaxfy-am $ri( ^tX'^ ^pvco-i opvt^-ai 

Rem. a. The preposition cf (= €ks) in composition drops £ before any 
consonant (54), but undergoes no further change : tK-^ivta to go out, not 
ry/Sotyo), iKrxrrpaT^vtn to march out, not c^rparcvoD. 


48. N before a labial becomes /a ; 

before a palatal becomes y (nasal) ; 

before A, p« is assimilated ; 

before a is dropped, and the preceding vowel is leng« 
thened (31). 
MULirai for fvira^ ovyKaica for avv'Kauo cXXeiVo) for tv-\€in» 
€pLfiaiv€0 cv-/3afya> avyytvfi^ tn/v-ycwjr avppict avvp€a 

€fi(fMvr\s tv-ffKunis crvyx^^ avu-xto^ fiiXds p.t\av-£ 

ffl^X"*^ «l»-^X*** ^g^^ €»-{c« KTtU KT€V£ 

€fAfl€P<0 €VpL€Vta XvOVO-l XvOP-ai 

49. So also KT, v8, v5, are dropped before <r (47), and the 
preceding vowel is lengthened (31). 

dov£ for fiovr-r ottcio-o for cnrcvfi-craj iretVo/iai for Trd^-trofuzt 

60. Before <rt of the dative plural, the vowel remains un- 
changed, when V alone is dropped : iiiXaxn, Xifila-i, SalfAoo'L, for 
ftcXav-o-c, AificiMTi, Scuftov-o-i. But when rr is dropped, the vowel 
is lengthened ; iraci, ^cto-t, Xvovo-i, for Travr-ori, ^cvr-o-t, Xvovr-o-t. 

Ezc. a. Adjectiyes (not participles) In -rtr make -c o-c, instead of -c lo-i, 
in the datiye plural : x^P^*^^ ^^^ x^P^'i^'^' from xop^f^^ pleasing, 

51. a. Before p, in the endings of the perfect middle, v is commonly 
changed to o- : m^apai for Trtfpav-pxu. 

47 B. In Hm., a r-mute is sometimes assimilated to a following o* : Tov-n 
for To8-<ri Att. vwri to feet. 

Digitized by 



b. Before o- in the endings of the perfect middle, v retains its place : 
v€f^a»'vai. Similarly we find vs in the nominatives t^iiivs worrr^ Tipws 
TirprUf for AfuyS-f, Ttpvi/^-s (47). 

52. In compoBition, 

cv before p, cr, retains y : etf-pvifios^ tvard^oi. 
TraVy fraktv^ before o*, retain v : 7rav-(ro^or ; 

or change v to o" : iraki(r-avTO£, 
avvy before o- with a vowel, becomes avtr- i aviT'criTiov i 

before a with a cons., or ^, becomes av i av'OTTjfiaj orxf^vyot. 

53. N, brought by syncope before o, is strengthened by an inserted d: 
this happens in the declension of avrjp man: avbp6^ for aypos for dvipot. 
Similarly, /a before p is strengthened by an inserted /3, in fitarfpfipia mid- 
day^ wuth^ for ptarjp(^€)pia from pia-os and fipipa, 

64. Sigma (o-) between two consonants is dropped : ycypa^ 
^at for ycypa^^ai, iK^aCvta for €f-)3aii/o) (47 a). 

Not so, however, when initial o- is brought by composition between 
two consonants : rVord^tt not c i^ra^tf. 

55. When two sigmas are brought together by inflection, one of them 
is dropped : Ttix^ai for T€ix«o"<n^ €<nraa-at for fOTraa-'am. 

56. The combination <rd, in some adverbs of place (204), passes into 
(: ^vpa(€ out for dvpacr-dc. 

For o- omitted, in the nom. sing. 3d decl., see 156 ; in the 1 Aor. of 
liquid verbs, see 382 ; in the verbs tlpl to J>e and rjpai to »it^ see 406. 

Consonants and Vowels Transposed {Metathesis). 

57. The liquids (especially p, X) are subject to this change: 
^a/xros (43 a) courage^ also ^poo-os ; thus, too, 

aorist ?-aop-o», present ^pifcrK» ; present j3aX-Xa>, perfect fii-ffkri-Ka ; 

In the last four examples the vowel is also lengthened. 

58 D. In a few Epic words, p before p ot\\b streDgtheDed by an inserted 
fi : pd'-'pfifiw-Ku fiave gone (from stem /toA., bj transposition pXo, pXw^ 67). At 
the beginning of a word, fi before p or \ becomes /3 : $\iAcku to go, from stem 
po\ (cf. ^pAffKtt from stem ^p^ 57) ; fiporSs mortal^ from stem pop, ppo (67), 
Lat mor-ior, mor-tuus. 

55 D. In Hm., both sigmas are often retained : hetc-fri Att. Iirco'i to wordt, 
iff-ai Att. ffl thou art. 

66 D. The Acolic has 0-8 for ^in the middle of a word ; this is often found 
In Theocritus : p§?dff9» Att fuAi^w to make melody. 

67 D. Metathesis is very frequent in Hm.: xaprtpds and Kpartpds powerftUy 
Kdpriaros =z Att. Kpdriffros mott powerful, heat, from icpdros power ; ierapwSi 
Att. iirpair6s path, rpawfiopev for rapwttopew (stem rcpr : r^pirw <o delight) : 
dmilarly, H^paxow from UpK-opm to <m, (hrpado¥ from v4pb-m to deetroy. 

Digitized by 



Consonants before I. 

68. The close vowel ^ following a consonant, gives rise to 
varions changes. Thus, frequently, 

1. Iota, after v and p, passes over to the preceding vowel 
and unites with it by contraction. 

Xiipmp for ;(fp-ia)i/ rctVo) for rtv-ia 

doTfipa 6oT€p-ia Kpivta Kplvia 

fituvofuii /idi^tofuu (Tvpo) aCp-ia 

Rem. a. In like manner we haye -nr, originally -cert, in the second 
person singular of yerbs : Xvctv for Xvco-c. 

59. 2. Iota, after X, is assimilated. 

fiaXXov for /ioX-ioy aXXor for oK-tof Lat. alms, 

crrcXXo) otcX*i«» oXXofuu dX-iofuu Lat. salio. 

60. 3. Iota, after K-mutes (less often after r, S), forms with 
them d-or (later Attic rr, 41). 

rj<rtra¥ for ^k-i»p (kdaaap for cXa;(-ia>v 

Gpqatra QpoK'ia Kprjaaa Kpr^via 

rdxrxrta rctyia Kopvatrn Mopt/3-Mi> 

For ircVcrtf t(> eooh from stem ircir, see 429. 

61. 4. Iota, after 8 (sometimes after y), forms with it C 

€km(<a tor cXn-cd-ia) fi€i(t»v for /icy-iMV 

For W^o to ira«A from stem vc/S, see 429. 

62. 5. Tan, before i, oft;en passes into c 

dtdfi»(r(, originally didoori irXovcrtor for irXovrtof from irXoCror 

Xvovo-i for Xvoycri, orig. Xvovrt arda-ig for errant Lat. static. 
Rem. a. The same change occurs, though rarely, before other yowels: 
avy troiy ac, originally rv, roi, rr, <rr}^tpov Uhday for Trjpepov. 

2 WITH Vowels. 

63. Siraia, when not supported by a consonant before or 
after it, often disappears. Thus, in many cases, 

1. Initial sigma, followed by a vowel, goes into the rough 
breathing: t^ for avs Lat. sus, Imffu for crumffu Lat. sisto. 

64. 2. Sigma between two vowels is dropped : 

Thus \v7f A)ntracted from \vtai for Xvrcrai, \vaato for Xwauro, yivovs 
contracted from yivtos for ytviaov Lat. generis. 

Rem. a. Similarly, v in some forms of the comparative is dropped 
between two vowels : /ici^a> contracted from n€i{oa for n(i{ova. 

62 D. The Boric often retains the original r: 9f9orri, A^ktj, r6, roU rL 
Even the older AtUo retains it in r4tiMpw and a few other words. 

Digitized by 



AspiBATioN Rejected ob Tbansfebbed. 

65. To avoid the harshness felt when two successive syllables 
begin with rough sounds, a change was often made in one of 
them. Thus, 

a. Reduplications change a rough mute to the cognate 
smooth : Trc^^v-Ka for <^6-^v-Ka, ri-drf-fu for Si'Sri-fUj i-K€')(6'firp^ 
for €'X^'X^firjv, Hm. oK'dxq'fjLai for ay^a^-nai, 

b. The imperative ending ^t becomes n after ^ in the first 
aorist passive : Xv-^iy-rt for Xv-l^-^u 

c. The stems 3e, 2fw, of WSiy/u to put, Jiva to offer, become rr, rv, bo- 
fore 3i; in the first aorist passive : c-rc-Siyv, c-rw-3»;v. 

d. SiDgle instances are d/ifrcvAi, dflma^x<o^ to clothe, for ayi<t>,<t iKtx^ipia 
truce for tx^-x^ipia (from €x« and x'*p)i wid a few other words. 

e. To the same rule we may refer €X'^ ^^ Jutte, hold, for i-x^ (ftitore 
tf») originally atx^^ (42^ 11)» aud lorxw for iaxa orig. o'i-<r(€)x-«. 

66. Transfer of aspiration is found in a few stems which begin with 
r and end with <t> or x- When, for any cause, the rough sound is lost at 
the end of the stem, it appears in the first letter, changing r to 3. This 

a. In the substantiTe-stcm rpix hair (gen. sing, rpixos^ nom. plur. 
rptxer, but) x)om. sing. ^pl(, dat. plur. Spt^i. 

b. In the adjective raxvs swift, superlative rdxioror, but comparative 
dda'crcoy (3drra>v) for Tax*>f>^y (222). 

c. In the verb-stems, 

Tp€<f>, preB. rpt(l>a to nourish, fut. dpcif^o), sahsL ^piftiuinursling ; 
raif}, " 3d7rrfi> to Imry, " 3dy^», " radios tomb ; 

rp^Xi " '"P'X® ^ ''^''^ " 2p€(ofuu, 

Tpv(f>, " ^pxmra to weaken, " 3/jiJ^a), " rpv<f)^ delieaey ; 

rxxj), " Tu<^a> f(? «7»oAtf, perf. rc-dv/i/xai. 

R£^ d. We find i^pi^^r^v in the aorist passive. rc2i/>d<^ai in the per- 
fect middle infinitive. In these forms, 3 was usea as the first letter of 
the stem, because the last letter was supposed to be properly a ir, but 
changed to by 44. The same remark applies to the other stems in c 

For the aspiration of a smooth or middle mute in the formation of the 
second perfect active, see 341, cf. 392. 

66 B. Hm. often has a smooth breathing, where the AtUo has the rongh : 
*Af8i7f (from a privative and IZuv to see) Att ^Ajl^s the god HadM, H/to^a Att. 
tfiai^a vMffony ii4\tos Att. ^\tot sun, ii^s (so Hd.) Att. e«s daton, tpri^ (so Hd.. 

cf. 32 D e) Att. Upa^ hawk. Cf. Hd. o^pos Att. fipos boundary. ^A smooth 

mute used instead of a roueh, is seen in aZris (Hm. Hd.) Att. a^u agaisi, obid 
(Hm. Hd.) Att. ohx^ not, hiicofuu (Hd.) Att. h^xofuu to receive. 

66 D. Hd. shows a transfer of aspiration in kMp Att. x'^^^^ tunie, and <r- 
^vra there, ^yj^cvreir thence, Att. irrav^ irrtv^tr. 

Digitized by 


6S] HLLTUS. GBASm. 19 


67. Hiatus. When a word ending with a vowel and another be- 
ginning with a TOwel are pronounced in immediate succession, the result 
is a hiatus. This, though not agreeable to the Attic ear^ was often en- 
dured in prose : often, howeyer, it was obviated by erasta or elision or 
itxe addition of a movable consonant Grasis and elision occur especially 
when the first of the two words is short and unimportant, or when the 
two words are often used together. 


68. Crasis {mingling) is a contraction of the final and initial 
vowels in two successive words. The two words are then written 
as one, with a coronis (hook) ' over the vowel in which they join. 
Thus TovvavrCov for to ivavrCoVy SoifiaTLOV (72) for to ifiaTUw, irpovp' 
you for irpo cpyov, oyyaSi for a> dyou^c. 

Grasis is used chiefly after forms of the article, the relative pronouns 
^, a, the preposition frpo, the conjunction koI^ and the interjection 2>. It 
follows, generally, the rules already given for contraction. 

Rem. a. If the first word ends in a diphthong^ its last vowel disap- 
pears in crasis ; if the second word l>egins with a diphthongy its last 
vowel remains (as i subscript or v) : xdv for Koi cV, kov for xal Sy or km 
idv^ gfra for koi tiroy icaurij for icai avni (^a^ x^^ poetic for Ka\ 6, koi oQ, 
iy^fuu for rya> olfjuu. 

67 D. Hiatus im Epic Poetet. In Epic poetry, the hiatus is allowed in 
many eases ; the most important are the following : 

0. when the second word begins with diganuna: mtrii ohanf^ xarit toucw 
in the lunus. Here the hiatus is only apparent. 

b. when the first word ends in a close vowel (i, v) and seldom or never 
suffers elision : waiSi Ihrairv he bestowed on his son. 

c. when the two words are separated by a mark of punctuation : Kddritro, 
ift^ 8* iftvet^eo ft^^ ait down^ and comply with my saying, 

d. when the vowels, which make hiatus, are the two short syllables of tho 
third foot : rdr of | %i iye- \ vopto i- j y\ fieyd- | pouri ye- \ y^Xn- The two 
words are then separated by the feminine caesura of the third foot (910). 

e. when a long vowel or diphthong at the end of the first word gives up a 
part of its quantity, and becomes short before the following initial vowel : 
'Arpc(8ai re kqX &AAoi iDKrd/udes 'Axoiof {^~ -^-ww i.ww -L- Iwv i.-). This 
is regarded as a toeak (improper) hiatus, being relieved by the sacrifice of 

68 D. Crasis is rare in Hm. ; in Hd., it is not frequent. It is most exten- 
sively used in Attic poetry. In cases where a short initial vowel is swallowed 
up by a final long vowel or diphthong, the two words are sometimes written 
separately, with an apostrophe in place of the initial vowel : fiii 'yA for /Aii iyA^ 

Digitized by 


20 EusiON. [65 

Rbh. b. The rough breathing of the article or relatiye pronoun, if 
these stand first, is retained, and takes the place of a coronis : ov for A cbr 
(ovic, ovTTi, poetic for 6 ck, 6 tni^ ovvtKa poetic for oS mxa). 

Kem. c. In crasis of the article^ its final yowel or diphthong, when fol- 
lowed by initial a, disappears in it : Avrjp (a) for 6 avr)p(a)^ rat/Bpl for r^ 
dvbpi<f rauTo, rauro, ravroiJ, for to avrd, ra alrd^ rov avrov. The particle 
Toi in this respect follows the article: fi€vra» for fifvrot av, 

"Erepos other enters into crasis under the form drtpos (a) : thus mpos 
(d) for 6 €Ttpos^ ZSrepov, Sdrrpov, for t6 mpov^ rov irtpov. 

69. Stnizesis (37). Sometimes the final and initial rowels, though 
not contracted by crasis, were so far united in pronunciation, as to serve 
in poetry for one syllable. This occurs only after a long vowel or diph- 
thong ; especially after the conjunctions fVct sinee, tfor,^ interrogative, 
uff not, and the pronoun ry» /; thus cVci ov, as two syllables ; and so ftfj 
oXXoi, fya> ov. 


70. Elision is the cutting off of a final 8?iort vowel before a 
following initial voweL The place of the elided vowel is marked 
by an apoBtrophe \ Thus iir ahr^ for hri avrw. 

The following words are generally subject to elision : 

a. Words of one syllable in e, as yc, dc, rr. 

b. Prepositions and conjunctions of two syllables; 

except 9r«p(, a;(pi, I^^XP*^ ^*" 

c. Some adverbs in common use, such as ?ri, afui, cira, pLoka^ raxa* 
Exempt from elision are 

d. The vowel v. 

e. Final a, c, o, in words of one syllable. 

£ Final a in the nominative of the first declension, and i in the da- 
tive of the third. 
Rem. g. Forms, which can take v movable (79), are not affected by 
elision in prose, except only cori is. 

Remark c is nearly confined to the Attic. Ilm. has Apurrot, winis (with 
coronis in place of the rough breathing) for 6 ikpurrot, 6 aMt, Hd. has &Kfip 
for 6 Mip, T&Kfi^^s for rh &Xi};^t, &p^p€tm for ol tit^pairoi (yet rhy^pi&trov for 
rod iiy^pi&wov), vMsf v^oif rv^ov (cf. 11 D), for 6 axrr6sf ol (Unol, rod avroVf 
Totntpow for rh mpoy. 

70 D. Elision is less freqnent in Hd. than in Attic prose. It is most exten- 
sively used in poetry, even in Epic poetry, being applied not only to short 
towels, but even to the diphthongs ox and oi in the verb-endings fitUt ctu^ rai, 
<r^cu, and in the forms pjoi^ roL 

'On is Buly'ect to elision in Hm., never in Attic poetry. The same is true 
of I in the dative (sing, and plur.) of the third declension. Many forms, which 
might take y movable, suffer elision in poetry : and so, further, the particle fi 
(only used in Epic, cf. 865), the possessive pronoun irdj and the aom. sing, in a 
of the first declension. 

Digitized by 



71. Elision occnrs also in the formation o{ compound woris^ 
but then without the apostrophe to mark it : amurita from &jr6 
and curc(i)> ovScis from ov8e and ct9, htipaXov from 8ta and ipaXjw^ 
afiiri^ (cf. 65 d) from dfi<f>i and ^o). 

Y2. A smooth mute and rough breathing^ brought together 
by elision, give the cognate rough mute : 

a<t>* iarlas for d9r(o) iarlag^ xaS* rifitpav for Kar(a) ^fiipcuf^ 

^di«ojx* v/iaff for rjdiiajK^a) Vfiasy vv")^ Skrjv for vvKT(a) Skrjv (44). 

So also in compound words : 

a<t>onf}€<A from czTTt^ ftnd aip^a, KoHiij^i from xara and 7i7/it, 

dc^^f^pof from dcKQ and fjfitpa^ €(t>firifi€pos from /nra and fffiipa. 

The same effect is seen also in erana : ^mpov for rh trtpop (poet. x<^ 
for ml o, 63oi!^ycKa for orov wtxa). 

Rem. a. The same change of mute takes place, notwithstanding an in- 
teryening p, in ^poCdof (from 7rp6 and 63of )| <t>povp6s (from frpo and 6pao»}, 
T^pvtmos (from rirrtipa and iirtrop). 

Final Consonants. 

Y4. At the end of a Greek word, 

a. the only consonants allowed to stand are y, Pi^\ 

b. the only combinations of consonants are ^ (its), f (ks), 

and yf (nx). 

Exc. c. 'Ek from (80 c) and ovk, ovx ^^t (80 a) haye no accent of 
their own, and were hardly felt to be separate words. 

Exc. d. Final Xr, yr, are found only in the nominatiyes SKs salt^ aea, 
€\fiips worm and Tipwg Tiryns (51). 

72 D. In the New Ionic (Hd.), the smooth mute remains unchanged before 
the rotgh breathing : dV oZ for i<f>' oZ, obx oth»s for ohx othws^ xartri/u for 
ica^irifu, TO^tpoy for rh erepoy. 

73 D. Apocope. Similar to elision, but confined to poetrj, is apocope, the 
cutting off of a final short yowel before an initial consonant In Hm., this 
is seen in the conjunction (kp for fyd, the prepositions Hy, Kdr^ vdpy for iofd^ 
Kwrd, '^apd (and rarely in 4ir, dir for M^ ^6). The apocopate forms are used 
both as separate words and in composition. The y of Ay is subject to the rules 
in 48. The r of xdr is assimilated to the following consonant ; but before two 
consonants it is dropped. Thus rls t* ftp tw, •^oppeyert for irapapiytrff hp 
irt^ioy for Ml vcSfoy, &X\6at for &ya\<{w| xkp p6oy for Kwrh p6oVy k^k Kopv^y 
for jcori Kopu^y, jcAy j6yv (pronounced koff ffonu) for icewi y6yVf KkB i4 for 
iCttr^ 94y KiMwreu for naroZwratj ir&ir ^d\apa (40 b) for Kark ^>dXapaj Kar^wtiv 
for KOTcAaytly, Kiicrayw for iraWirrayc {kmrip^u lor &iroir^/tif'«i, i$pdKKtiy for 

^o/3<{XAecy). Compare icdpfxopos (Hm.) ilU/aied for Koic-popos for Kcueo-popos. 

Here belongs also Dor. tSt (only before the article) for xorf = Att. irp<fj: 

thus vhr rir (or irorrir) par4p€L 

74 D. For some apparent exceptions (&/i irtS/oy, ic^ y^w, etc.), see 78 D. 

Digitized by 



?5. Other consonants at the end of a word are dropped: 

a&fta hodyy for a-afiar^ genitiye {rafiar-os, 

ft€\i honey^ fieXiTj *' ftcXtr-or, 

'^aKamilhj ydkoKT, " yoAaicr-or, 

^trav v>ere^ tjacun-^ c£ Lat. ercmt, 

vol boy^ iratd, genitiye nai^g^ 

yvvai foaman, yvvaiK^ " yvpaufros. 

76. A final -r-mute is also changed to s : 
T€f)as prodigy, for rcpar, genitive Ttpar-or, 
wpoff £?, frpor, fit)m irpori (Hm.), 
dos give, do3, from doSi. 

77. A finid ;i is changed to p, but after a it is often dropped : 
criSi/v I placed, originally cr(3i7/L(, present rt3n/u, 

fi^Xov a^20, ^' M'Z^o/i, cf. Lat. ^nolum, 

lo/Kra ni(;rA^, '^ mticrafi, cf. Lat. noctem, 

' ilXvaa I loosed, " cXvcra/x. 

Movahle Consonants. 

78. N MOYABLB. Some words ending in a vowel annex v, 

a. before a word beginning with a vowel, and 

b. at the end of a sentence. 

Thus, ft. 7ra<riv id»Ka^ b. cfiaxa naaiv, I gave to all: but, before a 
consonant, na<n didio/u I give to all, 

Kem. c. This V is also called €(f>(\Kv<mK6v (draggirig after) : in the 
first case (a), it obviates hiatus : in the second (b), it gives a fuller close. 
The poets, for the latter reason, use it generally at the end of a line or 
Terse. Often, also, they use it before a consonant, thus making a final 
short syllabic long by position (86). Even in prose, it would seem, fit)m 
many inscriptions and old manuscripts, that v movable was often used 
before a consonant 

79. N movable is added, 

a. after c in the third person singular : I8(dkc(v) he gave. 

b. after ai in all words, viz. 

(a) in the third X)erBon singular and plural : 6ida><rt(v) he gives, di- 
b6a<ri(y) they give. So, also, i<rri(y) is, 

78 D. In the New Ionic (Hd.), which does not avoid a concurrence of vow- 
els, V movable \a not used. 

79 D. In Hm., the pronoun iy^y), and the plural datives (238 D) }ififu{v), 
fffi/iMf (r^lMi have y movable. So also fonns with the suffix ^i (206 D) : ^€- 
6^i(y) to goas. Likewise most adverbs of place in ^wy (208) : 6»€v^y) away 
frorn^ without^ iedpoi!^^v) before (in place or time). Further y6ff^^v) apart^ and 
the enclitic particles Ki{y) — Att. &r, and y(i{y) now. 

In Hd., some adverbs in dcK reject y: so wp6ir^9 before, Hirur^e behind, 
<^cpd« above, liytp^€ below. 

Digitized by 



ly) in ad 
(d) in cl 

L the datiye plural : vwri^v) to all. 
I adyerbs of place : *A^Tivrjat(y) at Athen». 
Acwn twenti^j iripvai last yeaty irturrancuTt altogether, 

80. a. The adverb ov not. before a yowel, becomes ovx, but before the 
rough breathing, ovx (c£ 72) : ov Xcya>, ovk avrdt, ov^ ovru^ . 

b. M^ not follows the analogy of ov, only in the compound f»7Kcri, 
like ov«r«, n<? longer, 

c. '£( (cKs) /rom and oura>r <AtM drop ^ before consonants : i( dxpo^ 
froXc»ff, but €K TTJs nSKfas (cL 47 a) ; oura>ff dirtfifj^ but ovro» detvc^ff. 


81. Every single vowel or diphthong, whether with or without con- 
sonants before or after it, makes a distinct syllable. Thus vyitia has 
four syllables. 

82. In the division of syllables, 

a. Consonants at the beginning of a word connect themselves with 
the following vowel ; at the end of a word, with the preceding vowel: 
irpo^hpti-av^ arpo-iparkiy^ (Hm.). 

b. Consonants in the middle of a word, between two vowels, are 
assigned to the following vowel. This is always the case with one con- 
sonant, even if it be a double consonant : i-xa-ydr, ^if^o-ftat. It is the 
case also with most comMnationa of two or more oonsonants : €'<rxov^ 
l'a^fi6ty €'xPpoSy parfibosy d'fivos, 

83. But in a combination of two or more consonants, the first con- 
nects itself with the preceding vowel, 

a. when it is a liquid or a nasal: Sp-fia^ cX-frtV, cv-doV, Kcrf-x^C^' 
Only ii» go together : icd-/ivw. 

b. when the same consonant is doubled: adtr-o-tfi^, tnirosi so too 
2air-0(0, 'Ar-3i£, Bd/e-xor (40 b). 

84. Further, in the division of syllables, 

a. Words connected by elision are treated as a single word : aX-X' 
av-3* o^ov. So in composition : eira-vd-ytiv from «Vi, avdf Sytiv. 

b. Compounds formed without elision are treated as if their elements 
were separate words : npos^K-Tivay not irpo-st'icrwott. 

86. a. Pure Vowela and SyUahles. When two successive 
vowels of a word belong to different syllables, the second vowel 
and syllable are said to be pure (not mixed with a preceding 
consonant) : rafii^as, ^ovXev-w. 

80 D. A xnovable s is found, thoagfa used with little reference to euphony, 
in the following adverbs : A/i^f aboutf Hm. also lifi^ts ; Jhrrucpvs right opposite^ 
flm. only ^Krucpt); hrpiiM and hrrpiuas quietly^ mostly poet. ; AxP^t f^^XPh ^^Hi 
rarely lkxpu$ h^XR^s ; «^ (Hd. id«) straiaht toteards, €b^s (Hd. t^s)8traiaht- 
wayy bnt in Hm. only ]Ms straight towaras ; /uffirf^ and fu<rrry6s between (Hm. 
/Mff-ij.) ; woAAdjuff often. Ion. also woXXdxi (Hm. Hd.). 

Digitized by 


84 QUANTITY. [85 

b. VUima^ JPenuU^ Ant^pemiU, The last syllable of a word 
is called the uUima ; the one next to the last, penvU (penulthna) ; 
the one before the penult, antepenvU (antepenoltima). 


86. A syllable is long by nature^ when it has a long vowel 
or diphthong : Kpi-voC-fjLrjv. 

A syllable is long hj position^ when its vowel is followed by 
two consonants or by a doable consonant : oyu-ifiai. 

The consonants, which make a final syllable long by position, may 
be partly or wholly in the follotoing word : thus the second syllable in 
SKkos rdn-or, and in ^XXo arofu^ is long by position. 

Rem. a. In a syllable long by position, the rowel was sounded long 
or short, according to its natural quantity, without reference to the fol- 
lowing consonants. Thus the first vowel was sounded sfun't in Xffa>, 
jcoXXoff, TTiirre, long in \tj^<0, /xoXXok, plnre, though the first ByUaible in all 
these words was long. 

87. When a vowel naturally short is followed by a mute and 
liquid^ the syllable is common^ that is, it may be used as long 
or 8?wrt^ at pleasure : thus in tckvov, tv<^\o9, tL opas, the first syl- 
lable is common. But, 

a. The mute and liquid must be in the same word. Hence the pre- 
position tK before a liquid always (even in composition) makes a long 
syllable : ex y(a)v, iKKiy^w, 

b. The rule applies to middle mutes O, d, y) only before p ; before 
X, ^, 1^, they always make a long syllable : thus in /3i/3Xor, rayyLo^ edva, 
the first syllable is always long. 

86 D. A long Towel or diphthong at tbo end of a word makes a short 
Bjllable, when the next word begins with a rowel: c2 8^ 6iu»i (~^^~), Koi 
fioi 6fio<ro'oy (- « w - v), see 67 D e. This rule is observed in epic poetry, and 
in the choruses of the dramatic poets. But the long vowel or diphthong re- 
mains long : (1) when the rhythmic accent falls upon it (in arsis^ 894) : 4p fi^^ 
ydXxf &8^y (i. w w i. w wi.) ; (2) when the next word began with the digamma : 
kKoerhv irol ffjccxri (wwi.-i.ww); (3) when it is followed by a pause in the sense. 

A long vowel or diphthong is rarely made short before a vowel in the ttane 

word : Hm. ©for (^ «), fii^Kncu o68* (- w w -). 

One of the consonants, which make position, may be the (unwritten) di- 
gamma : roi6v ol wp = T6t6v ¥oi vvp (— - - -). 

87 B. In Hm., a short Yowel before a mute and liquid, generally makes a 
syllable long by position: riicpop, rl kKai^a (---—-), fhevos irwlk^Twp 

(JL-i.wwi.). Even before a simple liquid at the beginning of a word, a final 

short vowel often makes a long syllable: koX^v tc fAfyd\7ivr€ (i.-i.wvJLv). 
So too before a digamma : &«-b to = &irb t4o (w i. w w). So also before 9 in the 
stem 9ci (409 D, 6) and in ^» long. In such cases, the liquid or digamma was 
perhaps oioubled m pronouncing : 9ci and Si^y seem to have begun with 87. 

Digitized by 


90] AGCEMT. 25 

88. The qnantity of most syllables is obvions at once. Thus, 

a. with Tfj, m, or a diphthong, are always long. 

b. with €, o, before a vowel or single consonant, are short. 

c. with c, o, before two cons, or a double cons., are long. 

d. with a, ^ V, before two cons, or a double cons., are long. 
Rules o and d are liable to the exception in 87. There re- 
main, then, subject to uncertainty, only the syllables with a, c, v, 
before a vowel or single consonant. Even these are long, 

e. when they have the circumflex accent : icpive. 

£ when they arise from a contraction : 'cuccov from 'acKoiv. 
g. when V or VT is dropped after the vowel : XcXvKdo-t for 
XcXvKavo-i, Scucvus for Scuoiats : but see 50. 

Rem. h. The quantity of a, i, v, so far as it is connected with inflec- 
tion, will be noticed in the course of the grammar. In other cases, it 
may be learned by consulting the lexicons, or by observing the usage of 
Greek poets. 

J/: : . • • 

89. The accent of a word is indicated by a mark placed over 
the vowe( of the accented syllable. The marks used for this 
purpose are themselves called accents ; they are the acute \ the 
circumflex'' 9 and the grave^: Xwo), Xwravj XcXvko)?. 

In case of a diphthong^ the accent stands over the second 
vowel ; but over the first vowel of an improper diphthong 
(cC 14) : avTovs, avroi9, avr^. 

The 9jaasDi followB the breathing, when both belong to the same 
vowel : oXof , a7pa> ; but the circumflex is placed dbwe the breathing : i^^r, 
ovror. When they belong to a capital letter, they are placed "b^ore it : 
'EXXijy, ^Qroff. When a vowel, which has the diaeresis, is accented, the 
acute and grave are placed heVvoeen the points, the circumflex db<yte them : 
cirStof, /3oi, frpaSttcu. 

90. To the Latin terms aeeentj acute, circumfiex, grave, correspond 
the Greek rovos tone (straining or raising of the voice), o^Cs sharp, wcpt- 
trrrafitvos twisted round (in reference to the form of the circumflex 
accent), and papvs heavy, flat. From these words, together with the 
prepositions irapd near and vp6 before, are derived the names in the fol- 
lowing section. 

88 D. The quantity of a, i, w, varies in many words, especially in Hm. ; 
they often become long under the rhythmic accent (in arsis^ see 894), when 
otherwise they would be short : 'lofiw or *tmjxty let us go^ *^St ''^'» $oot6' 
Xoryt (i. w w X w w i. v). 


Digitized by 



91. The acute can Btand only on one of the last three syl- 
lables of a word, the circumflex on one of the last two. A word 
which has the cusute 

on the uUima is called oocyUme : PaxriXm, 

on the pemUt " paroocyUme: ^(UTiXfwav, 

onthe antq>enuU " praparaxytone: Pa(riX£vovroi. 

A word which has the circumflex 
on the uUima is called periapamenon : dyayciF. 

on the penult " prcperupomenon : dyayowra. 

A word which has no accent on the ultima is called batytone. 
This name, of course, belongs alike to paroxjtones, proparoxy- 
tones, and properispomena. 

92. The acute oyer a vowel shows that it was uttered on a higher 
(sharper) key than other Towels. The eireumflex (made up of the acute 
and grans '^ ') shows that the vowel commenced upon a higher key, but 
ended on the general pitch. The grave (flat) belonged in theory to every 
vowel that did not rise above the general pitch, i. e. to every vowel that 
had not the acute or drcumflez. It was, therefore, the negation of an 
accent, and in general was not written ; not even over the last vowel 
of a barytone, although that name implies a grave accent on the ultima: 
thus €u^p<afros,uot av^punr6t. In actuid use, it occurs only as a substitute 
for the acute, when the last vowel of an oxy tone, in close connection with 
following words, sinks from its proper key (101). 

Accent as apfected by Quantity. 
\ 93. a. The acute stands on long and short syllables alike, 
the circumflex only on syllables long by nature. 

b. If the ultima is long by nature, the acute cannot stand 
on the antepenult, nor the circnmflex on the penult. 

c. Final $ and iff, after a short vowel, exclude the acute from the ante- 
penult, but not the cm^umflex from the penult: thus we have ^Xt^, but 
wKTo(t)v\a( instead of ia;«ro0vXa{. 

94. Using now the words long and sTtort to denote natural quantity 
(of vowel-sounds) without regard to position, wo have the following 

A word with short ultima^ if accented 

a. on the antepenult^ has the acute : Xv6fi€$a, Xvcroxrav. 

b. on a short penuUyhza the acute: XcXvkotoc. 

c. on a long penult^ has the circumflex: XcXvicvIav. 

d. on the ultima, has the acute : XeXvicds. 
A word with long ultima, if accented 

e. on the penulty has the acute : keXvKonay, XcXvicvuus. 

f. on the ultima, has either the <xcute or the circwr^flex: 

Digitized by 



g. The foregoin[^ rules include every admissible variety of accent. 
But an acute on the ultima may become grave (see 101-) ; and a word, in 
addition to its proper accent, may receive another (s^ 107). 

95. It is important to observe, that 

a. Final <u and oi have the effect of short vowels on the 
accent of the penult and antepenult : Xvovrai, XvofievoL (94 a), 
Toa-ouTot, Toauvrai (94 c). 

b. Not so. however, in the optative mode : naiBtvoi, naib€v(rai (94 e) ; 
and the advero oIkoi at home. 

96. Exceptions to 93 b. Some words which have a> lengthened from 
o, in the ultima^ with c in the penult, are accented on the antepenult : 
aviayudv^ n-Aroir, dvsepas. 

JSxceptions to 94 c. Some apparent exceptions (such as £n-«, i^dc, 
etc.) are explained by the rules for enclitics (110). 

Rem. a. The preceding rules enable us often to determine the quan- 
tity of vowels from the accent. Thus the ultima must be short in ?r#Xf- 
ftvr, npa$is (93 b), and long in on^pa (94 c) : the penult must be short 
in TiP€s, for, if long, it would be written tiv€s (94 c). 

97. The accent of words must be learned, to a great extent, from the 
lexicons, or by observation in reading. In the majority of words, it re- 
cedes as &r from the end as the foregoing rules allow ; when thus placed, 
it may be called reeesme accent. It is the accent of verbs, almost uni- 
formly, in their personal forms (that is, all forms except infinitives and 
participles). It is also the accent of most compound substantives and 

Accent as affected by Vowel-Changes. 

98. Contraction. If either of the syllables contracted had 
an accent, the contract syllable receives one. For a contract 
penult or antepenvit^ the accent is determined by the rules in 94. 
A contract ultima receives the acute^ if the ultima had it before 
contraction ; otherwise, it takes the circumflex. 

riftc»fitPos from Ttfui-6fiieifos rifi^ from rc;Mi-ec 

If neither of the syllables contracted had an accent, the contract syl- 
lable receives none : rifxd from r«/xa-r. 

99. Crasis. In crasis, the accent of the first word disappears ; that 
of the last remains unchanged : rdya^a from ra dya^a. 

But the lengthening of an accented penult by crasis may require a 
change from acute to circumflex (94 c) : rciXXa from ra aWa. 

9t D. The Aeolic dialect has recessive accent in all words : trSraftoSf irordftovf 
rpaxfft ?JK§up^atf for irorofUs, iroro/iou, rpax^St ^\*i<t^^cu. But in the accent 
of prepositions and conjunctioDSf it agrees with the other dialects : ircp/, irdp. 

Digitized by 



100. Eliiion. In elision, oxjtone prepoHtums and eanjwMtiom lose 
their accent ; other oxjtone words throw it back on the penult: cV* avrf 
(ciri orC)^ ovd* tdwa/ufv (pvdi neither)^ ufi 'Odvo-rup (jilfu I (un)') *irr ^mp 
(/irro seven). 

Accent as jjffected by Connection in Discoubse. 

101. Change of Acute to Grave. The acute, standing on an 
oxytone followed by other words in close connection with it, 
changes to the grave : diro j^om, but diro rovrovfrom this^ Piurv- 
Xcvs king^ but PaariXm cycFcro he became king. 

Rem. a. The proper accent of an oxytone appears only when it stands 
before a pause in the discourse, or is used as an unconnected word. 

102. Anastrophe. Oxytone prepositions of two syllables sometimes 
shift their accent from the ultima to the penult This is called anastrophe 
(retraction of the accent). It occurs, 

a. when such a preposition takes the place of a verb (iari being 
omitted) : irdpa for irdptart it is permitted (as prep, napd) ; m for tveari 
it ispomble (as prep, m poetic for cV). 

D. when irtpi follows the genitiye which it belongs to : rovr^v mpi 
instead of nepl rovmv. 

103. PBOCLrncs. A few words of one syllable attach them- 
selves so closely to a following word as not to have a separate 
accent. They are called proditica (leaning forward) ; also atona 
(unaccented words). They are 

a. The forms 6, 17, ol, al, of the article. 

b. The prepositions cV in, th (or cr) into, «f (eV)/nMn. 

c. The conjunctions tl i/, w as, tJiat (also as prepos. to). 

d. The adverb ov (ovk, ovx, 80) not. 

Reu. e. Ovxi, a more emphatic ov, is always accented. 

104. Proclitics take an accent, 

a. when there is no followixig word to which they can attach them- 
selves : thus at the end of a sentence, as 0^r ^ o0 say est thou so^ or notf 

or when placed after the words which they belong to, as KOK&if <£ 

(Ilm.) out ofemls. 3c6s &s (Hm.) as a god. 

b. when the roUowing word is an enclitic (107 c). 

100 D. The preposition with elided vowel loses its accent, even when it 
follows the word which it belongs to : ry^i vap* tiydtr^s for rga-t '^dpa (102) 
vfiih ihefn, 

102 D. a. In poetry, we have '^dpa for irdptun^ and even for other forms of 
the compound verb : thus iyit vdpa (for Tdpufu) I am present, Hm. has also 
tvi for $yturt, ^ 

b. In poetry, all oxytone prepositions of two syllables (except &^^(, &yr/, 
Mf iid) suffer anastrophe, when placed after their ctaes ; and (in Hm.) when 
placed after v«r6«, to which they belong in composition : 6\laas Ako for &ro<- 
V^ntf. kvd snffers anastrophe in the form (hftt up ! arise ! (= V^tjTiyJ^). 

Digitized by 


110] EMGUnOB. 29 

105. EiroLntos. Some words of one or two syllables attach 
themselTes so closely to a preceding word, as to give np their 
separate accent. They are called enclitics (leanmg on another 
word). They are 

a. The pronouns of the first person, /xov, fioiy fit ; of the second, a-ov^ 
aol^ at ; of tn^ third, ov, ot, e, and <r(l>i<ri, 

b. The indefinite pronoun r», rl, in all its forms (including rov^ rep, 
for Tivosj rivi) ; and the indefinite advertra nov (or irodi), wjj, ttoi, n-odcy, 
irarr, ytm, iratg. Used as interrogatlyes', these words are orthotane (erect 
in accent, not enclitic) : rtr, W, nov (ircSdi), ir^, iroi, iroZty^ frorr, irvr. 

c. The present indicative of tlfii to be and (^17^1/ to say, except the 
second person sineular, ct, 0^r. 

d. The partides yc, rr, roi, fr/p, and the inseparable dc (not the con* 
junction dc &ttt, and). 

106. The usual efiect of an enclitic on the word preceding it was this, 
that, in uttering its ultima, the voice was raised above the general pitch. 
Hence we find on that syllable either the acute accent or the circumflex ; 
— ^tho latter, only when the word was usually perispomonon. But a 
parozy tone was not required to sustain the acute or higher pitch through 
two successive syllables : its ultima, therefore^ was not affected by a fol- 
lowing enclitic : in this case, indeed, the enclitic, if of two syllables, re* 
tained its separate accent. Hence we have the following rules : 

107. 1. The word before an enclitic 

a. preserves its proper accent, and never changes an acato 
to grave : ayaSoy rij avro9 f^nftri, 

b. if proparoxytone or properispomenon, adds an acute on 
the nltima : oatSfxaTros rts, iraiocs rivcs. 

c. if proclitio, takes an acute : ct tk, ov ^f^i. 

108. 2. The enclitic loses its own accent ; except an enclitio 
of two syllables after a paroxytone : Xoyos ri9, Xoyoi nvis. 

Rem. a. A properispomenon enduig in f or ^ is treated like a par- 
oxytone : <f>OlVi( Tif, <f>OtVl^ (OTi. 

109. 3. Of several encUtiea in succession, each one takes an acute 
firom the succeeding, only the last appearing without accent : c? ris fioi 
<tnitri noT€. 

110. In some cases, a word is' combined so often with a following en- 
clitic, that the two are regarded as one word : &st« for &s rr^ eirc, /i^re, 
ototrt, orrtff, iJToiy xairoc. The enclitic dc IS always treated thus: odr, 
roMe^ oiKodc. So 9r<p, in prose, almost always : &iir€p. Most of these 
arc apparent exceptions to 94 c. 

Hem. a. EtSc, wii^r from €l, vai, are accented as if 3 r and x^ ^ere en- 
clitic particles. 

105 D. The peraonal pronouns fiiy, Wy, o^(, and ^^ are enclitic So too 
the Ionic cTi and Epio i^erl thou art. To enclitio particles belong the poetio 
w6 or ir^» and Epio xi or it4y, d^r, and ^ (for Upa). 

Digitized by 



111. The enclitics in some cases r^tom their accent (are orthotone): 

a. when there is no preceding word to which they can attach them- 
selycSj as at the opening of a sentence : river Xcyovo-i some my. This, 
however, is not often the case. 

b. when there is an emphasis on the enclitic : dWa ak Xeya> tut thee 
I mean (no other). For the personal pronouns, cf. 232 j for tern as 
orthotone, 406, 1 b. 

c. after elision^ when the vowel to be affected by the enclitic is cut 
off: ravr cori ij^evfii) for ravra iam. 

d. enclitics of two syllables after a paroxytone ; see 108. 

112. The following particles are distinguished by the accent: dvd 
preposition aver^ from poetic ava up I (102 D b) ; &pa therefore^ from 2pa 
mterrogative ; ij or^ than, from rj truly ^ and rj interrogative j vvv now^ at 
present^ from poetic vv{v)y enclitic, now (inferential conjunction) ; ovkovu 
not therefore, from ovkovv therefore ; ntpi round, about^ from poetic mpi 
exceedingly ; as relative as, that^ from &s demonstrative thus. 



113. The comma, period, and marh of exclamation, are the same as in 
English; but the last is rarely used. The colon, a point above tho line, 
takes the place alike of the colon and semicolon : imripa rjv • r(5re ^X3ev 
cryyfXoff it was evening : then came a messenger. The marh of interroga- 
tion is like the English semicolon: ri that; whatsaidst thouf 

Rem. a. The Diastdle or EypodiastoU, though it has the form of a 
comma, is not a mark of punctuation. It is placed between the parts of 
certain compound pronouns, merely to distinguish them from particles 
of the same sound : thus o^n and o^t€ which ; but on that, because, ore 
when. At present, however, this mark is generally omitted, a space be- 
ing left instead : o ri and o rr. 

Digitized by 


117] DECLENfflON OF NOUNS. ftl 



114. Inflection belongs to nouns (both substantive and ad" 
jective)^ pronaunSy and verbs. It gives to the same word differ- 
ent forms according to its different relations in the sentence. 
These forms have a common stem followed by different endings. 

The inflection of nouns and pronouns is called declension. 
Their endings are called declension-endingsy or more commonly 
cctse^endingsj since they mark the different cases. 

115. The Greek distinguishes in its declension, 

a. three gbndebs : masculine^ feminine^ and nether. 

b. three wjubsrs : the singular in reference to one object, 
the plural to more than one, the dual to two only. 

c. five cAfiES : nomincUive, genitive^ dative, accusative, and 
vocative. In the singular, the vocative is often like the nomi- 
native ; in the plural, it is always so. In neuter words, the 
nominative and vocative are always like the accusative, and in 
the plural always end in a. The ducU has but two forms, one 
for the nominative, accusative, and vocative, the other for the 
genitive and dative. 

116. The nominative singular is not to be confounded with the stem. 
Often they are alike : thus x^P^ land is at once the stem and the nomi- 
natire singular. But oftener they are different : thus av^pairos man is 
the nominative singular of the stem ai^pwro. 

In distinction from the nominative and vocative (casus recti), the 
other cases are termed ohliqiM (casus obliqui). 

117. Gbnder. Words which designate males are, of course, masculine; 
those which designate females, feminine. Further, 

a. Masculine are names of winds (like 6 avtfxos the mnd), of rivers 
(o irorafios the river), and of months (6 /i^p the month), 

b. Feminine are names of trees (7 ^pvs the oak), lands (7 v^ the land), 
islands (7 vrjaos the island), and most cities (h n6kis ths city). 

Also, most abstract woras are feminine ; that is, words which express 
quality, state, or action (bodily or mental) : thus ro^vr^r swiftness, hiKtu- 
otrvptf justice, iXnts hope, Wmy victory. 

Digitized by 


32 GENDEB. ARTICLE. ACCEirr. [11? 

c. Neuter are many names of fruits (rA uvkov the fig) \ also, most 
diminutives^ even when designating males or females: ro ytp6priop dim. 
of 6 y€pc»v the old man, rd yvvaiov dim. of 7 yvvfi the woman. The names 
of the letters are neuter : ro aX(/Ki, ro o-iy/m. 

Any word may be neuter, when the object to be thought of is the 
word itself, rather than the thing which it signifies: t6 at^pmros the 
name man, ro litKatoavvri the term justice. 

Rem. The gender may often be known by the final letter of the stem : 
see 152. 

118. Common Gender, Some nouns are either masculine or feminine, 
according as they designate males or females : 6, 17 3ror the divinity, god 
or goddess, 6, ff av3p6>9ror the human "being, manor woman* These are said 
to be of common gender. . 

Bpicoene. In many names of animals, the same word with the same 
gender is used for both sexes : 17 dXcWi^f the fox, male or female. These 
are said to be epieoene. 

119. Articlb. Forms of the article o, ^, to, the, are often 
nsed with nouns in the grammar to mark the genders and cases. 
We therefore give here the inflection of the article. 

Sing. Masc. Fern. Neut. 

Dual. Masc. Fern. Neut. 

Plur. Masc Fem. Neut. 

Nom. 6 ^ t6 

N. A. r« rd r« 

Nom. ol al rd 

Gen. roO^ r^p roO 

G. D. roiv raiv roiv 

Gkn. r&» T&v T&v 

Dat. r^ Ttj T^ 

Dat. TOis rait rott 

Ace. TOP rrjv TO 

Aoc. row rdt rd 

Hem. a. In the dual feminine, roip is often used for raiv, and ra almost 
always for rd (cf. 521). 

Rem. b. The interjection & is commonly used with the vocative: & 
yvvai woman (cf. 543 a), 

1 20. Accent. The accent of a nonn remains, in all the forms, 
on the same syllable as in the nominative singular, or as near 
that syllable as the general laws of accent allow : av-^/Hiwros man, 
ace, sing, av^pawrov, nom. pi. av-^powroi ; but gen, sing, dv&pwftrov 
(93 b), dat. pi. dv^powrots : ovofjua. name, gen. sing, ovofmros (91), 
gen. pi, ovofioToJv (93 b). 

121. An accented ultima, in general, takes the acute : but ^ 
In the genitive and dative of all numbers, a long uUima, if 

accented, takes the circumflex : Trora/xos river, gen. sing. Trora/jwn), 
Tifirj honor, dat. sing, rifiy, ttov^ foot, gen. pi. TroSwy, fti;v month, 
gen. and dat. dual firprolv. 

Bem. a. The nominative and accusative have a circumflex on the 
ultima, only in contracted forms, as oarovv hone for ocrrcoi', pi. oora for 
3<rrca ', and in some words of one syllable, as ftvt mouse, ace fivv. 

119 D. For dialectic forms of the article, see 289 D. 

Digitized by 





122. Dbcxenscons. Nouns are declined in two principal 
ways, which, however, were originally one. These are 

1. The Consonant-Declension^ for stems ending in a conso- 
nant or dose vowel. 

2. The Vbioel-jDeclenstonf for stems ending in an open votoeL 
The vowel-declension divides itself into two forms, according 

as the stem ends in o (<a) or a. Hence we have 
L The Vousd-Dedension^ including 

The A'DecUnsion^ commonly called Mrst J)ecl, (a), and 
The O'Dedensiony commonly called Second JDecL (b). 
IL The ConsonanUDed^ commoiJy called Third Ded. (c). 
Rem. d. These three correspond to theflrat, second^ and third declen- 
BionB in Latin. The LtkHn/ourth tmd fifth declensions are only modifica- 
tions of the third andflrat respectiyely. 

FiKST Declension {A-DedeTision). 

123. To this declension belong all stems (both masctdine and 
feminine) that end in a. The gender mav be known £rom the 
nominative singular, where the masc. takes a case-ending s, 
which is wanting in the fem. Thus the nom. sing, of feminines 
ends in a or i; ; of masculines^ in os or rj^. 

124. L Feminines. 


ff x«pa i^^f^ 

riyK&aaa tongue 

^ Tifirj honor 





Sing. Norn. 








yXuKrtnjs • 






















G. D. 





Plur. Norn. 



^ yXaa-frai 






















Other examples: fitd force, a-Ktd shadow^ ^fjLtpd day, b6$d opinion, 

aKtu^d thorn, nvkrj gate, yvafirj judgment, htaSsfiKtj testament 

125. A OR H IN THB SINGULAR. In the singular, the final a of the 
stem is often charged to 17. In reference to this, we have the following 
rules (125-7). 


Digitized by 



In the Nominative Singular^ 

a. after c, i, p, the a is retained (29 a) ; so also 

b. after <r (^, i/^, <ro- or rr), {, XX, aiv ; but 

c. after other letters, a is changed to 17. 

Thus, a. y€V€d generation, <l>i\ia friendship, ^vpa door; b. MoOo-a 

ift^^, afxa^a WOgon, di^a thirst, ^dkatra-a, latQr Attic ^nKarra (41), «^ 

piCa root, afuKka contest, Xcaira lioness ; c /3o^ cry, vktf wood, ijdoinf 

pleasure, dperrj mrtue. 

Exc. d. The principal exceptions are, ^to a. 1:007 maiden, dipif 

nech; ^to b. cpoi; dew, Kdparf (later Attic K6pprj, 43 a; temple; ^to 

c. iTTod pillar-hall, XP^ color, rokfia courage, diairo mode 0/ living. 

126. The Genitive and Dative Singular have a, when the 
nominative has a pure (85 a) or pa (125 a) ; otherwise, thej have 
17 : nom. ycvco, gen. ycvcas, dat. ycvc^i ; so otoo, oroa?, oroa ; Svpa, 
$vpa^, &vpt;f. ; but nom. MoOcro, gen. Movcn;?, dat. Movarj ; SiWo, 
8i(un79j 3tam;. 

Exc. a. A few proper names with long a are exceptions : A^bd, gen. 
A^das, dat. AriBa. 

127. The Accusative and Fbca^^Ve /Sin^fer have the same 
vowel as the nominative : thus ace. x^P^^> yXoxrorav, rt/AijK, from 
nom. yy^po-i yXowrcra, rt/iiy. 

128. The Oenitite Plural has the ending <av, which with a of the 
stem makes a<av, contracted <av. Hence it comes, that in all words of 
this declension the Genitive Plural is perispomenon. Thus x^P^ g^^- pl* 
(x<opda>v, 93 b) x<^p^i^ (^8)- For exceptions, see 137 and 207 b. 

129. The Dative Plural had at first the ending m, before which an i 
was added to the a of the stem, making aitri. This was shortened to dir ; 
yet atat is often found in Attic poetry, rarely in Attic prose. Cf. 143. 

125-7 D. 1. In the Doric, a remains unchanged : ripd, rtfuis, rtpa, riiiiy. 

2. In the Ionic, a is changed to 17 in all cases of the sing. : yw^h, ^iXlrjv^ 

fi€urt\€i-ns, p^ipV' — -Short a generally remains unchanged : fieuriKua, fAoTpay. 

But abstract words in cto, otd change it to 17: &Ai}^c(i} Att. Ax-^cta truth, 

c^Ai>/i7 favorable voyage ; the same change occurs also in tofitrffin smoke of 

Immt fat, and in IgicvAAi}. Hra. retains a in b^i goddess and a few proper 

names. 3. From vipj^ maiden, bride, Hm. has V oc. Sing, t^fupa. 

128 D. In the Genitive Plural, Hm. has 

a. '■duy, the original form : K\tffdo$v of tents, 

b. -^cfv, the lomc form (26 D): irvX^tfy of gates. This -4vv In Hm. is usu- 
ally sounded as one syllable, by synizesis (87). 

c. -«y, the Attic form, mostly after vowels : iraptwv of cheeks. 

The Doric form -w, a contraction of -djotv (32 D n), is used also in the dra* 
matic choruses : ^av of goddesses, 

129 D. In the Dat. PL, Hm. ha s (a) the Ion. form •p<r<(y): itXio^po-i; 
—(b) also often 'j^s : ir4Tpps to rocks ;-— (c) rarely the Att -wy : ;^fcuf. 

Digitized by 





130. QuAijiTTY. In the Nominative Singular, ^a. a, after 

a vowel or p, is generally long ; ^b. after other consonants, it 

is short : o-o^id wisdom^ virpa. rocky /AcXuro-a bee, 

Ezc. c. The only exceptions to b are a few proper names, as Alfbs, 
To a, the principal exceptions are, 1. Female designations in rpia and 

ctd : ^ao-tXrtd queen (but /Sao-tXcta hingdom). 2. Most compounds in 

cia and oia : d-Xrj^tid tmth, eC-void goodrwiU, 3. Most words in pa 

after t; or a diphthong : SyKvpd anchor y fwip&fate. 

Rem. d. The quantity of a pure and pa may always be known by the 
cteeenty it being true for these, that 

In oonftones and paroxytonesy a is long ; while in prqparoxi/'- 
tones ana properispomenOy it is of course short (93 b). 

131. In the Accusative and Vocative Singular, a has the same 
quantity as in the Nominative ; in the other cases (gen. sing., 
ace. pi., nom., ace., voc, dual), it is aJways long. 

132. Contract Substantives and Adjectives, These follow the rule 
in 36 a : thus /avo, /irar, /xva, yLvav (for fxvd-a, etc.) mina, yrj, yrjst \ 
(for yf-a or ya-a) land. See 'Eppxis (133), poppas (136 d), and cf.'; 



n. Masculines. 


6 v€aviai young man 

6 nokirrfs citizen 

6 'Epfirjs Hermes 
*EpfjLd (for 'Epfica) 

Sing. Nom. 






















'Epfid images 
'Eppaiv [pfK 

Plur. Nom. 













So rap,ias steward^ KtKtaf, Kpirrjs judge^ aTpaTiarrjs soldier^ watdo' 

rptpTff gymnastic-mastery adoXtaxns prater^ 'AXKipiddrjs. 

134. In the Singular of masculines, a is retained after a vowel 
or p ; and is always long (but see 135). After other letters, it 
is changed to 17. 

132 D. The Iod. generally has the uncontr acted forms. Hd. uses 79 (Hm. 
yvSa or ola) ; but bos pjfia for /cyo. 

184 D. The Ion. has i| for 5 through the Sing. (125 D, 2). The Dor. has 
« forif ; and, in the Gen. Sing., has -a (contr. from -aay 82 D h) tor -w : *Ar^(8S. 

Digitized by 



135. The Vocative Singular takes a short, when the nomi- 
native ends in nys : thus TrMra (nom. irdKirrf^ citizen). 

So, too, in names of nations and compound words, which make the 
nom. in i;; : Htpa-d (nom. TItparjs PerHan)^ yco»-ficrpd (nom. yta-fitTpris 
land-measurer). Other words in rjs have 17 in the voc. : Kpopidrj (nom. 
Kpovldrjs son of Cronus). 

Bem. a. AcWora, Yoc. of b€<nr6Tris master^ has irregular accent (120). 

136. The declension of masculines differs in only two points from that 
of feminines : 

a. The Nom. Sing, takes the case-ending s» 

b. The Gen. Sing, ends in ov. 

Bem. a In the Gen. Sing, of masculines, the proper ending is o, which 
with a of the stem gives ao (as in Homer) ; from this, bj weakening a 
to e (25), and then contracting (32 d), comes ov the common form : froXi- 
To-o (iroXtreo) ttoXiVov. 

Bem. d. In the Gren. Smg. of poppas (contracted from /Sopcar north 
v>ind)y the original ao has the Doric contraction to ai Po^pa, This oc- 
curs also in some Doric and Boman proper names, and in a few other 
words : SvXXa^ Sulloj 6pviSio1iripas bird-catcher^ G. S. 2vXXd, 6pviSioZrip± 

137. Two masculines have an irreffular accent in the Gen. PI. (128) : 
XP^OTjyt usurer, G, P. ;(p4<rr«i» (hut vpTjarap G. P. of the adj. ;(/>i;<rr<{r 
good), and inja-lat cmnual tdndSy G. r. mai^v. So also the fem. d^vi^ 
ancTmy, G. P. ac^vcov (but d^coy G. P. of the adj. affivr)s duU), 

Second Declension {O-Declension). 

138. To this declension belong stems that end in o. They 
are chiefly masculine and neuter^ with a iaw feminines. 

The masculines and feminines have os in the Kom. Sing., the 
neuters ov. The feminines are declined like the masculines : the 
neuters differ from them in two respects : 

a. The Nom. and Voc. Sing, take v, the accusative-ending. 

b. The Nom., Ace, and Voc. Plur. end in a. 

186 D. a. In some masculine vords, Hm. has a Nom. Sing, in ra for tjisi 
ImSra for iwir6rfis horaemany atxM-W^^ for olxfifir^s spearman, etc. : also, with 
accent thrown back, firrriera counsellor, iucdKttra favorer. So too tbp^oira far* 
Moundina. C£ Lat. poeta, scriba. 
b. In the Gen. Sing., Hm. has 

1. -ao, the original form : 'Arpc^Soo. 

2. -ctf, the Ionic form (26 D) : 'Arp«(Srw. This -w in Hm. is always soand« 
ed as one syllable (37^. The accent remains as in the original form (96). 

8. -«, a contraction of cm, used after Towela : 'Epfulm (nom. 'Ep/iclof Att* 
'Bptifis)^ fiop4tt (nom. fiopiast 186 d). * 

Digitized by 






6 iu^p<airos man 

f] odos v>ay 

TO d«»poy gift 

Sing. Norn. 





















Du. N. A. V. 







Plur. Nom. 


















bS>pa * 





So pofiot laWj kIpHvpos danger^ ravpot hiU, norapSg ritery wovos laboTj 

fiios life, ^dvarot deaths it6s god (141), i^o-or (fern.) island, 

avKOpjig, furpov meature, Ifidriov outer garment 

139. The feminine$ may be known, in part, hy the eeneral rules 
ril7^ : 7 dniyis hind of oaJc, ff apircXor vine, j ijirtipoi mainland, rj 2dfio9 
(the island) Samoi, 7 K6pii^os (the city) Corinth, 

Of the remaining feminines, the most important are 

a. Several names of mineral or earthy substances: yjfdppos sand, 
yir^os ehalkj wkia'Siof hrich, airodds cuhes, Khrpos dung, yffri<l>ot pebble, pdaa- 
pos touch^itone. 

b. Several words that denote something hollote : xp\6g etffer, yvor 
9off jaw, ici/3a>Tdff chest, copds coffin, Xi/vdr wine-press, Kapbotros kneading- 
trough, Kapipos oven. So Td<f>pos trench. 

c. Several words for way : Mt, icfX«v3os ; drpands foot-path, dpa^irds 
wagon-road; but 6 (rr€Pmr6s narrow passage. 

d. Several adjectives used as substantives : ff didfurpog (sc ypanfirf 
line) diameter, ovyKhyrot (sc /SovX^ council) legislative assembly. 

e. Further, fii(i\o£ booh, pd^t staff, duiXcrror dialect, p6<ros disease, 
dpdo-or dew, ioKds beam. 

140. In the Genitive Singular, the proper ending is o, which, by con- 
traction with o of the stem, gives ov : oydpom-o-o, di^panov. 

141. In the Vocative Singular of masculines and feminines, o of the 
stem becomes r (25). ^t the Ifominative is often used in place of the 
Vocative ; in ^€6s god, it is always so : S> ^tos (Lat. deus). 

Rem. a. The vocative singular of ddt\<l)6s Orother is adrX^c, with ir- 
regular accent (120). 

140 D. In the Gen. Sing., Hm. has two forms, -ov and -010 ; in the latter, 

of the stem is combined with an earlier ending to : &9^p^oio. ^The Dorio 

(but not Pindar) has sometimes m for ov (24 D d). 
Other DecnlUrities of dialect are the following : 
• a. In toe Gen. Dat. Do., Hm. has our for otr : 6/iour from 2;iof shoMer, 

Digitized by 





142. In the Genitive Plural^ o of the stem is always lost in the end* 
ing mv : but this ending does not therefore (as in the A>Declension, 128) 
require the accent : av^panro-cov^ ai^pcinav, 

143. The Dative Plural (formed as in the A-Declension, 129) ended 
at first in oio-c ; and this ending is found, not only in the other dialects, 
but often in Attic poetry, rarely in Attic prose. 

144. Contract Substantives and Ac^ectives. Words which 
have stems in co, oo^ suffer contraction. This takes place ac- 
cording to the rules in 32 and 36 a. 


o vovs mind 

rb oarovp hone 

Sing. Nom. 




Du. N. A. V. 
G. D. 






Soaria) oarco 
ocrrcoiv) oorroTt 

Plur. Norn. 















So ifKovs (from n-Xoos) miling^ irtplnXovs (TreptVXooff) circumnavigation^ 
povs (poos) stream, Kavoi/v (from jcaveov, cf. 145 c) hasJuet (of cane). 

145. The accent of the contract forms is, in some points, inconsistent 
with the rules in 98 : 

a. The Nominative Dual, when accented on the ultima, is oxytone : 
ooTOi (from oartea) instead of oor^. 

bt Compounds keep the accent on the same syllable as in the con- 
tract Nominative Singular : irfpinXovs (from irepivrXoos), dat. sing. ntpiirXti 
(from n-rptirXo^) instead of ir^pcn-X^. 

c. Contracts are made in ovs from barytone adjectives of material in 
cof, and oxytone names of kindred in t6s : upyvpovs (not apyvpovs, from 
> dpyvp€os) of silvery ddeX^idoCr (not -idour, from -idfor) brother's son, 

Attic Second Declension. 

146. The 0-Declension includes a few stems ending in <d. 
This CO appears in all the cases ; but takes t subscript where the 

b. In the Dat. F]., Hm. usually has omti, Hd. always so. 

c. In the Ace. PI., the Doric (not Pindar) lias ms or os for ovs : kCk^s or 
K^KOs for K&Kovs wolves. 

144 D. The Ionic generally has the uneotUraeted forms. 

Digitized by 





common ending has i. This form of the 0-Decl., though not con* 
fined to Attic writers, is known as the Attic Second Declension. 

6 yca>-f temple 


Du. Plur. 

Sing. Du. Plur. 

1 Nom. Voc. 



dvaytwv aiWycflo 

! Qen. 



dvoyytn aywycwv 

1 Dat. 



dvayiti^ dwor/ttj^S 




dvwy€<a-'V dtnaytiji 




1 G. D. 



So \€o»£peoplej KaK<as cable, 

147. Some of these words are produced by contraction: dy^p<asy ayrf 
p<»v free from old age (from dy^pao^, -aov). Some appear under a double 
fi>rm with do and ea» (26) : i^cor and vaor, Xca>ff and Xdor. 

148. Some words hare 6> or tt>v in the Accusatiye Singular: Xayur 
hare^ ace. sing. Xoyu or Xoycov. So the proper names ^Ad«f, Kwr, MiVuf. 
'Ettf (Zatcn has only ca>. 

149. The accent of these words is peculiar in two respects : 

a. The long » in the ultima does not exclude the accent from the 
antepenult (96) : dwyytiav^ McvcXr^^ (sMcwXaos) Meneldtta, 

b. The Gen. and Dat., when accented on the ultima, are oz^one 
(cf. 121) ; yet most editions giye the circumflex, except in tne gen. sing. 

150. CoMPABisoN 07 F1R8T AND Second Declbnsions. The A- and 
0-Declensions, the two branches of the Yowel-Dedension (122), have tbe 
following points in common: 

Sing. ^om. Masculines take the ending r. 
Gen. Masculines take the ending o. 
Dat. All genders have a long vowel with i subscript. 
Aoc. All genders take the ending v. 
Du. N. A. Y. All genders end in the stem-vowel (lengthened, if short). 

G. D. All genders add iv to the &tem-vowel. 
Plur. Gen. All genders end in wv. 

Dat. All genders take <n or s^ with preceding i. 
Nom. Masculines and feminines add i to the stem-vowel. 
Ace. Masculines and feminines take t (originally vr), and 
lengthen a preceding short vowel on account of the omitted v (48). 

On the other hand, the two declensions differ from each other in the 
formation of the nominative and genitive singular of feminines, and in the 
accent of the genitive plural. 

146 D. In the other dialects, this variety of declension is little used, except 
in proper names. For yccSs, \€^i<, icix«r, Kay6sf Bm. has Kn6sf ^M6s, kcUos, 
Xoyw^s ; Hd. ni6s, Xa6s (or Afy^s), KdKof, KaySs, For "A^cvs, Kc6s, ydXotSy Hm. 
has 'A^s, K6»s, yakSw. For cms, both Hm. and Hd. have 4i^f (182). 

The orig. ending -o of the Gen. is seen in ntrtw-o Hm., Nom. ncrcc^f. 

Digitized by 



Thibd Declension {Consonant-JDeclensian). 

151. To this declension belong, not only stems ending in a 
consonant^ but also those which end in a dose vowel (t, v) ; to- 
gether with a few in o. 

Rem. a. In this declension, the form of the nominatwe aingidar is not 
sufficient to determine the other cases. It is often necessary to haye also 
either the Btem of the word, or the genitit6 nngular, from which the stem 
may generally he found hy dropping or the ending. 

152. Gender. The gender may be known in many cases by 
the last letters of the stem. 

The following rules relate only to aubstantioe stems ; and, where a 
stem is contracted^ they apply to the primitive or uneontracted form. 
Neater are stems ending in 

a. or: as Mpas (^Kepar) horfij vdcop (pbar) water, 

b. ap : as v€Krap nectar. 

c. ar, cf : as ytws (y€V€s) Toce^ yrjpas old age, 

d. i, V, if f is not added in the nom. : aarv city. 
Feminine are those ending in 

e. TTjT I as raxyrfis (raxvTrjT) sw\ftne8^ 

f. d, 3 : as danris (tumid) shield, poet. K6pvg (xopi/d) TtelmeL 

g. yov, dov: as arayay {arayov) drop, x'Xid»y (^cXldoy) 8U>aUof€, 
h. o : as n-f (3<tf (nei'SSo) perstuision. 

L c, V : as n-dXi-ff city, 6<f>pv^f broWy vav-r ship. 

Except those under d and j. 
Masculine are those ending in 
1., cv : as ypa^cv-r toriter. 

K. vr : as ibovs (odovr) tooth, r€V<av (rtvovr) tendon, 
1. ryr, ©r : as raTn/p (rajnyr) ca^et, tptas (eptar) love. 

Except those in n^r. 
m. »: as ktcIs (jct€p) comb, Xtiftav meadow. Exc. those in yov, doi^. 
n. p : as Kparrip mixing-howl. Except those in ap, 
0. Stems ending in a laMal or palatal (n-, /9, <fi, k, y^ x) ^^^ never 
neuter, hut whether they are masculine or feminine cannot he determined 
hy general rules. 

Rem. p. Several words which properly are masculine, especially 
words denoting j^er^^iw or animals, are abso sometimes used as feminine: 
as 6 also 17 fidprvs (fiaprup) witness^ 6 also 7 oKtKTpviiv {aKtKrpvov) cock or 
hen, 6 also ^ aiSf^p {atHtp) aether. 

153. JEJxceptions, The following are the principal exceptions to the 
rules ahove given : we omit those in which the gender is ohvious from 
the mcanittgf as in 6, ^ irais (naib) hoy, girl, ^ ^vydTrjp (dvyarrp) daughter. 

Exceptions to b, 6 yltap starling ;^-^^ f, 6 wow (nod) foot, 6, 17 opvii 

(opt^) bird; to i. masc Ixi-r wper, opxt-r testicle, o^c-p serpenU 

Q6Tpvs cluster of grapes, Sp^w-r foot-^tool, /x^w-p ./&A, ftW mouse, v€kv-s 

Digitized by 



eorpSA, araxv-s ear of com, nfKticv-s axe, mixv's fare-a/m : also 6, ^ av-t 
OTv-s hog; to 1, 7 ia^ijs (ecrSiyr) drees, to <h&s (<^r) liffht 

—to m, fern. (Ppffv ((pptp) midriff, mina, dicris (a«riv) ray^ ykax^s 
(y\»Xiv) point ofcMrroto, U (iv) etren0h, pis (pip) nose, abis (mbip) pang; 
oXicvaiy (c^Kvov) halcyon, tlKi>v (eiicov^ image, rfi&v (rfiov) shore, ^iav (x^oy) 
earth, x'^^» (x^ov) mote, ^rix<»v pennyroyal, firiK<op poppy, 

to n, fern, yaarrip (yaartp) Mly, Krjp fate, x*^p hand ; neut. vvp 

BziL r. The fbllowing in r stand by themselTes: fern, dais {^tr) 
/east, vv£ (yvKv) night, x<<f»r (xapi'T) /aivor, and neat. yaXa (yakoKr) milk^ 
fifXi (fteXir) honey. 

154. The Cass-Endings are as follows : 

Masc. and Fern. Neat. 

Sing. Nom. 

f (or Yowel lengthened) none 


aoTv none 
none (or like nom.) none . 

Du. N.A.V. 
G. D. 


Plup. N. V. 

ts d 

As a 

155. The nominative^ aceusativey and vocative lingular of 
HEUTJtK words are like the stem. Final r of the stem is either 
dropped (76), or changed to s (76) : o-wfia (for fnapuax) hody^ ripaq 
(for Tcpar) prodigy. 

156. The NOMTNATiYB siNGULAB of masculines and feminines 
adds s to the stem. But stems in v> p, s, o> orr, ovti reject the end« 
ing 9, and lengthen c, o, to 17, q> : thus 

\ipfiv (\ip^p) harhor, prj^tap (prjrop) orator, rpirfprjs (rpiijp€s) trireme, 
irci3« (ir€i3o) persuasion, \f\vKas (for XfXvica>r 76, st XcXvicor) having 
loosed, Xctty (for Xe^vr 75, st \*ovT)lion, 

For the euphonic changes caused by s, see 47-49. 

163 D. n. Several poetic stems (most of them defectire) in op, «^ are 
neuter : Aop swofd, ^op heart, cAwp prey, riKpmp = rdxpap bound, 

154 D. a. In the Gen. Dat. Diia],JB[m. has oup for otw: iroSoiir. 
b. In the Dat. PL, Hm. has both crt and wo'i : irS^ri (for Torr^i) and irtfrr- 
wfl-i; (rarely €0*1: tCty^vu) 

The c of co'o'c is sometimes omitted when the stem ends in a Towel : r^xv^cif 
vfX^jrt-ro'i. The irreg. i^srirt (from Bi-s sheep) should perhaps be written il-ffO'u 
Bat in forms like Irctro-i, = crco'+o'c (55 In, tha first c belongs to the stem: 
10 in tivti^'O't, and vo^oi = wothoi (47 D), ipiatn = tptH-tru 

Digitized by 



Exo. a. Steins in iv take s, though some of them have hoth forms : 
bf\(pis or drX0iv dolphin. 

b. Participles in opt take s, when o belongs to the verb-stem : iovs 
(=5o-i/T-0 giving. 

c. s appears also in /xcXtfp ( = ftc>ibv^) llack^ roKas (= rakavi) tDreteh- 
cd, fls (= eVff) one, KT€is (= Krev-i) COmb, obovs (= oBovt-s) tooth. 

157. The ACCUSATIVE singulab of masculines and feminines 
adds a to stems ending in a consonant : irovsfoot^ ace. 7ro8-a. 
V to stems ending in a vowel : iroXirs city^ ace. iroXi-v. 

Exo. a. Stems in cv take a: jSao-iXccA-r hing^ ace. /Sao-iXc-a (39). 

For the ace. sing, of stems in o, see 193-4. For v in the aoc sing, of 
certain stems in r, d, 3, sec 171. 

168. The VOCATIVE singular of masculines and feminines is 
regularly like the stem. 

For dropping of a final consonant, see 75. But many words make 
the vocative singular like the nominative : thus 

a. Stems of one syllable, not ending in a diphthong : nom. voc. Kt-r 

weevil (but nom. vav-s ship, voc. mv), Only naU (iroifi) child makes 

voc. sing, nal (75). 

b. Oxytone stems ending in a liquid : nom. voc. iroifirjv (irocftcv) shep- 
herd (but ialfiav divinity, barytone, voc. daifiov like the stem). 

For irregular vocative in narrfp father, avfip man, see 173 : also in 
<rcarrrip savior, *Air6W<Dv, Iloatibav, see 172 b. 

c. Stems ending in a mute : nom. voc <f>v\a^ (<I>v\uk) watchman, 

But the following are exceptions, and use the stem as a voc sing. : 

Exc. d. A few stems in ih : voc. "Aprtfn (= ApT€fuS), nom. ^Aprefitr. 
So voa irai (= TTOid), nom. wais child. Also yvvai (= yvvatK) with irregu- 
lar accent, nom. yvv^ woman. 

e. Substantive and adjective stems in vt, unless oxytone : voc. Xcoi^ 
(=Xcovr), nom. Xcioy lion, x^pt^v {z= xapuvr), nom, xapUi^ pleasing. 

Rem. f. All participles of this declension make the vocative singular 
like the nominative. So also the adjectives iras (irapr) all, every, and 
iK<av (tKovr) willing. 

For the vocative singular of stems in o, see 194 a. 

159. The DATIVE plural of all genders adds at{v) to the stem. For 
the euphonic changes, see 47-49. 

160. Accent. In the accent of this declension, we have the follow- 
ing special rule, contrary to 120 : 

156 D. c. For ^So^s, Hd. has llB^p according to the rule. 

158 B. c. From &ya( king^ Hm. Has, beside the regular voc sing. Ara(, a 

form &ya (for oyojcr, 75) used in addressing gods. e. From some proper 

names in -as (stem -cu^), he forms a voc. sing, in -a: XIovAvS^^ (cf. 81), for 
novXvSafMv(''7) ^^™* IIovAvS^of Polyddmas. 

Digitized by 





Stems of one syllable, in the Genitive and Dative of all num- 
bers, throw the accent on the case-ending : if the case-ending is 
long, it receives the circumflex (121) : 

Thus irovs (irod) foot, aoc. sing, n-od-a, nom. pi. n-dd-cr ; but genitives 
iro8-off, TTofi-oiy, 7rod-a»K, datives n-od-i, irod'OiVy iro-crt. 

Exc. a. All genitives and datives of participles : &v leing^ gen. oin-or, 
^iTOiv, ovrav, dat. ovTi^ SvToiv, oval. 

b. The gen. and dat. plural of nas all^ every : n-avraov, iraai, 

c. The gen. dual and plural of naU loy^ girl, dfj,m slave. Sax jackal, 
Tpas Trojan, rh <l>S>s light, ^ <f)t^s blister, fj fcp torch, to ov£ ear,^ 6 aris 
moth : iraibcav, hfiimv^ d<2>Q)v, Tpct^cov, <f>aroiv, <^dtt)V, habfuv, coroiv, ac6)v. 

d. Some words in which a stem of two syllables is contracted to one : 
€ap spring, gen. tapos or ^pos, dat. tapi or ^pi, 

161. QuAKTiTT. Several stems lengthen a short vowel in monosyUa- 
hie forms: st. wod, nom. sing, novs (for wot-s) foot; st navr, neuter na» 
all; St. fr^p, nom. sing. irZpfire; st. av, nom. sing. o-O-s ?^g. 

162. The Paradigms of this declension will be given in the following 

1. Stems ending in a labial or palatal (tt, P, <f>, k, y, x)- 

2. a lingual mute (r, d, 3). 

3. a liquid (X, p, p). 

4. the sibilant (a*). 

5. a simple close vowel (i, v). 

6. a diphthong (ev, av, ov). 

7. the open vowel o. 

163. I. Stems ending in a Labial or Palatal. 

6 <^vXa$ 




fi a-aXmy$ 

Sing. Nom. 













Da. N. A. V. 
G. D. 







Piur. N. V. 
Dat • 









So 6 yv^ (yvir) «tiZt«r«, 6 Ai3io^ (Atdcotr) ^^tAtoptan, 6 "Apayj^ 

fkpa0) Arabian, 6 fJLvpfjtrff (ftvpiMrjic) ant, ^ fuiaTi^ Qiairrly) whip, ^ /9^£ 
^w) ««V*, ^ ^cJf'f'^yf (<t>opf^ry) tyre. 

Digitized by 





For the gender, see 152 o. For the formation of the nominatiye, ac- 
cusative, and vocatiye, singular, see 155-8. For the change of aspiration 
in Sptf, Tpix^s, see 66 a. 

164. The stem oXom-cic makes nom. sing. ^ aKamril fax irregolarly for 
oXom-rf (gen. dkam€K0Sj dat oKmreKiy etc.). On the contrary, the stems 
icijpvie, ^lyfic, make nom. sing. 6 icrjpv$ herald^ 6 cbom^ palm^ where the 
accent shows that v and i were sounded short (93 h) : but many editors 
write Kripv(^ <f}oivi(, 

11. Stems ending in a Lingual Mute (t, 8, Sf), 

165. A. Neuter Stems. 

ri xT^pa body 

t6 fjvap liver 

ri Kipai hom 

Sing. Nom. 





K(pdr-os (Ktpaos) itc/>Q>r 

KfpoT'i (Kfpai) Kfp^ 



Du. N. A. V. 


KfpaT-oi¥ (Ktpaotv) Ktp^V 

Plur. N. V. 


tjiroT-a " 

Kfpar-a (xcpaa) Kfpd 

Kipdr^v (K€pa^v) K€p&p 


Kipar-a (jcepaa) iccpd 

So ardpa (^aropdr^ mouthy Upopa (^ovoptUr^ name^ dcXcop (dcX«dr) bait^ 
Tfpas (rtpdr) prodigy, 

166. Here belong the stems in or, together with ydka (yakaicr) milk^ 
/icXi (ficXrr) honay^ and ifms (0o>r) light. Of stems in or, by fiu* the 
greater part end in pari these drop r in the nom«, aoc., toc., sing. (75) : 
irpaypa {irpdypdr) affair, 

167. Several m or have op in the nom., aoc, voc., sing. : <f>p(ap loe^ 
gen. <^pfar-off (also contracted <l>prfT6s)y SKti^cu) (also ^€i^) unguent^ gen. 
dkeitpoT'os, It is supposed that these ended originally in apr^ and that 
r has been dropped in the cases above named (75), but p in all the other 
forms. *Ydo>p (vddr) water and aKap {(tkot) filth luve co irregularly for a 
in the same three < 

168. A few in or have as in the nom., ace., voc., sing. (76) : vipas endf 
gen. ir€par^s. Kipat (Ktpar) ^om and ripat (rcpor) prodigy sometimes 

16A D. For ^s, Hm. has only ^s or ^s {ct 370 D a), dat. ^ci, plural 
^^Uo. ^s is used also by Atticj[Tragic) poets. 

168 D. In K^patf ripus^ the forms with r are not used in the Ionic Hm. 
has the forms with a pure : jc^poof, jc^/w?; and sometimes contracts them : K4p^ 

Hd. changes a pure to c, and does not contract : jc^pfi, Wpco. ^For W/ms 

wipoToSf Hm. has vnpapf wtiptrras. 

Digitized by 





drop r between two yowels ; the Towels are then regularly contracted. 
In such cases, it is probable that r was first changed to o- (62 a), and then 
dropped according to 64. 

For y6w (gen. y6var-os) hnee^ topv (gen. ^par-os) spear, and ois (gen. 
&r-6i) ear, see 202, 3, 5, 13. 

169. B. Masculine and Feminine Stems. 

hired man 

ri iXnU 



6 7 6pyit 



old man 

Sing. Nom. 


















Plur. N. V. 









So 17 yvf (wjcr) night, 17 Xafinds (Xa/iirdd) torch, 17 x^'P'^ (xf^P^f) f^'^or, 
6 yiym (ytyoir) ^ian^ ^ XcW (Xroyr) Ziw. For some irregular forms of 
fyvis Mri, see 202, 12. 

170. In the Nommatire Singular, novs (fToi)foot lengthens the short 
▼owel, contrary to 47. see 101. Aa/Kip (fkiuapr) iD\fe, chiefly poetic, re- 
jects s on account of tne harshness ; see 156. 

171. In the Accnsative Singular, barytone stems in t» S, &, 
after a close vowel, commonly reject the final mute, and annex 
V to the close vowel. 

This applies to baiytone stems in cr, td, i3, vd, vfi. Thus x^pis (x^ptr) 

'Kpffnid) base, oxytone, aoc 
s (ickfth) ley has in the ace. 

favor, aoc. x^P^'^j rarely yapcr-a ; but Kprjnis (Kprprid) bcue, oxy tone, aoc 
K^iSa, never Kptfirtv. Only the OTytone K\€tg (icXcid) ley hi ' 
smg. kKuv (rarely xXcida), and in the ace pi. leXctr or Kkeldas. 

169 D. A few stems in m- haTO forms without r (cf. 1A8 D). Xp^s ixp^ 
skin is declined in Ionic, XP^'* XP^h XP^'^i XP^ H™* has also, but rarely, 

r6sf XP^^ Even the Attic has dat. sing. XP^ '^^ ^^^ phrase iv xfi^ close 
From IZp^s (tZpttr) sweat, y4\»s (tcAwt) laughter, tlpws (fpcvr) love (also ^pos, 
2d declension, poetic), the forms with r are unknown to Urn. He has only dat. 
sing. IBp^f T^A^* ^PV9 and ace. ISpw, y4xoi (or yixmv^ 2d decl.), %po¥, 

171 D. In Hm., words of this ckss often form the Aoc. Sing, in a : IptSa 
more frequent than Ipiy, yXavn^iZa from y\avK&wis bright-eyed. 

For icXcis, Hm. uses the Ionic icXi^s, ace. sing. icXi}i8a; the Doric has kkStt 
(Lat cUkTis), rarely kkA^* 

Digitized by 





172. m. xSifeww ending in a Liquid. 

6 Troiprfv 

6 daipcav 

6 alav 



6 3,7P 
mid imst 



Sing. Nom. 

















Pu. N. A. V. 





Plar. N. V. 










So 6 fiTjv (p-fiv) monthy 6 Xip^y (\ip.€if) harbor, 6 rfytpoav (Jyytpov) leader^ 
n naiav (natdu) paean, 6 dyo»v (ay<av) contest, 6 al^fip {ai^ep) aether, 6 gpa- 
TTip {Kparrjp) mixing'-hov)l, 6 (f>utp (<^A>p) thief. 

a. The only stem in X is dX, nom. 6 Sks salt, ff SKs (poetic) sea. 

b. In the Voc. Sing., crcor^p savior, *AirdXXo>y, and Uoa-e iBciy shorten 
the long Towel of the stem, and throw the accent back upon the first 

syllable : aarcp, ^AttoXXoi^, Uoatibov. The accent is also thrown back 

in some compound proper names : *Ayapip.v6»v, 'ApioroyciVtty, too. *Ayar 
pfp,vov, 'ApioToy^irov. 

173. Syncopated Stems in tp, 

Uarfip (narep) father makes the vocative singular like the stem, but 
with the accent on the first syllable, contrary to 120 : irarcp. In the 

fenitive and dative singular, it drops r and accents the case-ending (cf. 
60) : irarpos, narpL In the other cases, it retains t and accents it : na- 
Tfpa. Trarepef. Only in the dative plural, by metathesis and change of 
vowel, cp becomes pa : traTpdai. 

The same peculiarities belong also to p^riyp mother, ^vydrjjp daughter, 
and yaarrjp helly. The proper name Arjpj}Tr]p (vocative A^ptirtp) syn- 
copates all the oblique cases, but accents them on the first syllable: 

AripriTpos, AripijTpa. *AoT7ip (aorrp) star has no syncopated forms, but 

makes dat. pi. aarpda-i. 

172 D. b. The Epic Ha^p (5a«p) husband's brother has voc. sing. Saep. 

173 D. The poets often have the full forms in the gen. and dat. sing. : ira- 
rioos and irarp6s. In ^vydrnpf they sometimes syncopate other cases : dvyarpa, 
^vyaTp€5i duyurrpap; this happens also in irarp&v for irartpcoy. In the dat. pL, 
the Epic -co'a-t may be used : dvyar^ptam. From fty^p, the poets use *a»4pot^ 
'aM4p€S9 etc., as well as iuf^pSs, &p9p€s, etc. ; in the dat. pi., Hm. has both Mpdat 
and Mpcovi. 

Digitized by 





*A^p (av€p) fnan follows the analogy of iror^p, but syncopates aZZ the 
cases in whicn tp comes before a vowel : it also inserts d between v and 
p, to strengthen the sound (53) : dvbpos^ avbpes, dudpaai. 




Tj ^vydTTjp 

6 dvTip 

Sing. Nom. 

































avbpas ^ 

174. Comparative Stems in ov. 

Adjectives of the comparative degree in ov (stem w) drop v 
in certain forms, and then contract the concurrent vowels. 

Sing. Nom. 

Masculine and Feminine. 
p€i(<av greater 

p€i(ov~a [fiuCo-a] p^i{» 






fieiCova [fict^o-a] pfi£o 

So PiXritav better j alfrxitov more shameful^ akyl<o» more painful, 

175. a. In comparatives of more than two syllables, the forms which 
end in ov throw back the accent on the antepenult : /ScXnov, aTo-xiov. 

b. The forms with v and the contracted forms are both in use. The 
intermediate forms (as iieiCoa) are never found. 

c. According to the same analogy, 'AmSKktav, Uoa-eMv make in the 
ace. *A'rr6Wova and ^AttoXXco, JJotrtiBciva and noo-ridcS. 

For substantive stems in nif which occasionally drop v^ see 194 c. 

175 D. The statement in b. applies also to Hm. and Hd. The contract 

ace. of *Mr6\XMy and noo'ciSfiy is not used by Hm. and Hd., but from kvk9^ 
mixed draught Hm. makes ace. sing. jcvkcA or levicffifi. 

Digitized by 





IV. Stems ending in «. 
170. A. Stems in c?. 

r6 y€vos race 



S. N. 


M. P. €{ry€vljs N. c^Wf 


(y€V€-oi) y€Vovs 

rcvycwf-off) cuycpovff 


(ycW-i) ycwt 



(cwym-^) tvy€V7J N, cvycvcr 





(yeifc-c) yivtj 

TcvycW-c) tvytifij 

(yfvt'Oip) ytvoiv 


(ytW-a) yivfi^ 

{evytve^s) cuycwif N. (cvycw-a) tvytvij 
(€vycye-a>y) €vy€vav 


(y€Vt'av) ytvav 





(yevc-a) yimi 

(f uycM-ar) cvycyfiff N. (cvytw-a) cvyfy? 

So r^ €lhosform^ kAWos beauty, /uXos sang. Adjectives o-a^i^r (neut. 
aa<fi«s) clear, aKpi^rjs (oKpi^cs) exact, ewfiifs (cA^dcs) Hmple. 

177. The steins in €£ are yery numerous. The vulstantke stems are 
neuter, and change cr to or in the nom. sing. (25). The adjeetivs stems 
retain cr in the neuU, but change it to lyr in the nom. masc. and fcm. (156). 

'H Tpi^pTjs (Tpiijp€s) trireme, and some others in ripijt, though used as 
substantives, are properly adjectives, belonging to an implied pavs $hip, 

178. Before all casc-«ndings, 9 falls away (64). The vowels, which 
come together, are then contracted. — cc in tiie dual gives jj (contrary to 
32 d). — (a commg after a vowel gives & ^contrary to 32 b) : vyirfs (vyier) 
healthy, ace. vyia (but also vyiTJ), XP^^' (xP^^^) ^^) neut. pi. xp'^- ^^^ 
adjectives in (fivrjs have both jivjj and <f)va : €v^v^£ witty, tv^vrj and cv^va. 
^For contraction of €as to tis in the ace. pi., see 36 b. 

179. Barytone words in lyr have recessive accent (97) everywhere, 
even in contract fonns: ^vKparrj^, voc. ^^^Kparfs (not 2tt«:pdrc£, 120), 
avrdpKfjs self-SUjffieing, neuter oGrapKes, gen. pi. (avrapKiav) avrdpKtav (not 
avrapK&v, 98). 

176 D. The uncontracted forms prevail in Ilm. ; yet ho often contracts cr 

to CI in the dat. sing., and sometimes tts to «is in the nom. pi. ^In the gen. 

sing., he sometimes contracts cos to cvj : ^dfnrws from ^dp<ros ecwrage. kX^i 

fcofne makes nom. pi. K\4d for jcX^co. In the dat. pi., Hm. has three forms : 

JBcX^-ctro-c, 04\€ff-o't, and $4\€-(rt (55), from fi4Kos mittile, 

Hd. has only the uncontracted forms. 

178 D. In Hm., a vowel before the c is sometimes contracted with it : c^ 
K\9^s gloricku, ace. pi. c^kXcios for c^icXc^cu ; but &7tucA^or for h.yaK\€4os gen. 
of &7aic\c^i (in &ie\i}c7s for ^icXc^cr, the first c is irreg. lengthened to ly). 
<nr4ot or cnrctof eav€ has gen. ovcMn/s, dat. inr^i (for <nr4€-t), dat. pL inritarci (for 
inr€4-9ar<n) and irreg. ffir4ar<n,'—^4osfear has irreg. gen. 5c(ovf. 

Digitized by 





The neater aXijdcV (M. F. 0X17317^) true throws back the accent when 
used as a question : aXj}2rc£ ; reaUy t 

180. Proper names in icXci^r, compounded with Kkios (KXcrr) fame^ 
have in some forms a double contraction: nom. (IlcpdcXci;;) IlfpiKX^f, 
gen. (UfpixXrcof) IlrpticXcovr, dat. (llcptJcXcfc, IleptxXcci) IlepcicXft, acc. 
(OfpuXcea) Htpiickid^ YOC. (IlfpifeXcfs) JlfpiKktis* 

181. B. Stems in a?, o«> (i>9. 

TO Kpias JUth 

4 atda>r ihame 

6 jjpas 

Sing. NouL 


(xpia-oi) Kpttas 
{Kpiari) icpt^ 




(albo-os) aidovg 
(aidd-l) alBoi 






Du. N.A.V. 


Plur. N. V. 

(Kpia-a) Kpid 
(Kpca-tfy) KpfStv 
(#cp/a-a) Kpid 


182L These stems are few in number, and all substantives. Those in 
ag are neuter: t6 yrjpas old age^ ro Kvii^ag darhnetB. Those in <ag are 
masculine : 6 ^^gjaehal^ 6 niyrpvig mother^t "brother. In or there are but 
two, both feminine: aibins (mBos) ihame, and Epic^^r (rjos) mom (= At- 
tic coir, which is declined according to 146 and 148). 

183. These all drop s before a case-ending, like stems in er. In the 
dat. sing., ai is contracted to 9 : '^pq (for y^pai), though some would 
write yrfpau The quantity of a m the contracted nom., acc, pi. is vari- 
able. In late writers, Kpiag has forms with r: KpiaTos, etc. (cf. 168). 

184. The dat. and acc. sing, of ^pfi>r are usually contracted : rjpa^ rjpa 
(for ^po»(, rjptaa) ; SO, sometimes, the nom. and acc. pi. : rjpa>s (for ijpcaf r, 
i7P«*ar).— --Some of the stems m »t have occasional forms according to 
the AtUc Second Decl. : gen. sing. fpa>, acc TJpoiv, 

. 180 D. Hm. declines 'HpcucX^i^r, 'Hpeue\rios (178 D), 'HpoxX^?, 'HpoKXlja, 

*H/mUXcit. Hd. 'HpoKXifis, *HpaK\4os, *HpaicA.^r, *HpaK\4<t^ *HpdK\e€s, one c 

beiDg rejected before endings that begin with a voweL 

182 D. Stems in as. Hm. always has a for aa in the nom., acc, pi. : yipa 
prites, Zira cups; he sometimes contracts in other cases: Wx^, Kpt&y or 

Kpti&v, oUat ground^ fiooty k&os fleece^ Kripas possession^ in all other forms 

take € for a : oHitos oCZft oWei, jcc^ca ic(6c(n, Kripta nrtpiw funeral-gifis : so 
abo poetic fipiras^ fipirfos, image. Cf. yipw Hd. for 7/paa. The only con- 
tract forms in Hd. are icp^a, Kptwy. Dor. Kpfjs = Kpias. 

The two stems in os always show the contract form, even in Hm. and Hd. 

From stems in wf, Hm. has IjpcsX and ^p^, M/y«a and M/v». 


Digitized by 





185. V. Stems in i and v {simple close vowels). 



TO atrrv 

6 /iVff 











Sing. Nom. 
































Du. N. A. V. 












Plur. N. V. 
























fiiMis or 

tx'iv-as or 






So Tf hvvafU's power ^ rj oTda-t's faction^ 6 ir<Xcicv-f axe (like rnjxys), 6 i} 
o-iJ-ff «Mn« (like fiOj), d /Sdrpv-r cluster of grapes (like ^x^"^*)* 

186. The final i or v of the stem always appears in the nom., ace, and 
TOO., sing. Elsewhere, it is generally changed to c. Contraction theo 
occurs in the dat. sing, and in the nom. and aoc. pi. For tar contracted 
to €t£ in the ace. pi., see 36 b. The nom. and aoc. dual are seldom con- 
tracted (f f to j;, cf. 178) : froKrf, a<rnj. After f, the gen. sing, takes ar, 
the so>called Attic ending, which, however, does not prevent the accent 
from standing on the antepenult (96) : irdXcu r, ttt^x^ms. The gen. pi. fol- 
lows the accent of the pen. sing. : ttoXcwv, tt^x***"- '^he neuter oo-rv has 
gen. sing, aorcof, less often uoTco>r. 

186 D. Stemt in u The New Ionic retains c in all the forms, but contracts 
u in the dat. sing, to r, and las in the ace. pi. to is. Thus Sing. x6\ts, x6XMSy 
x6\t, ir6\iy, T6Mf Fl. T6\its, ToXiwvj ir6\un, T6MS. The older editions of Hd. 
admit other forms to some extent, as dat sing. «-dXei, nom. pi. ttSMs, ace. pL 
ir6\tas or T6\tts, 

Hm. changes i to c before i in the dat. sing, and tri in the dat. pi. Thus 
Stng. ir6\tSf ir6\tos, v6KeI or irdXci, ir^Axy, ir^\i, PI. irdXtcs, iroAiwy, irdAccc or 
iroKitcffiy irdAiotf. In the dat. sing, and ace. pi., he sometimes has the contract 
forma of the Kcv Ionic : jcdvr dat. sing, of k6pis dust, iiKoiris ace. pi. of tucotrls 
wife. He even uses irdXcts for ir6\tas. 

From t6Kis itself, Hro. has also a peculiar form with i} : x6\rios, irdXi|7, w6Kyf 
fSf wdXijoi. ^For the datives wcX^kco'cc, tfccort, see 164 D. 

Stems in v. The Ionic always has os in the gen. sing. Em. sometimes 
contracts c? to ct, vt to vi, in the dat. sing., and vas to vs in the ace. pi. : vix^h 

tx^h Ix^'' Hd. has only the contraction of vof to vs. ^For the datives 

pixwrfft, wirvmrtj see 164 D. 

Digitized by 





187. a. Most stems in t follow the formation jost described. So too 
all adfeetioe stems in v : these, however, take os in the gen. sing., and 
hare no contraction in the neuter plural : ykvKirs neeet^ yXvKt-os^ ykvKf-a, 
Even in substantives, such forms as iroXcof, vrix*ost Are sometimes found, 
especially in poetry. 

b. Most tuhstantive stems in v preserve this vowel through all the 
cases, vc in the dual and plural may be contracted to v : Ix^O (For ^x^w), 
Ix'iifs (for ix'ivis) : the ace. pL generally has vs for vag (33;. 

188. "Eyxf^vs eel is declined like Ix'Ssw in the Sing., but like nrjxvs in 
the PI. : gen. sing. «yx^Xv-or, nom. pi. iyxtXus. 

The poetic adjective l^pis (tdpt) knowing retains the final i of the stem 
in all the cases. 

189. VI. Steins ending in a Diphthong. 

o i^aiXcv-r 

6 rj (iov-£ 

Tf ypav-s 

4 vav-ff 


ox, cow 

old woman 


Sing. Nom. 











(/3a<nX€'-t) /Sa^iXci 














Du. N. A. V. 





G. D. 





Plur. N. V. 

(^actXr-f r) fiaaiKfif 






/So- GOV 













So 6 yoptv'S parentf 6 icpcv-r priest^ 'Odvao-ew-f, *AxtXX€w-ff. 

1^0. The final v of the diphthong disappears before all vowels, ac- 
cording to 39. The stem vav, after dropping v, becomes prj before a 

short vowel-sound, v« before 9,'long one. 

In regard to stems in €v, observe that 

a. the gen. sing, has as instead of or, cf. 186. 

b. the dat. sing, always contracts ii to ri. 

189 D. Stems in cv. Hd. has only the uncontracted forms. Hm. has i} in- 
stead of c, wherever v falls away : /kwcXc^s, fituriXtv, ficurtKevtrt, but ficurtXiioSf 
^a^lXi)7, etc., dat. pi. iLpurriiWffi, Yet in proper names, be often has t : HiiXrios 
and lbn\ios^ IIi^X^? and UriXiXy etc. ; rarely with contraction : gen. 'OSvircOr, 
dat. 'Ax(AA(7, ace. Tv8^. 

BoSf Dor. )3£;, aco. BiDg. ^ovp Dor. ^p (once in Hm.) : Hm. has in dat. pi. 

^cvi and /Sovo-f, ace. pi. fi6as and jSot/s. Tpavs : Hin. has only yp^vs (11 D) 

and ypntsy dat. 7/wjt, voc. yptfi and ypiit. Vavs is declined by Hm., nom. 

sing, yfivs (11 D), gen. (n?<Js,) pUt, dat. wjt, ace. (i^a,) y^o, nom. pi. (r^€j,) Wci, 
gen. (in|6v,) yvw^, dat. py^wrl (W^c^ci, p4wci), ace. (ynaf ,) Was. The forms not 
in belong also to Hd. 

Digitized by 



c. the aoc. sing, and ace. pi. hare a and remain, uncontracted. 

d. the contract nom. pi. has rjs in the older Attic writers: thus 
3a(rtX$f in ThucydideS) instead of /SacrtXcir. 

e. when cv follows a vowel, contraction may occur in the gen. and 
ace. sing. : Ucipaicv-r Firaeeus^ gen. Uftpatwr , ace. Utiptua (cf. 178). 

Rem. f. The gen. in €»s and the ace. in ea, cdr, arose, by interchange 
of long and short quantities, from the Homeric forms in i;or, i;d, i^dr. 

191. Some compounds of irovs (iroS)foot form the aoc. sing, as if from 
a stem in ov : rptVovr (rpmod) three-footed, aoc rpifrow f but in the sense 
tripod, ace. rpiTroba), OidiVovr Oedipus makes Olblnooos and Oidiirov, 
OidtVodi, Olbinoha and Olhlirovv, Olbinovs and OidiVov. 

192. The only diphthong-stem ending in i is oi, Sing. oi-£ <A^, oi-<$s, 
oi-t^ of-y ; PL ot-f f, oi-a>y, ot-o"t, oi-s (cf. 23 D). 

YII. /Sto/w ending in o. 

193. Sing. Nom. 

^ TTccdo) persuasion. 


^ir«3d-of) irfidovff 


f7rei3o-i) ir«3oi 


(fl-ciSo-a) n-ridcb 



So ^ fixoi> (jjxo) echo, KaKvyjroi, Aijra. 

194. a. These are all oxytone femmine substantives. The contract 

ace. sing, is oxytone like the nom. (contrary to 98). The voc. sing., 

varying from all analogy, ends in oc. 

b. In the dual and plural (which occur very rarely), they are de- 
clined like stems in o of the 2d or 0-Decl. : Xrx», nom. pi. Xexoi. 

c. A few stems in ov have occasional forms as if from stems in o : 
tlKViv (tiKou) image, gen. iiKovs, ace. ctKo, aoc. pi. cikovf, dt)^<ov (arjdov) 
nightingale, voc, aijdol. 

195. Declensions CoiiPARED. The Consonant-Beclension (Bed. III.) 
and the VoweU Declension (Decl, I. IL) agree in the following points : 

1. In all genders, 

a. the D. S. ends in i (in the Yowel-DecL, c subscript). 

b. the G. D. Dual end in iv (aiv, oiv). 

c. the G. P. ends in o>v. 

d. the D. P. ended originally in o-i. 

2. In the neuter, (e) the N. A. V. P. end in d. 

191 D. To Olilirovs belong also gen. Oliix^a-o Hm., and in Trag. gen. 
OliarS^a, ace. Ol9nr69ay^ voc. OtZixSia. '. 

192 D. Hm. (commonly) and Hd. have oX for on 6XSf 6Xos, etc., dat. pU 
Hm. iittrtri (once otttrt) and ittrtrt (154 D). 

193 p. Even the Jonic has only the contract forms. Hd. makes the ace, 
sing, in ovv: 'lovp for *Ic^. 

Digitized by 



3. In the mateuUne hnd feminine, 

f. the N. S. takes s (or an equivalent for it). This, however, doefl 
not apply to feminine stems of the A-Declension. 

g. the A. S. takes p generally when the stem ends in a vowel, 
h. the A. P. ends in s. 

Rem. i. In the Ace. Sing., v (jx) was originally applied even to conso- 
nant-stems, a being inserted as a connecting vowel ; but v afterwards fell 
away (77). Compare 6d6vT^d{ti) with Lat dent-e-m. 

In the Ace. PL, the ending, was originally vs. Here also a was insert- 
ed after consonant-stems. When v fell away (48), a preceding a or o of 
the stem became long, df, ovs ; but the connective a remained short : 
o5ow-d-(i/)r Lat. dent-e-s. 

196. The principal differences of ending are found 

a. in the G. S. of all genders, where the Gons.-Decl. has or (or). 

b. in the N. P. masc. and fern., where the Gons.-Decl. has es. 

a in the N. A. Y. 8. neuter, where the Gons.-Decl. does not take y. 

IrreguLa/r Declendmi. 

197. In some instances, a word has forms belonging to two different 
stems. Such words are called heteroclitts, when the Nom. Sing, can bo 
formed alike from either stem (cVcpd«eXira differently declined). Thus 
N. S. fTK&ros darhnens (stem <rKiyro Decl. II., or <tkot€s Decl. III.), G. S. 
(TKOTov or a-KOTovt : cf. i84. 

198. Thus proper names in rjs of the 3d Decl. often have forms be- 
longing to the 1st DecL, especially in the Ace. Sing. : Suicpdnjr (stem 
Stticparcr), Ace. 2<oKpdTrjv (as if from a stem :&a>Kpara\ together witn the 
regular Ace. 2a>icpdr7;. But proper names in Kkrjs (loO) have only forms 
of the third declension. 

199. But usually the Nom. Sing, can be formed from only one of the 
two stems. Then forms belonging to the other stem are called metapla^ 
tic ^from fMran-Xaa-zidr chanfe of formation). Thus t6 biv^po-v tree, D. 
P. oivbpftri (as if from stem bci^pti) ; ro baKpvo^v tear, D. P. ddirpv-o-t 

197 D. In Hd., some words in iis of the first declension have ca for rjy in 

the Ace. Sing. : 9c<nr^t mastery A. S. UttnrSrw, From 2apin}8«6y, Hm. has 

'SafnniZ6yos^ etc., also liapir^HoyroSy etc. From MitwSy Att. Gen. Mlyv, etc. 

(146), Hm. Mlyuosy etc. (182 D). 

199 D. Hm. i^jc-l D. S. of &M trengthy-^/uy-i D. S. of iapiyri batiUy— 
fAdtrri D. S., fidart-y A. S., of fidart^(y) toAtp, — ix« (as if for tx^lalii) A. S. of 
lx<^/> l^niphy — luK^ A. S. of Ivici routy — [yl^ Ues. A. S. of vi^5(J5) »now],— 
hrfKa}i^unn D. P. of kyKAKri elboWy-~ia'9pax69-€a'a't D. P. of iyUpdiro^o-y tlavCy 
-—^itrnwr'a PI. of Z^fffU-s hondy — trpostSntar'a PI. of irp6scnro-y faeCy — rk rr\(vpd 
Ion. and poet. = at rXwpcd PI. of ^ vXtvpd side. 

From ndrpoKKo'Sy declined regularly, Hm. has also narpoKKfios, IlarpoKA^a, 
Xlorp^icXcif (stem IXarpoicAefs, 180 D). 

From {fyioxo-s chariotesry declined regularly, Hm. has also iiyioj^Oy i^viox^ct 
(stem iiytox^v, 189 D): cf. Al^iowas and Ail^toir^of, A. P. of Ail^/o^ (163). 

Digitized by 



(poetic N. S. baKpv) ; t6 nvp f/re^ PI. ra irvpd (2d Decl.) watch-fires^ D. 
irvpotff ; 6 oveipo-f dream (2cl Decl.), but also G. S. owipor^or, N. P. ovei- 
poT-o (3d Decl.) ; jj 5Xa)-r threshing-floor declined like €m (148), but 
sometimes G. ^o>l^^£, etc. : like oXcor are 6 ram peacock^ and (in poetiy) 
6 Tv(pa)9 whirlwind, Cf. 194 c. 

200. In some words, the Sing, and Plur. are of different genders 
(heterogeruaus), though alike in stem. Thus 6 triTo-s com, PL ra alra ; 
6 oradpor station, stall, PI. often ra oTaSpd ; 6 b€aii6t hand, PI. often 
ra dftrixd ; rd orddtov stade, PI. commonly o2 crddtoi. 

201. a. Many words are defectke in ntfm^^r, often from the nature of 
their meaning. Thus al^fip aether, only in the Sing. ; ol tTrjaiai annual 
winds, tA Aiovva-ia festival of Dionysus, only in the Plural. 

b. Other words are defective in case. Thus Syap dream, vnap wah- 
ing, ot^fXof use^ all neuter and used only in the Nom. and Ace. ; fidKij 
arm-pit used only in the phrase vno ^akrjs (later vnb fioKr^v), 

202. The most important irregularities of declension, which have not 
been noticed already, will be found in the following alphabetic table : 

1. "Apijr (Apf ff) the god Ares, G. ''Aptos and "Apcos, D. "Apti, A. "Apiyv 
(198) and*Ap77, V. reg.'Apw. 

2. apv lamb, stem without N". S. ; hence (rod, Trji) dpv6£, apvl, apva, 
apv€s, dpvda-i. The N. S. is supplied by dpvos, 2d decl., reg. 

3. TO y6vv hnee (Lat. genu), N, A. V. S. All other cases are formed 
from stem yoi^ar : ydi^arof , yovari, etc 

4. ri yvvrj woman. All other forms come from a stem yCpauc : they 
are accented fall but the V. S.) as if this were a stem of one syllable, 
yvaiK (160) : G. S. yvvaixdr, D. yvvaLKi, A. yvvalKa, V. yvvai ; Dual yvvaiKf, 
yvuaiKoiv ; PI. yvvalKts^ yvvaiKOiv, yvvai^i, yvtfaiKas. 

5. TO 86pv Spear, N. A. V. S. All other cases from stem dopar (cL 
no. 3) : boparos, dopari, etc Poetic G. dopog, D. dopi and dope t. 

200 D, Hm. BpOfid PI. of dpVpds oak-wood, — terwtpa PL of wcvtpos evening, — 
K^Acvda (also K€\fv^oi) PL of $ x^Aeui^of way. 

lid. Kvx^a PL of AiJx»'<>* lamp. 

201 D. a. Hm. PL iytcara entrails, D. Hyxatn, — 6irffM eve^, only N. A Dual 
(in Trag. also PL, G. 6<nr»y, D. ierirois), — ^PL 6x*a, hx^^^v, Ox^ff^h chariot (Sing. 
d Cxoi, not in Hm.). 

b. Only Nom. or Ace, Hm. Bw (for Bw/m) house, — Kpi (for icpid^) barley, — 
&^¥os wealth, — 8f/MU body, — IjBos deUght,'--^pa only in ^pa ^^pciy to render a 
service, — ^rop heart, — t4kp»p (Att. r^Kfiap) bound, — all neuter. Only Voc, 
il\4 or iiKt4 (Hm.) foolish, — p4\€ (Attic poets) my aood sir or madam. Only 
Dat., Hm. mtdr-wtri to possessions,— {iy) Bc£t in battle. 

202 D. The dialects have the following peculiar forms : 

1, '^Aoiis : Hm. "Apnos, "ApriX, "Af^ija, also "Apcoi, "Apei (Hd, "AotX, "Apca). 
3. 7(>n;: Ion. and poetic yo^yaros, yoCyari^ yoirarOf yovyarotv, yo^yaat. 
Epic also yovp6s, yow(, yovya, yoiytty, yoiyHToru 

6. t6pv : Ion. BoiparoSf Mpari, BoiparOf Bovpdrwy^ Mpoxru Epic also Sov 
^s, 8ovp(, SoDpc, dovpa, Bovpuv^ Mpttrau 

Digitized by 



6. Z€vs the god Zevfy G. Acor, D. Aity A. Am, V. Zc v. 

7. 17 ^tfiis (Sr/itd) rights declined reg. : bat in the phrase 3c/i<^ ^^^^^ 
(Jos €i$ey Indie. 2ic>cf tarl/aa eBt\ the N. S. is used for the Ace. a«/iiv. 

8. o ^ icoivaii'o-r partaker^ regular ; but also N. A. P. Koiyttv-f f, -a£, 
only found in Xenophon. 

9. 6 4 Kvov e^^, V. S. Kvov, All other cases from stem K\iv : kwos^ 
Kwi^ Kvva'f PL fcvwr, Kvvuy, icvcrt, xuvar. 

10. 6 Xa-ff «t(me, contr. from Xoa-rj G. Xa-or, D. Xa-i, A. Xaa-i^, Xa-p ; 
PL Xa-f r, Xa-6>y, Xa-fcr<rt or Xn-co-i. Poetic word for Xi3or. 

11. 6 7 fidprHs witness, D. P. fiafyrn-cru All other cases from stem 
fxaprUp : /idpTvpoff, fidpTvpty etc. 

12. 6 ^ 5pv)fp (opi'iS) 5ir^, declined reg. (169) 5 A. S. 5pwv, also SpvOia. 
Less frequent forms, made from stem opvi^ are N. P. ^pi^rif, G. SpP€<av^ A. 
^pycif and rarely opi/ir. 

13. TO ov£ ear J N. A. V. S. All other cases from stem wr : aros, wrt ; 
PL &Taj fiSrcov, c^o-i. These forms were made hy contraction from ovas^ 
o0aror, etc., see below. 

14. 7 nvv$ Pnyx, pLice for the popular assemblies of Athens, stem 

Ilvjcv (57) : UvKPOf, UVKviy HVKVCU 

15. 6 irp€a-fi€VTfis (npta-Pivra) embassador: in the Plur. commonly 
9^p<(r^cir, frpco'^roi^, irpta^vi* These forms come from the poetic Sing. 
wp«(rpv-s enibcLSsador^ also old man, in which latter sense npftrfivTrjs is the 
common prose word for all numbers. 

16. rdv a defective stem, only in Voc. & tqv, also written S> Vav, 
friend, rarely plural friends, 

17. 6 vio-r son, declined reg. : also from a stem vtcr, G. vUos, D. vlf I 
(A, v?«a rare) j Du. vlfV , vuoiv j PI. vlctr, vlcov, vIcVi, vWit, 

18. 7 ;(ftp hand, stem p^etp ; but G. D. D. \tpoiv, D, P. xtpvi* 

19. 6 yovr c^m^iTM, reg. like jSovf, but A. P. x<^r. Also (>. S. ;^oa>r, 
A. S. xoQ) A. P. x'^^^ (<^ 1? ^^ ist. ;^ocv, cC 190 e) ; these are sometimes 
written x^^ff X^ yoaf. 

20. tA xP*«f 2«^*» N. A. V. S. ; also G. S. xp*®^. Other cases are 
supplied by r^ xp*^ ^^i which is declined regularly (178). 

202 D. The following appear as irregular only in the dialects : 

21. d iJip (fern, in Hm.) air. Ion. ^/pos, ^^pt, 1)4pa. 

22. 6 *At9ns Hm. (Att. "Aihis the god //<!(&«) Ist dec!., G. *AtSao or 'At8c», 
D. 'AJSn, A. *At8i7y: but also O. "ATBos^ D. "ASii (st. AZ8, 8d decl.). Rare N. 
'A«8am6-f, D. 'AS8«yn7 (189 D). 

6. Zf ^5 : Poet, also Zfiy6s, Z7W, Z^ra. Find. Al for Ait 

7. ^4ius : Hm. d4fuffros, etc., Find. ^4furos, etc. 

11. pi^rrvs : Hm. always pAprvpoSy 2d decl. Cf. ^^^cucos Hd. (once in Hm.) 
for ^iXa^ toatchman. 

12. 6pyi5 : Dor. tpvixos^ ^P>^Xh ^^n ^^^^ ^t. opyix* 

13. 0^5: Dor. £f, Hm. ot/ceror, FL ot/aroj otho'if once ^trf. 

17. vf^s: Hm. often has vUs, vl6y, vUy — other forms of the 2d deeL very 
rarely. Of the forms from st. v/cr, he has all (mostly uncontracted) except 
P. F. Further, from st. vl, he has vTot (gen.), vfi, vfo, vfe, vUs, vUffi, vtas, 

18. x^^P ' Foet. x'P^h X^P^ B™* ^' ^' X<P^ ^^^ x*^P^^^ 

Digitized by 



202 D. 23. T^ iMpotf tree, Ion, and poet. Urdptw, 9cy9/>^, etc. Fof 
irreg. D. P. UvZpttri, see 199. 

24. T^ Kopa head^ Hm. tcipji^ steniB icay>irr and icpar, also with inserted a, 
KapTjar^ Kpaar, 

Gen. Sing. Kdprrros Kopiaros Kpdaros KpdT6s 

Bat. KdprjTt (Trag. ir<£pf) irop^art Kpdari Kpart 

Ace. K^v^i?) A^o f^^ icpara masc. and neiit. 

Nom. Plur. Kdpdy also Kdpriya Kap^jara Kpaara 

Gen. Kopiivwf Kpirwv^ Dat ir/Nur/ 

Ace. = Nom. (Kparas Trag. masc) 

The Attic (Tragic) poets have only N. A. Y. S. Kipa, D. S. tcdpf, and the 
forms from st. Kpdr, 

25. d \is poetic for XcW /tow, A. S. Aij', defective, 

26. D. S. \<t/, a. p. aTto, smooth cover^ Hm., defective. 

27. d /le/j (for /Acv-j, and that for firivs), only Nom. Sing., Ionic and poetic 
form for d fiiiv month, 

28. ^ irAi^;^^; (declined like Ix^^) Ionic for rh vX^^of multitude ; of the 
ktter, Hm. has only vK-h^tXy irAi^«i. 

29. (ij irrux^ /o/rf, not in Hm., who uses only the defective) D. S. wrwxt 
N. A. P. irr^x*»» *T^X«*- 

80. (6 <rr(xM »'ow, not in Hm., who uses only the defective) G. S. otix^s, 
N. A. P. arix^s, arixas. 

Local EtidiTigs. 

203. Closely analogous to case-endings are certain endings 
which mark relations of place. These are 

a. -^t for the place where : oAAo-^i elsewhere. 

b. -^€F for the place whence : dUo-^tvfrom home / less fre- 

quently, for the place tiohere, 

c. -3c for the place whither: oUorh^ home-ward. 

These endings are afSzed to the stem: ^h^fivrj-Z^v from Athens^ 
KVKk6-^€v from the circle {icvitki-i) ; but o Is sometimes used for final a of 
the stem : ptfo-Sfv from the root (from pi(a root) ; and after consonant- 
stems, o is used as a connecting ^owel: iravvo-^tv from every tide. The 
ending be is often affixed to the accusative form: Mcydpd-dc toward 
Megara^ 'EXcuo-iva-df toward Blevm; oU-ct-be (st oiko) is irregular: lor 
the accent of these forms, see 105 d. 

204. Instead of dc, the ending -o-c or -(e is sometimes used : aX\o-<r€ 
toward another place. 'AS^wifc (for A3jwis-5€, 56) toward Athena, BriPa{e 
(for erjpas-ii) toward Thebes^ ^vpaCt (for Supat-df) out (Lat. foras). 

208 D. The local endings are much more frequent in Hm. : oXko^i at homty 
^1X16^1 irp6 before Troy, oitpca^S^tf from heaven^ iyopTJ^ev from the assembly. 

The iform with d€y is sometiifles used by Hm. as a genitive case : icar^ xp^- 
^tvfrom the head down, whoUy, 4^ a\6^€y out of the sea. 

In dm., Be is commonly added to the Ace. (not to the stem) : t^Kow^e home- 
wtard, Me Z6fioyZe to his own house, 4ifi4rep6vB« to our (ftouse), ir6Kip9e to the 
city, ^^p^e to fiaht : peculiar are ^ifyeie to flight, tpaie to ear0^ "AXUtie to 
Uhe abode of) Bodes (202 D, 22). 

Digitized by 





205. For Bome words, we find an ancient Locatite eaie^ denoting the 
place where, with the ending t for the singular, and for the plural o-i(v) 
without I befi>re it : oueot at home, nvSoi at Pytho, 'lafSfxoi at the Isthmus, 
*Airivrfai (79 b) at Athens, nXaraiao-t at Plataea, ^ivpdai (Lat. foris) at 
the doors, abroad, &p&<rt at the proper season. 


A. ABJEcirYBS OF TUB Vowel-Dbclknsion. 

207. This is much the most numerous class. The masculine 
and neuter follow the O-Declension ; the feminine usually fol- 
lows the A-Declension. Thus the nominative singular ends in 
0% 71 (or d), ov (Lat. us, a, um). 


M. good 











U. friendly F, 











<l>iKioiV <l>iXiaiv 








Rem. a. The yowel a in the nom. sing. fern, is always long. It is 
used after a vowel or p : bUatos just, fern. ^tKai-a, alaxpds shamrful, fern. 
oiVxpo* But 7j is used after the yowel o, unless p precedes it : diikdoi 
simple, fern. AiikAri, dUpoo^ collected, fern. d^p6a. 

Rem. h. The Feminine, in the Nom. and Gen. PL, follows the accent 
of the Masculine : fit^ios firm, nom. pi. masc. /Sc/Saioi, fern, fii^aiai, not 
^fialai, as we might expect from nom. sing, fit^ala (120) ; gen. pi. fern. 
/3(0a/a>v, like the masc., not i3c/3moy, as in suhstantives (128). 

206 D. Epic Cask-Endiiso ^i. A pecnliar sufiBx of the Epic language is ^ 
(or ipw^ 79 D), added to the stem. The form with ^t serves as a genitive or 
dativcy both singtdar and plural. Thus (a) in the 1st decleDsioU) always singu- 
lar : fiiV'<P*^ (less correctly /3/p^() with violence^ K/utrtri^L in (he tent^ hrh ycvp^^ 

from the bow-string ; irregular H^ ^<rx^^' (^'^^ tffX'H*^'') **•* '^* hearth, 

(M in the 2d declension : 'IXi<f-<^i of Troy, ;^W^i tcith the gods. (c) in the 

8a declension, almost always plural: iw' 6xta''^t from the cary wap^ yav-^i by 
the shipsy xpbs K0Tv\ii^y-6-^i (genitive) to the feelers; irregular hrh Kpdrta-^t 
from tfte head (202 J), 24). 

207 D. For Ionic n instead of a m the Feminine, see 125 D. Em. has 9ia, 
fiem. of Siof divine, with short a : STa ^Uuy divine among goddesses, 


Digitized by 





208. Adjectives in cos and oo^ are subject to contraction. Thus 
dirXovs simple^ apyvpov^ of silver ^ contracted from dirXoos, apyvp€oq. 
The uncontracted forms may be known from 207 ; the contract forma 
are as follows : 





dpyvpovs apyvpa 






apyvpov apyvpas 






apyvp^ apyvpq, 






apyvpovp apyvpav 






apyvpovs apyvpa 






dpyvpta apyvpa 





apyvpoiv apyvpaiv 






apyvpoi apyvpai 











apyvpois apyvpaii 






apyvpovs apyvpas 


For the peculiarities of contraction, sec 36 a. For irregular accent in 
the contract forms, see 145. 

209. Many adjectives of this class have but two endings, the 
masculine form being used also for the feminine : M. F. ^cn5xo5» 
N. rja-vx^v, quiet This is the case with most compound adjectives : 
M. F, d-T€Kvos childless, M. F. KapTro'<f>6po9 fruit-bearmg. 

BsM. a. In many adjectives of three endings, the fern, is sometimes 
found like the masc. ; and conversely, some adjectives of two endings 
have occasionally a distinct form for the fem. These exceptional cases 
are especially frequent in poetry. 


M. F. Tjavxos quiet N. ^avxov 

^(Tvxt rjavxov 

M. F. Tktm^pitiom N. Tkfonv 



cXfwr tXeoDV 





tjavxoi TjfTvxa 


fiavxovs fjavxo. 

tXf^ tXfo) 


TKems tXfo) 

210. "iXecor is a specimen of the few adjectives which follow the Attic 
Second Decl. nXeoir full is declined thus in the Masc. and Neut. ; 

208 D. For contraction omitted in Ion., see 144 D. 132 D. 

210 D. For t\c»5, Hm. has Xkhts (also in Att. poets): for vXim, Hm. 
oj, irAe(i7, itXuov, Hd. ic\ios^ tj, ov, — Hm. has ams (only in this form), but for 
orSof he has v6os, aSv, <r6oy, Comp. (roc^cpof. — ^With ((a6s, iy 6tf living, he has 
N. S. C»f» A. C^y. 

Digitized by 





but forms a Fem. irXtd of the A-Decl. The defectiye adj. M. F. o-wff, 

N. truv (formed from aaot safe) has A. S. a^v, A. P. a-£s ; also aa as N« 
S. Fem. and Neut. PI. The kindred acios^ <fom^ o-cSop, is aiso confined to 
the Kom. and Ace. 

211. B. Adjectives or the CoNSONiiNT-DECLENSiON. The Fem. 
of these, when it differs from the Masc., follows the A-Decl. : it is 
formed from the stem of the Masc. by annexing la ; but this addi- 
tion causes various changes (32. 58. 60). Here belong 

212. 1. Stems in v. The Masc. and Neut. have e, instead of v, 
in most of the cases (cf. 186-7). The Fem. has c-ia, contracted 
into cia. 








fuXaiva fiiXav 
fitXaivrjs fuXavos 
fXiXaiinj fuXavi 
fiiXaivav fiiXav 
fuXaiva fuXav 





lAfXaipa itiXavt 
fitXaivatv fitXiivoiv 








fUXawai fieXava 
fjLtXaivSiV fxiXavtov 
fifXaivais iiiXaai 
fifXaivas fxtXava 

So yXvKvs sweety ^padus shyw^ ppaxyt shorty raxvs swift, tvpCs wide. 
Rem. a. In d^Xvf female^ the poets sometimes use the masculine form 
for the feminine. 

213. 2. A few stems in v. In these, the t of the fem. ending ca 
passes into the preceding syllable : fieXdq (fitXav) black, Fem. /xc- 

Xawa, for fjL€Xavta (58). For full inflection of fiiXas, see 212. 

Similarly declined are raXa^, ra\(uva, raXai^ unhappy and riptiv, 
T€p€wa, rip€v tender. 

214. 3. Sterna in vr. In these, the Fem. vr-wt becomes -o-o, and 
the preceding vowel is lengthened. They are mostly participles. 

212 D. For fem. cla, ctef, etc., Hd. has ^a, /ijy, ^j?, iav, etc. Hm. com- 
monly has eta, ti^s^ etc., but itK^a for wiccia, fia^lris and fia^dris, fia^tiay and 
fiad4w. In Hm., ^S^f and vovXis (for to\6s\ as well as ^\vs, are sometimes 
fem. In the A. S., Hm. sometimes has 4a for 6y: 9vp4a 7r6vrov the toide tea. 

214 D. Adjectires in cii (ckt) are much more frequent in poetry : those in 
n*tSy o€is are sometimes contracted : Hm. rt/i$f =T</i^cif honorable, XorrcDvra 
=:Katriwra filed with lottu, poet. irr9^vcca='mp6wtra winged. Hm. some- 
times xuses these acye^^tires In the masc. form with fem. names of places. 

Digitized by 





Adjectives in evr have co-o-a, not €uroL, in the Fern., for cir-ta. 
For their D. P., see 50 a. 



S. N. 





diBovaa dibov 






fitdovoTjff bidovros 






d<dov(727 dibovri 






dibovaav liibov 






Biboixra dibdv 






btdov<ra BiSovre 










dibova-ai diSom-a 






Bibova-S>v Movroav 


Xi' overt 




bibovcrais Movai 






diboixras bibovra 








deiKVvtra htiKvvv 






dtlKVVariS b€LKVVVTO£ 






beLKvCarj hfiKvvvri 


\vcravTa . 




deiKvvcrav btiKVVv 






dftKvvo'a bfiKvvv 






dtiKvvara d€iKVvvT€ 




ddKvvvToiv heiKvvaratv btiKvvvT0iv\ 






dtiKvvaaL deucvvvra 1 





b€l,KVVVT<OV ^€lKWa-S>V btLKvdvTCOv] 






BiiKVva-ais biiKvva-i 





beiKvvvras 8€iKvvaas beiKvvvra \ 








XapL((r(ra x^picv 






Xaptea-OTjs x°P*"^<»^ 






XapUaayf x^P^^**^^ 






Xapitacrav x^P^f^ 






Xopt((Ta-a x^P^*^ 






Xaptfcraa x«P*'»^* 





Xapticrtraiv x^^P^'^VTOiv 






Xf^p^to'crai vaptci^a 





XapUvTiov x«p«'0"cr«v x'^P***^**" 1 




Xapuatraii Xapita-t 






Xapuaaas xop«*>^a 

Rem. a. The fern. adj. x^pUa-aa arose probably from a form without 
V, x^P^^'^ (^0); while the fern. part. Xvdciora arose from Xv3ein'-ia, 
Xv3«'(ir)o'a (48), Xvovaa^ from Xvon-ia, Xvoi'(cr)tra, etc. 

215. Participles which have ovr after a, c, o, are contracted: 
TLfidxfiV (rt/taoiT), ri/iaovo-o, ri/xaov honoring ^ contr. rt/AOJv, TLfjMOXL^ 
TifiMv; ^tXcW {<fnX€ovT)i ^iXcovo-o, KJuXtov laving, contr. ff^OJav, ^iXovoxi, 

Digitized by 





^iXow ; ^Xooiv (Sf9fkoovT)y Si/Xoovcra, &rf\6oy manifesting, contr. STfXiaVi 
Sf/Aoixra, BTjXovy. The uncontracted forms are like tboso of XiW 
(214) ; the contract forms are as follows : 


Ttfjt&yrof Tin^atnjt rifuoirros 

TlfimVri Tlfl^OTJ TifiSvri 

Ttfx&vra rtfuiaap rificiv 

rifxS)v niiarra rtfx£v 

<l)ikovvTos <f}i\ovaTjs <l>ikoi'vroe 

(fxiXoVPTl f^iKoXKTJJ (filXovVTl 

<t)iXovvTa ^tXoOa-ay (f>iXovp 


TifioiVT€ TLfitaaa ri/icovrr 
rifxoi>vroi» rifianraip rifMotPTOtv 

(PiKovirre fpiXovaa </>iXoCvr€ 
(;(>tXovi/roti' <f)i\ov<raiv <f)i\ovvToiv 


Tifxioms Tifxcaaai ri^Kavra 

TtflOiVTVOP TlfiaxrmV TtflO}VTOiV 

Tifiaifras rifjiaaaf rifxcivra 

(fnXovvTfs (jytXovcrai 0iXoi;»Ta 

(f)i\ovvT€iy <l>i\ovaov (ffikovvTcav 

<l>tXov(Ti ^tXovo-atff ^iXovtri 

<f)iXovvras ifyikova-as <l>ikovvra 

Af/kup (contracted from dijK6»v) is declined exactly like tpik^v, 

216. Stems in or. These are participles of the Perfect Active. 
The ending or in connection with the fern, la is changed to via. 

having loosed 



XfXvKas XcXuKvTa XcXukoV 


ifrraa-a iar6f 


XrXv«c($ror XtXvKvias XtXvKoros 


itTTOnnjf ia-Tmros 


XrXvK(5ri XfXvKv/a XfXvicaTi 


tCFToaa^ €aT<aTi 


XcXvKora XeXvicvToy XcXvKOf 


iarwav foros 


XfXvKav \t\vKvia XfXuiCUff 


iaraaa itrros 


XeXvmfrc XcXvicvia XcXvxorc 


iaraxra i(TT<aT€ 

XfXvKorotv \€\vKviatv \€\vK6roiP 


ifTTonfraiv ioTcaroiv 


XrXvKorfv XfXvJcvioi X€\vK6Ta 


iar^aat ia-Tara | 


XfXvKOTtap XiXvKVioav XcXvKornv 


iaraamv €<rr6iTav 


XeXvKStri XtXvKviais XtXvKotri 


iaraxrais iarma-i 


XcXvicdrap XtXvKvias XtXvKora 


ioTuxrai ea-TOiTa 

Rem. a. iarw is contracted from ioraas^ and is irregular in the forma* 
tion of the Fem. The neuter form iarog is also irregular. 

Rem. b. vta of the Fern, appears to imply a masc. and neut. ending 
vr (= or) ; vT-ia would giye vo-m (62), and then via (64). 

217. Adjectives of Two Endings. In many adjectives of the 
(3onsonant-Declension, the masculine form is used also for the femi- 
nine (cf. 209). Here belong 

a. Stems in 5 : M. F. dKr^S-qq (aXrf&€^) true, N. oXiy^cs (cf. 176). 

b. Most stems in v : M. F. cv8ai/ui>v (cvSatfiov) happy, N, evScu- 
fU)v, M. F. apprjv {apayivy st apo-cv) male, N. a^p€v (cf. 172). 

c. A few simple stems ending in other letters, as M. F. tbpi-s hnovoing^ 

217 D. b. Hd. has lptfi}v for (Spoijy. 

Digitized by 





N. lipi (c£ 188). ^Also some compounds of substttntives, m M. F. mrd 

rap (a-irarop) fatherless, N. Sirarop ; rt;cXfric (tv-t\ntd) of good hopCy N. 
tUtXni I d)tXo7roX#r (0iXo-iroXcd) city -loving^ N. 0iX JiroXt ; cv^aptr ('v-xop"") 
agreeable. N. tiSxapi '^binovs {di-noH) two-footed^ N. dtVow, A. S. diirow 
(191) and dtVoda. 


oXi^d^ff oXi^dcr 

fvdaipMV fiSdaifiov 

cCfcXfTcr et^cXn-i 










aXrj^rj aXrj^is 

fvMfiova fUbaifAov 

ci^fXirtv ftHcXiTi 













dXi^Sfiff oXi^ai} 

€vdaifiovfs tvbaifioya 

cueXirtdcr cvAvrcda 










aXi/dftr 0X1739 

(vbaiftova? tvdalfiova 

rvcXirtdar (viXmba 

So fuyfvris toelUbom (176)j dwfityfis hostile, daifxiKrit safe, ^^€vbf|t 
falsCj v\rjprj£ fullf'^'irtirtAv ripe, a«^p»¥ discreet, fufrifi»¥ mindful, 
tniXrja-fmv forgetful, noXvirpayprnv busy. 

For comparatives in ov, see 174. 

218. Adjectives of One Ending, In these the Fem. is like the 
Masc. ; but, owing either to their meaning or their form, they have 
no Neuter: thus opTraf (a/wray) rapaciotis, <^vyas (<^vyo[8) fugitive, 
ayF(i>9 (ayvwr) unknoum, airats (airai^) childless, yuaKpo^^ip long^armed, 
tranrf^ (vanp-) poor, yv/xvry: {yvfivqr) light-armed. 

Re]^. a. Some adjectives of one ending, which belong to the A-Decl., 
occur only in the Masc., and differ little from substantives : thus €Z€\ov- 
rrjs, G. i^iXovToVf volunteer, 

219. Irregular Adjectives. Some adjectives are irregular, their 
forms being derived from different stems. So /icya? (fieya and 
fieyako) great, ttoXv? (ttoXv and ttoXAo) much, many, 

218 B. Hm. has many adj. which appear odIj in the Fem. : Wri^ia (in Voc. 
also ir&Tva) revered, Xd(x<M (or perhaps iXiixtui small); t^aWpcta of noble 
father, 6fi(>ifio'KdTp7i of mighty faihtr^ iurrtdi^tipa match for men, ficmdyupa 
nourishing men, icvSic&cipa making men glorious^ wovKvpirtipa much-nourish- 
ingy tox^cupa arrow-ehorBertng^ linroida-€ia thick with horse-hairy KoXXiywaiKa 
K. S. rich in fair 100mm. To Fem. dd\tia rich there is a Neut. PL ^d\€a. 

219 D. Hm. and Hd. have woKXds, 4i, 6p reg. like &7a^»(al80 neat. wi\x6» 
for iroKlf as adverb). But Hm. has also the common forms iroK^s, woKb, iroXvy, 
as well as wovX^s. irovX^, irovX^p (24 D. c); and from the same stem iroXv, he 
makes likewise O. S. xoKios, N. P. woX^cs, G. iroKimv, D. iro\«co-0-i or ireK^ffi, 
A. ToXiat, 

The masc. TpQts is found in Find. Comp. TpoArtpos in Hd. 

Digitized by 






fityas fiiyaXjj /icya 





fityakov fitydXrjt fityoKov 





fi€yaX(j^ lityoKn /i*yaXq» 





fttyop fxtyakrfv /iiyo 





firya fityaiXjf fUya 


iroXXi; • 



fuyakot firyaXa fityaXot 


fjuyiiXoiv /AcyciXaiv ftryakoiv 

/icydXoi fuydXat fuydXa 





/MydXttv fityoKav fuyaXw 





/AryoXoiff ^(ydXoiff /MydXotr 





fuyakovs firyaXas firyaXa 




Rem. a. irp^os mild forms the whole Fem. from st. npav : npaun^ 
wpatiasy etc. The Masc. and Neut Sing, are formed from st. npan, rarely 
firom npavi np^ovt npiji^^ irpqov. In jbhe Masc. and Neut. PL, both forma- 
tiosfi are used : irpf m and irpactr, vpata and irp^a. 

Comparisofi of Adjectives. 

A. By Tcpo9 and raros. 

220. The usual ending of the Comparative degree is rtpo (N. S. 
r€po^y Tcpo, Ttpov) ; of the Superlative^ raro (N. S. raros, rarrj, rarov). 
These endings are applied to the masculine stem of the Positive. 

ComparatiTe. Superiatire. 

Kov<l>&r€potf a, o» Kov<f>6raTot^ tj, op 

yXvKmpog yXvKvTOTos 

/AcXdvrcpor fifXdvraros 

fuucdprfpos paKapraros 

ataJHaTepot uaK^vrarot 

Xapitartpos x°P"'<""^^^ 

TTfviaripos fr€vt<rraros 

Xopif<rrtpos and ntviorfpot arise from xapitrr^tpot and irivrji^Ttpoi 
by cnange of r to r (45), before which p is dropped in the former (48), 
and j; shortened in the latter. 

Kov<l}oe (xotHpo) light 
yXvKvs (yXvKv) tweet 
ptXas (/icXav) bliieh 
paxap (juiKap) blessed 
traiPris (jcraipti) clear 
Xopifis (xopifVT) pleasing 
iTfPTjs (ntvrir) poor 

Hm. has some fem. adjectiTes which are not formed from the stem of the 
masc. : dovpis{i) impetuous^ M. dovpo-s ; irittpd fat, rich, M. witty ; irpttrfiA and 
irp4<r0€ipa hotwred, M. wp4a'$vs (202, 15) ; wpS^paurfra (for trpo^paS'ia from 

^Jn(C«) favorable, M. irpS^ppvy (from ^y). The following are made from 

the stem of the masc., but by an unosoal mode of formation: x<>^o/3^c"> 
heavy with brass, M. xc^^^^^*; i^piyfVcia early^born (M. Iipiyty^s later); 
^Sv^cw (Hes.) swtetspsaking, M. ifim4is\ pdKoipa (Find.) blessed, M. ftdKop; 
and in the PL only, dofittal crowded, rap^ttal frequent, M. Copies, rap^w. 

In Hm., ipiiipO'S trusty, makes PL iplrip-^s (poly Nom. and Ace. in each 

Digitized by 


04 C03CPABIS0N BT Tcpos AND raros. [22] 

221. The following adjectiTes depart more or less widely from 
the rule above given. 

a. Stems in o with short penult, lengthen o to o) : this prevents 
the excessive multiplication of short syllables: a-offxirT^po^ toiser, 
aiuStrTttTOi worthiest^ from aroffto-s, 060-9. — ^But if the penult is long 
by nature or position, o remains : irovi^p6'T€poi more wicked, Xetrro- 
raros finest. So always, when a mute and liquid follow the vowel 
of the penult : Trucpo-raros bitterest 

b. The adj. y€pai6f (senex) always, naKai6t ancient^ and o-xoXaior 
leisurely, sometimes, drop o after at : ytpairtpo^^ vakairaros. 

c. fiiaos medius, Xao^ equal, tUdios serene, vpalos early, oylnog late, 
take at in place of o or a> : fKcraiToTos, frptaiairfpop.^-^^jjfrv^^os quiet has 
r]avxaiT€pQs and i7orv;(a>r(po£ ; <f>!\os dear, beside ^iXeorcpop, -raTos, has 

^>ikT€pot, Taros and <^i\atT€por, -raroy. ^From itXtjo-iov adv. near come 

irXi/o'iatrfpoff, -raror ; likewise napanXriauurtpos mare similar ; and from 
irpovpyov (for np6 tpyov advantageous) comes irpovpyiai-r€pos. 

d. Some adjectives take the irr^ular endings ftrrtpos, eararos. So 

1. Stems in ov : acat^pv^v ((ra>0pov) discreet, frv^tf^povioTtpos, cvdat/ji<up 

{fvbaipMv) happy, fvdaipovfcr^aTos. --Special exceptions are nltav fat, 

vlfSrtpos, -raros, and irirrav ripe, frrxratVcpoff, -raros, 

2. aKpdros unmixed, ipp^fuvos strong, aap^vos glad, and occasionally 
some others in os : aKpariorfposy €ppiaptv€<TTfpot* 

3. Some contract adjectives in (oos) ovs : (vyovartpos (for evi^ocorc- 
poi) from ({/vovs (evj'ooff) well-disposed. 

e. The adj. XaXor talkative, nmx6s beggarly, 6^o<f)dyos dainty, fto- 
pod}dyos eating alone, and some adjectives of one ending, as icXcirr^r thiev^ 
ish, have lartpos^ lOTaros : XdKioTtpot, irraxia-raTOf, *cX cjrnWf poj. 

f. Other adjectives of one gender in 17^ (G. ov) follow the rule for 
stems in o : v^p^rrmpos from v^piarris insolent. 

g. Compounds of x'^P'-^ favor, form the Comp. and Sup. as if they 
ended in x^p^ro-s : twixopiT^rtpos from cVix^pir agreeable. 

B. By uov and uttos. 

222. A much less frequent ending of the Compar. is lav (Nom. 
M. F. I(i3v, N. lav), of the Superl. wrro (Nom. toros, ton;, wrov). 

221 D. The poets Bometimes use w after a long syllable : ilCvp^tpot Hm. 

more tcretchcd. From *i^6s ttraight, Hm. makes t^^yrara; from ^ati^Ss 

shining^ ^atiySrfpoSj but ^edm-aros (of. 370 D a); from &x^<' unpleasing, 

itX''pi<r^fpos (for oxaf>*^"^*f*<**)' The force of the ending is nearly lost m 

driK^tpos feminine^ iypdrtpos wild (living in the caunity), 6p4<rT€pos living in 
the mountainSj ^ctirepos belonging to the godt^ 8c|irrp<$s Lat. dexter, which 
differ little from d^qXur, Ayptos, iptios, ^uos, Sc^i^i. 

222 D. The forms with mv, uttos are much more frequent in poetry : thus 

(the starred forms are un-Homeric), */3«^f«y, fid^urros (fitMs deep), fipAtr^ 

emu =*^f)tt5lW, fidpiurros =*fipdBiaros (fiptb^is slow), *fipdxi<rTOS {fipax^f 

thort), yKvKluy {y\vKCs stoeet), i\4yxiO*ros (^Xctx^cs H. tn/owwii*),— - 

Digitized by 


223] COMPABISON BT uav AND COTOf . 65 

These endings are applied, not to the stem of the Positive, bat to 
the root of the word. Hence a final vowel in the stem of the Fob. 
disappears : 

PositiTe. Comparatire. Superlative. 

^W-r pleasant (rj^fiat am pleased) ^B-iav ^S-toror 

rax'V-s swift ira)c^t swiftness) idavt^v (for Ta;(-i«i') rdx-ivroi 

/uytf^ great (/x<y-c3op greatness) fitiCtip (for fityiap) fuyiaTos 

Similarly po in the stem of the Pes. disappears : 
t)fi'p6-s hostile r«y3-off ?Mtred) cx^-twi/ fyS-ioTor 

alo'X'po^s shameful (aio'x'os shame) ala'X''i<oP ata-xiaTos 

Eem. a. In fitiCcov^ for ^ley-Kav, the t passes into the first syllable, as 
m aiiMivtdv for ap,€v-iav (58). So also in ido'aov^ Sao'o'oi^, where a absorbs 
it and becomes long. Cf. /laXXov (for /ioX-iov, 59). 

223. In the following words, this mode of formation is found connect- 
ed with various peculiarities, especially the euphonic changes described 
in 58-61. 

PoflitiTe. GomparatiTe. Saperlatire. 

1. ayaSl6s good dfitlvtav (for o/i€V-ia>v) 

[^apeiav Um.] Spurrog (^Apiyt, dpm^ virtue) 

^cXrioy /ScXrioTor 

Kptiairav (^Kptirrov) Kpariaro? (^Kpdrof Strength) 

X^O>y XoOTOff 

Kem. a. dfieiptovj ^pioTor, refer more to excellence or worth; Kptiaaav^ 
KpoTKrrosj more to pov>er and superiority. The opposite of Kptifrtr^v is 

2. KOKdi lad 



Ytfipwy (deterior) 
^<r<rv>v (inferior) 


TjKiora adv. least of all 

3. fUKpot small 



4. oXiyof K«fo, /w 


f\da-€rmv ((Xdrrcov) 


*m»8/«y, jc^iffToj (in;8prfj flf/onotM), /Adtrtr^pf n'tiKwros^ Dor. ^ftiKiarot (awk- 

p<Jy Zon^r), of/mirros {olicrp^s pitiable)^ xatrcwp =*»axW, xdxurros (»a- 

X^s «AicAr), ^iA/«r, •^fA«rro» (^(Ao» cfear), Aictoros (JtK^s quick). 

Hd. has fi4(wp for fi9l(ofP, 

In Epic and Doric poetry, the i of mp is short. 

223 D. 1. Hm. Comp. kp^imp: Pos. tcparis pd^ftd, Sup. ndprurros (67): 

Comp. Xmivp and Xtftrcpox. Hd. and Dor. Kpt^troop for Kp€t<r<rmp, ^Poet. 

3(XTcpos, ^cAraror (not used in Hm.) : ^4pr«pof more excelUniy ^praros and 

2. Hm. Comp. xwcc^coof : xwtlvp (Dor. x<P9c»'')t X*^**^*P«y, Yccp^cpos: 
also the defective forma, D. S. X'pn'i '^ S* X<f^<S ^* ^* X^pnts* Neut. x^f^o 

or x^P«^ Hd. ?<r0'wy for 1i<r<rmp. 

4. Hm. Comp. jAf(«y. 

Digitized by 



Poiitire. CompantiTe. Superlative. 

5. iroXvs mtichf many n\ti»» or frXco>ir (39) TrXctoTor 

Neut. ir\€ov^ also n\«iv 

6. leaXoff "beautiful KaKkiap koXXiotos (leaXXor heauty) 

7. p^bios easy paa>v pqiorot 

8. aXyc ivoff ^ain/t^Z akyioiv akyitrros 

224. Defective Comparison. The following adjectives are without 
the Positive : 

(npo hefore) irporcpor prior wp&roi primus 

v<rrtpos lateTy latter v<rraros latest^ last 
Rem. a. vpStros is probably made by contraction from irpo-dros. The 
same superlative ending drop appears also in 

^axdros extremus; and in the two following (mostly poetic) forms: 
wdfror noviesimus, last inplaes (from vtof novus). and 
vrraroc supremus, summus (from imfp super^ wnence come also a 
poetic Comp. xmiprtpoi^ Sup. vrrepraros). 

Formation and Comparison' of Adverhs, 

225. Adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding cd^ to the 
stem. The stem takes the same form as before cov in the Gen. PL 
The adverb has also the accent of the Gen. PI. ; and is contracted, 
when the latter is contracted. 

Thus <I>lKos deary (G. P. <f>i\av) Adv. (^(Xoc, tiKaioi just (bucalav) 
diicaitt);, yjroxpot cold (>j[rvvpwy) yfrvxp^^^ irat toTiole^ all {iravrov) navriasy 
raxvs quick (jaxt^v) ra\ttai^ aa<f>fis clear (aaipStv contr. from aa^wv) 
cra^Mtf (X)ntr. from xrai^itas* 

5. In the Comp., Hm. has aUo the defective forms irA^c^, wKias. ^Hd. 

contracts co to cv : irXevr, vXcuvcr, for irX^or, xKiovts, 

I. Hm. Pos. ^Utos (also in Hd.): adv. ^riUiUfSf often ^clo, p4a: Comp. 
^trepos : Sup. ^iraros and ^tcrros. 

To the above add for Hm. 

9. Ktpiiay^ K4p9iaros (Ktpiak4os gainful^ art/td^ K4p9os aain), 

10. ^lytotv, plyurros morty most dreadful (piyii\65 Hea. chilling^ f?yos edd). 

II. icfiiiaros {kti^uos dear^ injios care). 

12. Poet, (not in Hm.) ^fwv, y^urros {lf^\6s high, S^os height). 

224 D. Hm. sometimes forma a Comp. or Sap. from a substantive : iScuriAc^ 
Ttposj raros (from fiafftXtis king), Koup^§pos (icovpor youih)^ K^nntpos more 
dog-like (jdfwv dog). 

Other defectives in Hmi^re : &itKirtpos younger, ^KAraros^ iL^dprtpos 

(&<f}ap forthwith); ^and several expressing place: 4v4pT€oos lower (Trag. 

y4pT€pos, tvtpoi inferi, $v€p^ty or v4p^w infra), xapolrtpos (wdpot^ep before), 

owioraros {iirur^ty behind), ir€ur<rvrtpos (iraoy nearer), fiuxoiro' 

ros {iy p^xv ^^ ^ recess), The ending aros appears also in p4a'<raTos from 

p4i'os middle, and tr^paros last r= KoTir^os (Trag. KoUrbus), Aoio-d^rof. Hm. has 
iffrdrios = Strraros^ and in the same sense Beiraros (Zt^spos aeeoikQ.— A 
strengthened Sup. is Hm. wp^urrot = Tdptrpctros first of o/l. 

Digitized by 





226. Very often, also, the accusatke neuter of the adjectiye, either 
sbgalar or plural, is used as an adverb. Thus fuyas great^ Adv. ikiya 
and /AcyoXa, as well as /iieyaXo>r. 

227. An earlier form for adverbs ends in d : raxvi quich^ Adv. rava 
auickly, in Attic prose perhaps, dfia at the same time, fidXa very^ muS^ 
The Comp. of fjidXa is fiaXkov (for fiaX-iov, 59) potius, the Sup. /loXtora 
potissimum. ev well is used as the adverb of aya'iot good. 

228. Adverbs are also formed in co^ from comparatives and 

superlatives : Pepauorepioi morefamly, koAXiovcds more finely, ^But, 

generally, comparative and superlative adverbs are made by the 
aceusatwe neuter of those degrees, used in the singular for the com« 
parative, in the plural for the superlative: ^^c/iatorc/sov, koAAiov, 
jScj^oioraro, KaXXioTa, 

229. Adverbs in to (such as Svo^ above, Kara below, €<r<o within, cf co 
without) make the Oomp. and Sup. in «> : avtaripia, KaTwtpw, So also 
mrwrtpca further from prep, djrrf from, frcpacWpcD further from w<pd be* 
yoTid, ryyur near, cyyvrcpo), eyyvrdrca (or cyyvrcpov, tyyvrara), and a few 


230. Pebsonal Pbokouns. 

Sing. Norn. 

First Person. 
(yd>I (ego) 
cfioC, fioif 

€floi, fwi 

, Second Person, 
cru thou (tu) 



Third Person. 

ol of him, her, it 


Du, N. A. V. 
G. D. 

{vmi) vti 

(aipciitv) <r<f>^v 


Plur. Nom. 

Tifitls we 

*vfitU you 



vfptis they (N. a<f)fa) 
iriftas (N. acfna) 

The forms enclosed in ( ) are not found in Attic prose. 

22*7 D. Adverbs in a are more frequent in Hm. : ndfrra valde (KpaHs, 
223 Df 1), Xiya shrilly {Xiy6s), <rd^ clearly (o-a^r), c^xa quickly (&Kh). 

For ti, Hm. has 46^ whenever the t^ would be long by position : it yyoiriv; 
60 too in compound words: i6{o»yos. But tu is sometimes found before a mute 

and iiqaid : ithrKtKros or tHwKderos. Hm. has also a defective adj. its or 

^dy, A. S. itv or ^i)y, also G. B. iijos, and 6. P. idmf Neut. 

229 D. €Kas far^ Hm. iicniniptt, rd,r», — rijXe or njiKoiv far^ Hm. ri^Aordroi, 
— &7Xt or &7X0^ n«ar, Hm. hrtrov (for a7X(oy» 60) also iunrortpu, iyxttrra 
{ir/xordrw Hd-)- The a4j' iyx^^pos, Xyx^rarotj and ftyxM^os are post-Hom. 

Digitized by 




231. The stems of the Sing, are tfu (Lat. me), at (te), r (se). Bat the 
Nom. is dififerently formed : cyw, <rv ; and in the third person is entirely 

The stems of the Dual are v<» (Lat. no^), <r0<0, a-<^«». 
The etems of the Plural are $/xe, v/xc, (r<t>€ : t is contracted with most 
of the endings ; hence the circumflex accent (of. 233 D). 

232. The forms mentioned in the list of enclitics (105 a) lose their 
iiccent, when there is no emphasis upon the pronoun ; and in the 1st 
person Sing., the shorter forms (/xoO, fAol^ yii) are then used. But if the 
pronoun is emphatic^ it retains its accent, and Uie longer forms (c'/tov, 
c>ot, i^it) are used in the Ist person. So idso, in general, after preposi- 
tions. Thus doieci /ioi it seems to me^ ifidi ov croi roOro dpetrKfi this pleases 
me^ not thee ; nap* tfiov /rom me^ not itapa /xov, tin troi upon thee^ not 
inl aoi : yet 7rp6t fu to me frequently occurs. 

The Gen., bat., and Aoc. PI. of the Ist and 2d persons, when there 
is no emphasis upon them, sometimes throw the accent on the first syl- 
lable: fjfKav^ vpMv; the last syllable of the Dat and Ace. is then usually 
shortened : rjfiiif, vpdt. The last syllable is sometimes shortened, ereu 
when the pronoun is emphatic : we then write rjpiv, vplv, 

238 D. Personal Pronouns in the Dialects. Hm. has the following forms: 
those not in () are foand also in Hd. 

S. N. fy«5, (Jy^v) crtJ, (riJnj) 

{ifittof ifii^w) (<rc7o, <r4^fy) (cFo, $^w) 

J). ifioi, not <rol, roi, (rctv) oT, (iot, 23 D a) 

A. ip4,p4 a4 l(i4\ply 
Dual, (p&tf wd) (o-^Sr, o"^) (o-^wc) 

(m»&) (irtp&ly) (ff<p»iy) 

P. N. ^ft<''> C^W^^O dficti, {ppii^s) ' a^Ts not in Hm« 

G. itfJk^aty, {fifi€i»y) ^fi4»yf (ifitiwy) ffl^^aty, (o-^cW) 

B. iffiiyf (a/xfu) ifuy, (fififu) cifflirh ^^ 

A. iui4aSf (&Mfic) 6p4as, (ififi^) (rip^as^ (o-^cmu), ffp4 

iy^y is used before vowels (79 B). ifi4o cannot stand in the hexameter. 

The datiTes col and rol are distinguished in the same way as ifiot and fioi 

(232). For fjdy, the Dor. and Trag. have y(p : both are enclitic, both used 

in all genders, and yly is sometimes plural. In Hd. and Trag., <rp4 is some- 
times singular.— -—In Hd. o'^io'i (not c^C) is reflexive : he has also the neut. 
ir^4a: but the forms 4ifi4€s, d/i^c^, o'^ts in some editions of Hd. are probably 

The Dor. has N. S. iy^y even before a cons., r^ (tu) for <r^, G. tcC, tcwj, 
r4ovSy D. Toi for <roi ; also ifdy^ rly, %» for ipjol^ eol^ oT, A. r4, enclitic t6, for 
<r4. N. P. a/Ltes, lfji4s, G. afi4»y, D. k/iiy, A. kfi4f lp4, and ^4 for (r4>^. Of 
these Pind. has only t^, to/, riv, 

234. Intensive Pronoun. Avto-?, avtrj^ avro self (Lat. ipse), is 
inflected like Aya^o? (207), except that the Neuter N. A. V. S. does 
not take v (of. the neuter article to, 119). 

284 D. For lonio crasis in »Ms (Hm.), »Ms (Hd.), see 68 D. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Preceded by the article, o avros (auw* 68 c), 17 avnj (ovnj), tA 
avro {rairroy also ravTov)^ it signifies the same (Lat idem). 

235. Reflexive Pronouns. These are formed from the stems 
of the personal pronouns, compounded with avros. 

Singnlar Gen. M. N. P. Dat M. N. F. Ace. M. F. N. 
1st person c/xavroO -^f ifunrr^ -J ffMVT6v -ffv myself 
2d person orcavroi) -^r crcavrf -77 crfavrov -ijv thyself 

or (ratn-oO "5^ o-auTw -J7 fravrov 'nv 
3d person iavrov -rjs iavrtj^ -J iavT6v -rjv -6 himself her^ 

or avrov -^ff aur^ -^ atrrc^y -^v -o W?/^ itself 
In the plural, both stems are declined together.: 
Plana Gen. M.P.N. Dat M. N. P. Ace. M. P. 

1st person r^frnv avrav ruiiv avrois -air ^fias avrovs -as Ourselves 
2d person vfxS>p avTS>» vfiiv avrois 'at? Vfiat avrovs 'as yourselves 

3d person oxf>»v avrav at^laiv avroU -als aipas avrovs -as themsehes 

Kent. 0^'a avrd 
Yet the 3d person plural has also the compound form : 

iavrt^v iavrols -oif ^avrovs -as -a 

or avrSiv avrois -air avrovs -^s -a 

236. The indefinite pronoun aXXos other (Lat. alius) is inflected 
like axrroi (234). 

237. Becifrocal Pbonoxtn. This is formed from the stem of 
oXAos (236), compounded with itself, oAX-i/Xo (for oXX-oAAo). It is 
used only in the dual apd plural. 

M. P. N. 

Du. G. D. aXX^Xoiv oXXi^Xaiy aXX^Xoiv 

A. oXXi^Xo) aXXijXa oXX^Xm 

Plur. G. aXXflXoif dXXi)Xa)y dXX^Xtty 

D. aXXnXoir aXXi7Xa<r dXXi7Xotff 

A. dXXijXovff dXX^Xaf aXXijXa 

238. PossEssiYE Pbonouns. These are formed from the stems 
of the personal pronouns (231). 

ifi6s^ ^, 6v my, mine, from tfie, fffitrtpos, a, ov our^ ours, from ^fie. 

(Tor, 4, OP thy,' thine, from o-c. vfitnpos, a, ov your, yours, from i/xc. 

Ssy rj, ov his, her, its. from «. a(f)€r€pos, a, ov their, theirs, from o-^c. 

2.35 D. Hm. always haa the separate forms, even In the sing. : 4fik aW^, 

of airrw, not 4fjMur6v, iaur^, Fop ipavrov^ etc., Hd. has ^/acwvtou, etc ; 

and in like manner <rconrrov, Imvrov (11 D). 

238 D. Hm. has also r§6s (Doric, = tuns), k6s\ 'afUs our (properly Dcr.), 
'f^f, tr^s ; also (from the dual sterna fw, 0*^) ntirtpos^ tr^irtpos, helcnyxng 

Digitized by 





Rbv. a. OS is never used in Attic prose ; (r<f}(rtposy only in reflexive 
sense, their oten. The ending rtpos is the same with Uiat of the Com- 
parative (220). 

289. Demonstrative Pronouns. The Im^o most important are 
ovTO^, avTTj, rovTo this, tkatf 
oSc, 7ySe, t6S€ this (this here). 

ode is formed from the article and the demonstrative ending df (en- 
clitic) : it is declined like the article, with dc added to each form. 

olroi follows the article in respect to the A or < at the beginning. It 
takes av in the penult, wherever the article has an A-sound (a, 17) ; but 
ov, where the article has an 0-sound (o, «). 


6 17 r<$ 




olros avTTj rovro 


rov TTji Tov 




rovrov ravrrj? rovrov 


Tfi) Tu r<p 
rov Trjv r6 




roi/r^ ravrff rovrtj^ 





rovrov ravrrjv rovro 


r<» rd ra> 




roxrrto ravra rovroa 

roiv raiv roiv 




rovroiv ravraiv rovroiv 


oi ai rd 




ovroi adrai ravra 


r«v rSiV rav 




rovr<av rovrtav rovrcav 


ro7s raU roU 




rovroif ratals rovrois 


rovs rds rd 




rovrovs ravras ravra 

Rem. a. The adverb of oBt is 2»dc, that of olrros is ovras or ovra> (80 c) 
in this manner, thus, so. 

240. The demonstrative cVcTvor, cVctw;, cVeTvo that (that tJisre or 
yoTider) is declined like avrds (234). — For avrdt used as a demonstrative, 
see 6G9 c. 

241. Demonstratives of Quantitt/, Quality^ and Age. These were 
rdcrcKj Toto?, rrjkiKos, which occur often in poetry. In place of them, 
the Attic prose uses chiefly the strengthened forms: 

rofrovrosy roaravnj^ roa'ovro(v) such (in quantity or number)^ 
roiovros, roimjrij, TO(oOro(v) such (in quality)^ 

rrjkiKovrosy rijXiKavrrj, ryj\iKovro(^v) such (in age or size). 

to us (you) both. 'dfi6s (also written 'dfi6s) ia found in Att. poetry for ifi6s. 

Bs is sometimes used without reference to the 3d person, in the sense 

of own. 

239 D. In nm., the article itself is usually a demonstrative, and has the 
following peculiar forms: G. S. to7o, G. D. D. toTw, N. P. rotf raiy G. Fern. 
rdvv, D. rolo't^ TJj<r» or rys. For roTsSc Hm. has rois9€ir(rt or roisSetn. The 
forms Tof, to/, are also Doric. 

When used as demonstrative, 6, ^, 0/, a/ are often written with an accent, 
9, lit oT, ol 

Hd. has P. P. ro7(iri, r^ai; also r«io-£8(, TptrlSt. 

240 D. For ^ircT^i the poets have icstvos : of. 249 D. 

Digitized by 





These may be declined like otrof^ by putting ro<r-, roc-, n;XiJc- in place 
of the initial A or < of o^r. But the Nent N. A. S. has two forms, 
rotrovTo and roaovrov, etc. 

Emphatic domonstratives of similar meaning, roaosif^ roiordc, n/Xi- 
cJfdr, are made by adding the enclitic dc to the forms of rderof, rotor, 
njXtJcor, declined regularly (cf. ode, 239). 

242. The demonstrative pronouns are sometimes rendered more em- 
phatic by appending to the different forms a long accented i, before which 
the short yowels (a, f , o) are elided : ovrofi, avnjt, rovrt, rovri, 6di, roivbi^ 

243. Helatiye Pronoun. The relative 09, ^« o who, which, keeps 
the rough breathing throughout. 



i 5 

D. N. A. A a & 


* * If 
ot at a 



ht oS 

G. D. ohf aU oh 


2>v Siv i>v 



oh ah oh 



ovs as 3. 

Rem. a. or is used as a demonitrative in the phrases Ka\ ts (4nj and 
he eaidy ^ d* or hut he said. 

244. iNTEBBOGATiyE AND INDEFINITE Pronouns. These are 
alike in all but accent: interrogative rk, ri, whof which f what? 
indefinite rU, rl, enclitic, some, any. 


Sing. Nom. 

M. F. Wr N. W 
rtwr (jov) 
TIVL (r^) 
Tiva Tt 

M. P. rlr N. rl 
rti^r (jov) 
rivi (r^) 
rtvd t\ 

Du. N. A. V. 



. rivotf 

Plur. Nom. 

rivts riva 

Tivas riva 

rtwr rtva 


rivdt rivd 

Rem. a. The acute accent of rtr, rt interrog. never changes to the 
grave (see 101). 

243 D. Hm. has also S for Bs, iov for ov, ci}5 for {5: the nom. sing, and pi. 
he sometimes uses as demonstratiye. 

Hd. has Hf, I}, ot, aX: for all other forms of the relative, he uses the article 

T^i rod, T^f , etc., except after certain prepositions : rap* f, i^ oZ. This use 

of the article (reforms) for the relative is often found in Hm., and sometimes 
even in Trag. 

244 D. The Ion. (Hm. Hd.) has 6. S. rco, rw^ D. Wy, G. P. r^mr, D. Woitri. 

Digitized by 



b. rov, r« are often used for rivosj V/w, and (with enclitic accent) for 
rtvoff, ripi. They must not be confounded with rov, raJ of the article. 

c. arra (never enclitic, Hm. acra-a) is sometimes used for the indef- 
inite, riyd. 

245. Another indefinite pronoun is dctra some one, sueh a one (Lat. 
quidam). This is sometimes used without inflection ; sometimes it is 
inflected as follows, without distinction of gender : 

Sing. 6 fi TO bftva Plur. btivts 

dcivoff dciVeay 

htiva dctvar 

246. Indefinite Eelative Pronoun. The indefinite relative 
ovrviy ^t9, o Ti whoy tohkh (indef.), is formed by uniting the relative 
OS with the indefinite ri9> each being separately declined. 

Sing. N. 





Plur. 01TIV€£ 

aiTives ariva 






aisTitri olsTitrt 




asrivas aripa 





G. D. oun-ivoiv 

aumvoiv ohrripoiv 

For the way of writing o ri or o,n, see 113 a. 

Rem. a. The forms tov, tw (= rtwJv, rivt) are also found in connection 
with Off, but before these tlie stem 6 is used without inflection : Gen. 
oTou, Dat. or^. So also, but less often, Gen. PI. or«v, Dat. orouri. These 
forms are masc. and neut., never fern. 

b. For ariva^ there is another form Utto, not to be confounded with 
arra = nvd (244 c). 

247. Correlative Pronouns. The following pronouns, corres- 
ponding to each other both in form and meaning, are called corre- 

246 D. Hm. has the following peculiar forms, in most of which the relative 
stem is undeclined, as it is in 6^6(roSf S-voios, etc. 

S. («T«) N. (8 TTi) P. N. Atrtra (for itrut, 60) 

Zrtv (Hrrto, Brrtv) Srtw 

JJtcv (244 D) Moiai 

(5tiw») N. (S tti) (Urtyas) N. Anra 

The forms not in () occur also in Hd. — ^In the Norn, and Ace, Hm. has 
also the usual forms ; so too in D. S. 5t^. 

247-8 D. For r6ffof, 8<ro», Hm. often has r6ir<ros, tvffos (once bfrvArtos), 
He often doubles w in the indef. relatives : dwiroiof , Sinrops (40 D). 

Hd. has K for w in the correlatives: K&rnpos^ icocSs^ dKotosy Kovf jcor^, 8irp, 
etc. Cf. Lat gu in quiB^ quoty qualiMf etc. 

Digitized by 








llelative, Indef. Bel. 


ris toho t 
which? what f 



ode this (here), 
oItos thin, that 

Off, offriff 
who, which 


which of two f 


one of two 

irtpoi the one or 
the other of two 

which of two 



ir<J<ro5 how 
much^ many? 

irotros of 
some qttan, 
or number 

(too-os) i so 
Toa6sd€ hnueh, 
ToaovTos ( many 

ocroff, OTTt^croff of 
which quan.^ num., 
(as much, m^ny) as 


iroios of 
what sort? 

noiot of 
some sort 

{toios) such 



otoff, ovolos 
of which sort, 
(such) as 



how oldf 
how large t 

of some 
age^ size 


TTJkiKosbei large 

fjXiKo?, omjXiKos 
of which age, size, 
(as old, large) as 

For the ending repoff, see 220. ' The form n/XiVoff is never used in 
Attic prose ; the forms roVor and roios, seldom. 

248. Correlative Adverbs are also formed from the same pro- 


Interrogative. ] Indefinite. 


Rel., Inde£ Kel. 





ivrav^a^ there 



whence ? 

TfoStV from 
some place 

eWfuSci*, thenc6 

oZfv, ojrd3cv 

whither ? 

noi to 

tv'Ha, €v^dd€, 
<Vra03a, thither 

01, OTTOl 




-TToW some 
time, eoer 

0T€, onure 

ftTwiKa at 
what time? 

(rqviKa) C at 
TTjuiKaBf * that 
TTjviKavra ( time 


at which time 


ng which 
way ? how ? 

irjj some way, 

rfjb€, TavTTf 
this way, thus 

which way, as 





U>9, &5c, OVTm(t) 

thus, so 

<i>£, OTTCOff 

as, that 

The indefinite adverbs are all enclitic (105 b). 

248 D. Poetic are vS^t = irov, ro^t = wo6, B^i = o5 ; r6^t there, rd-^tp 

fAe«c«;— — also ^/toi, r^pas (Dor. 2/«of, rafio;) = 6t«, rdrt, ^For Att. €»i 

as long a«, Tins so long, Hm. has also cfiwr, rt(»s (and sometimes ^Tqs, juosy 
thoagh not thus written in our texts). In the same sense, he has 6<Ppa, riSppa, 
Beside fj, he has the form fxh but uses both only in the loceU meanmg, which 
waUfVh^: for ir«i, ^iroi, he always uses x4tr€f ^vir^<rff,-^— For iy^vra, MtvrfPt 
inHd., Bee66D. 

Digitized by 



249. To the pronoun €K€1vos that (yonder), correspond the demon- 
BtratiTe adverbs of place, c icc I th^re, iKel^tu thence^ Ueiat thither, 

250. The demonstrative Ga does not occur in Attic prose, except in 

the phrases koL &s even thus, ou^ &t (firjd* &{) not even thus, For TrjvUa^ 

the Attic prose uses the strengthened forms in -aSf and -avra. In 

Attic prose, ci/da and Zi/Si€v are chieflj rehitive, cfSsa being used instead 
of ol and o(, «v3(v instead of oSey. 

251. The indefinite relatives (pronouns and adverbs) are made more 
indefinite by adding the particles oZv^ dff, brj frorc, dfi nor oZv : Ssrif ov» 
who (ichiehy what) soever^ oms 6^, orrif ^j} noT€^ osT^s Bri iror oiv: these 
are also written as single words, osrtsovv^ isrisdri^ ofrifd^orc, osrisBrjrroT' 
ovp. With the same force, tU is sometimes added to indefinite relatives : 
onoiSv Tis and even 67roi6s ris oZv of what sort soever, The same par- 
ticles are sometimes used in the same way with the ordinary relatiTres, 
but hardly in the Attic writers. 

The Qnclitic trip gives emphasis to relatives (definite and indefinite) : 
oo-oi ir€p of which nurnber precisely, wsirrp just as, ovv is sometimes added 
after it : wsTrtpovv. 

252. Observe also the negative pronouns and adverbs : o(frir, / -Wtr 
no one (poet, for ohhtUy fiTjBeU^ 255 ; in prose only o0rt, firjri not at all), 
ovbtTfpos, fxrjbtTfpos neither of two, ovbafiov, firfbaiwv nowhere, ovdafij, 
firjBaft^ in no way J oifdafiw?, fiTibap,S>£ in no manner, with some others of 
similar formation. ' 


253. The words which express number are of various classes , 
the most important are given in the following table : 

249 D. For iKst, etc., the poets use icci^i, icti^tp, Ktitrt (240 D). 

260 D. The dem. &s (distinguished by its accent from the rel. &s as, 112) 
is frequent in poetry : in the sense yet, it is sometimes written ws: koX &s and 
yet. The poets have also nis = ourus. 

253 D. For the first four cardinal numbers, see 255 D. 

Hm. has for 12, Sc^Scica, Zvd^HeKo, and Svoxa^Scica; £0, cYiroo-i and UtKOfft; 
30, rpvtiKoyra; 80, oyB^Koyra; 90, itfttrfiKoina and iyyiiKoyra; 200 and 300, 
diriKSa-ioif Tpt'riK6crioi\ 9,000 and 10,000, iwtix^Xoi, BfKdxi^oi, He has also the 
ord. 3d, rpiraros; 4th, T€TpoToy;'7ih, ifi^paros; 8th, 6yB6aros\ 9th, cfvaros; 
12th, ivwUKoros; 20th, ieiKotrros; together with the Attic form of each. 

lid. has 8v<i)8€«ca (BtmB^Koros), rpiiiKoyra (rpt'tiK0frr6s), iyBf&Koyra, 8ii}K<((rioi 
(9i'jKO<rio<rT6s)i TpiriK6<rtoi : for Kyaros he has etyarotf and so cIvcLrts, tlmucStrioi, 

Por. ^Kort for ftKoai, Aeol. rripxt for x€VT€f cf. ord. W^irroi. 

Digitized by 





Cardinal Kombera. 


Num. Adverbg. 



fir, /iux, €v one 


drral ones 








Tpciff, rpia 




riatrapts^ rivaapa^ 



or TtTrapfij -a 
























ivaKis (finfOKis) 




































iirraKatbi KOTOS 








€W€aKaibf KOTOS 
















































didjcdo-toc, a£, a 





rpuiK6aiot^ ai, a 




TfTpaKdirMi^ at, a 




TTcvrdicdcrtot, at, a 




cf dKoorioi, at, a 




cTrrdKoo-tot, at, a 




dfcrdicoo'tot, at, a 




f wd/cdo-tof, at^ a 




XtXtoi, ai, a 



. 2,000 


disx^^^h °h <> 




Tpisx^^'^h <>ii Q 




fjLVpioi, at, a 



254. Notation. The letters of the alphabet are sometimes used in 
unbroken succession to denote the series of numbers from 1 to 24. Thus 
V is used for 21, being the 21st letter of the alphabet. The books of the 
Iliad and Odyssey are numbered in this way. 

Digitized by 


76 NUMERALS. [254 

But generally the letters are used as in the table. Those from a to 
denote units 1 — 9, r {Stigma) being inserted after c' for the number 

6, Those from i to tr' denote tens 10---80, <j' (Ebppa) being added after 
n for 90. Those from p' to «' denote hundreas lOO— -800, ^' (Sampi) 
being added for 900. For the thousands (1,000—900,000). the same 

chaxucters are used again, but with the stroke under the letter. Thus 
^Tfjid' = 2344, ,a«i/3' = 1859. 

Bem. a. Stigma (5 b) in this use takes the place of Digamma (23 D). 
Eoppa and Siumpi, like Digamma, were letters of the primitive Greek 
alphabet, which became obsolete except as numeral signs. 

255. The cardinal numbers from 1 to 4 are declinable: 

1. th iild ev 2. N. A. dvo 3. rpc(f N. rpia 4. rtaadptg rta-trapa 

Ms fuag €v6i G. D. duoly rpi^v . re crcapttP 

ivi Ilia ivi rpuri ^ rtaaapai 

€va iii&v €P rpfls rpla riaaapas rtwapa 

Like cff, are declined oudcir, olbtfila^ ovbiv^ and firjbdf, no one : these 
are found also in the PI. They are sometimes divided by tmesis (of. 477), 
av or a preposition being interposed : firj^ hv c tr, ovbi nap* Ms. 

Avo is sometimes used without inflection. A rare form for dvoiv is 
f^vup (used only in the gen.). 

For a-a- in riaaapts and all its forms, rr is also used (41). 

For hoth^ we have a^0a> (Lat ambo), G. D. a/i0otv; also the plural 
word dp<f>6T€poi^ oi, a, to which belongs the neut. sing. ap,<f)6Ttpov used 
adverbially (228). 

The cardinal numbers from 5 to 199 are indeclinable. 

256. For 13 and 14, we often have separate forms, rptU jcat d«xa, 
Ttaaaptt ical dc/ca. Separate forms are also found for the ordinals 13th 
— 19th : rpiTos Kai dc/caror, etc. 

When the numbers 20, 30, etc., are connected with units by xai and, 
either number may precede : ctxocrt xai itivrt or vivrt jcai ciicocn ; but if 
Koi is not used, the larger number must precede : eixoo-i n-cWc 25. So 
also Uarbv bUa 110, etc. The 21st is expressed by €4? Koi tlKoaroi or 
npS>Tos Koi ((leooTor or riicocrros npS>Tos ; and in like manner, other ordinals 
of the same kind." 

The numbers 18, 19 are commonly expressed by Mt (or ivoiv) dcoi^cr 
(Xkoo-i twenty wanting one or two. So 28, 29, 38, 39, etc. ; vavai pias 
dfovaais ir€vrriicovra with 49 ships. So too the ordinals: dvolv btovri 
Tpicucoar^ cm in the 2Bth year. 

255 D. 1. Hm. has also Fern, fa, tijs, tp, Yav, with I)« S. masc. V 
2. Hm. has 5<$o and 8^«, both indecl. ; also Du. 9oi^, PI. ioioi, at, d, D. 

801010-1, A. 9oio6sf dsf d. Hd. with 5^, BvoWf has G. P. 8u«v, B. tvoT(ri ; also 

iio indecl. 

4. Hm, with ri^^apts baa wi<nip€s (Aeol.).^— Hd. rdfffrtpts (so 14 tcco-c- 

^ctJcofScica sometimes indecl., and 40 rtvo'tpiiKorra). Dor. rlropts, D. rirpaffu 

Of oMc/f, pufi^lst Hm. has only oMcV, p!nUvy M€vi\ cf. 252. 

Digitized by 


259] MUICEEAUI. 77 

257. The cardinal numbers from 200 on, and all the ordinals are re- 
gular adjectives of three endings. 

The ordinals have superlative endings (222) : only bfvripos second 
has the ending of a comparative (220). 

To the ordinal class belong noWoarSs (many-eth, following many in 
a series) and the interrog. noaros (how-many -eth, having what place in a 
series ?), with a corresponding indet rel. Svootos. 

Mvpioi, paroxjtone, has the meaning numberless ; also sing, fivpios 

258. From the same numeral stems are formed several other classes 
of numeral words : 

a. Distributives, with auv : aMvo two together, two by two, avvrptu 
three by threCj = Kara Hvo^ Kara rpcir, etc. 

b. Multiplicatives, in nkovs (from nXoos, Lat. plcx) : AirXovs simple, 
^iirXovt twofold, TpmXovs threefold, nfiTanXovg fivefold, etc., TroXXaTrXoOs 
manifold. Also hivfro^ double, Tpta-a-6s treble. 

Further, multiplicatives in TtKavMs: dinXdaws twice as many (dU 
rotrovToi), rpinkda'ios three times as many^ etc., iroKKaiiKdvios many times 
as many. 

c Adverbs of Division: notnxS (m^^os alone) in one part, single, 
dtxa or dixS ^^ ^^0 parts, rpixn ^^ ^^^^ parts, etc., n-oXXox^ in many 
ways, vavraxj every way. 

d. Abstract Nouns of Number, in diX /loifds (jiovab) the number one, 
unity, bvdt the number two, rpids, rvrpds, ntiinds, i(ds, i^ofids, oydodr, 
iwfds, dcicdr, cixdr, iKorovrds, -j^iKids, fivpidsl hence rpcir fxvpiddts = 

259. Closely connected with numerals are such general expressions as 
€KdT€pos (with comparative ending) either (of two), 

€Kaaros (with superlative ending) ea/ih (of any number), 

irar, fraca, irav (ttavr') all, every. 

Observe also the general adverbs in oKig ; noWdius many times, often, 
ituurrdKie each time, roa-avrdxis SO often, oaaKif as often as, irXfco-rdirtr 
very often, oXcydxi; seldom. 

267 D. Hm. uses onlj fx^ptoi proparoxytone, and always in the sense of 

258 D. b. nd. 9ti6s, Tpt^6s, for iuraif, Tpu/v6s\ Siw/JicioSf rpiirK^ffios, etc., 
for "Wkia-ios. 

c Hm. has 9(xa and 8ix3c(» rplxa and rpi^pi, rerpax^d ; also rpixky^ 

259 D. Adverbs in dnis sometimes lose s in poetry : dcadxt Hm., see 80 D. 

Digitized by 





260. Voices. The Greek verb has three voices, active^ mid^ 
cBey said passive. 

Rem. a. Many verbs are used only in the actiTe Yoioe : and, on the 
other hand, many verbs— called d^>onent — are never used in the actiye, 
but only in the middle yoice (or middle and passive). 

261. Modes. Each voice has six modes: 

the indicative, subjunctive^ optative^ and imperative; 
the infinitive, smd participle. 

Hem. a. The first four modes (finite modes), taken together, make 
up the finite verb^ — that is, the whole verb, strictly so called. In their 
inflection, they distinguish, not only three numbers^ singular, dual, and 
plural; but also three persons, first, second, and third, in each number 
(230) : thus they are more definite (finite) tnan the other two modes. 

Rem. b. The infinitive and participle have a mixed nature. Essen- 
tially they are nouns, the infinitive being an indeclinable substantive, the 
participle an adjective of three endings ; yet they both share to some ex- 
tent in the properties of the verb. 

Rem. c. The verbal adjectives in t6k and rcor are analogous to parti- 
ciples, though much less clearly distinguished from ordinaxy adjectives. 

262. Texses. The tenses of the indicative mode are seven: 
the present, and imperfect (for continued action) ; 

the aorist, snd future (for mdefinite action) ; [tion). 

the perfect, pluperfect, smd future perfect (for completed ao- 
The tenses of the other modes are three : 
the present (for continued action) ; 
the aorist (for indefinite action) ; 
the perfect (for completed action). 
The subjunctive and imperative have onit/ these three tenses. 
But for the optative, infinitive, and participle, there are two 
tenses more, — Sk future, Bnd future perfect. 

263. The tenses of the indicative are also distinguished as 

1. principal tenses: the present, future, perfect, stjid future 
perfect (which express present or futare time) ; 

2. historical tenses: the imperfect, aorist, Kad phiperfect 
(which express past time). 

262 P. The fatare optative !b seldom, if ever, found in Hm. ; the faturo 
perfect optative, never. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

866] . VERBS. 8TEHS. TENS£-SYST£MS. 79 


264. a. The passive voice has £( distinct form only for the 
aorist and future. In the other tenses, the middle form has 
both a midme and s, passive meaning. 

b. The active has no form for the future perfect (394 a). 

265. Stems. Roots. PEmrnvE and Deexvattve Vkebs. 
The stem is that part of the verb which belongs to all the 

forms in common, and from which they are all made by the 
proper additions and euphonic changes : stem Xv, Pres. Xv-w to 
loosCj Aor. €-Xv-<ra, Fut. Perf. Xc-Xv-cro/wu ; stem rifta, Pres. rt/xo-o) 

to honOTy Plup. €T€-T«fMj-IC€W. * 

From the verb-stem are derived also stems oinouths (both substantive 
and adjective) by adding the proper endings or suffixes (454) : Xv-ai-r aci 
of hosing^ Xv-r^p looser, Xu-rpo-v ransom (means of loosing) ; rtpiy-o-t-s 
act of estimating, Tiiirj-rri's appraiser. 

A noun-stem, fonned thus with its derivative suffix, may be used 
(often with some change of form) as the stem of a verb. Such verbs are 
said to be derivative. Thus riftd-tt is said to be a derivative verb, be- 
cause its stem is that of the noun n/x^ honor^ and is derived, by the suffix 
fid, from the stem of rt-A> to esteem. These verbs are also called denomi- 
native (de nominibus), as being derived from nouns. 

But when the stem of a verb contains no derivative suffix, the ste:*A 
is called a root^ and the verb is said to be radical or primitive: Xv-a>, 
rt-a. The roots are nearly all of one syllable (originally all were so) ; 
the derivative stems, of two or more syllables. 

Rem. a. A derivative verb, as just described, comes from a primitive 
verb, through an intermediate noun (though often one or both of these 
are out of use) : thus Tifia»^ from t/o), through riiii). Yet a few deriva- 
tive verbs are made directly from primitives, with no intervening noun 
(cf. 472 k). 

266. Tense-Ststems. In the formation of its different parts, 
the verb divides itself into the following systems of tenses: 

'1. iho present system including the JPres. and Imperf 

2. theftUure system " JFut. Act. and Mid. 

3. thefrst aorist system " 1 Aor. Act. and Mid. 

4. the second aorist system " 2 Aor. Act. and Mid. 

6. XhQ first perfect system " 1 Perf. and 1 Flup. Act. 

6. the second perfect system " 2 Ferf and 2 Flup. Act. 

7. the perfect middle sysiem^^ Ferf.^Flup.^^Ti^JE%it. Ferf. Mid. 

8. the first passive system " 1 Aor. and 1 Fut. Fass. 

9. the second passive system " 2 Aor, and 2 Fut. Fass. 

264 D. In Hm., the passive form is nearly confined to the aorist (305 D). 
The place of a future passive he supplies by the future middle used in a passive 
sense (879)^ 

Digitized by 


80 VEBBS IN O AND ML [266 

Kbm. a. The tenses called secmd are of earlier formation than the 
corresponding first tenses. The Terb» which have the former are com- 
paratively few, and are, nearly all, primitive verbs (265). Sometimes, 
though not often, the same verb has loth forms of the same tense. 

Rrm. b. Hardly any verb is nsed in all the systems. In general, 
verbs of full inflec^on have but six of them (cf. Rem. a.). In many cases, 
the number used is less than this. Some verbs are confined even to a 
single system. 

Rem. c. In describing a verb, it is usual to repeat the first person in- 
dicative of every system used in it : thus \vo (I) to loose. \vaa (2), 
cXvcra (3), \€\Mga (5), XcXv/iai (7), cXudi/y (8) ; Xctiru (1) to leave, XciVo 
(2), eXiiroi* (4), XtXotira (6), XcXcc/A/icu (7), iXti^lSrfv (8) ; fiovXofiat (de- 
ponent) to WWA, ^ovkriaotuu (2), Pi^vkrjfuu (7), c/SowX^Siyv (8). 

267. Verbs IN O AND Verbs IN MI. Verbs are distinguished 
thus according to the inflection of tho present system. The name 
in each case is taken from the last syllable of the first person 
singular, present indicative active : Xv-<a, rC^rj-fu. 

L Verbs in w. These take connecting vowels between the 
stem and endings in the present system. In number, they are 
more than nineteen-twentieths of all verbs. 

n. Verbs in fu. These are without connecting vowels be- 
tween the stem and endings in the present system. They are 
of earlier formation, and are, nearly all, primitive verbs. 

A similar variety of inflection is also found, though less often, 
in the second ctarist svstem ; and, still less often, in the second 
perfect system* In these systems also, the forms without con- 
necting vowels are called iLv-forms^ even though the present of 
the same words has the inflection of verbs in oi. 

268. Meaning of the Voices^ Modes, and Tenses, This will be ez- 
pliuned at length in the Syntax. In the mean time, the English forms, 
which represent their ordinazy meaning, are given with the annexed 
Synopsis of the verb Xvo to loose. For the middle voice, the English 
forms are not given: but they are easily obtained firom those of the 
activoj by adding a reflexive pronoun, which, for this verb, must follow 
the preposition for : Xv^rofjuu I shall loose for myself, ^<^ov he-tJiou loos- 
ing for thyself XwcraaSat to loose for on^s self, 

Bem. a. When a verb is referred to in the dictionary or the grammar, 
it is usual to give the first person singular, present indicative; but, 
when the meaning of the verb is added, it is expressed by the infinitive : 
thus Xvo> to loose, 

NoTs. b. The vowel v in the present and imperfect of \v» is usually 
long (in Hm. usually short). It is always long in the future and aorist, 
active and middle ; always short in the perfect and pluperfect of all voices, 
the aorist and future passive, and the verbak. 

Digitized by 





>d &• S^ O 5P ►H tH 
.1 •"» 44 f* p* pL a* 

W ^^ ^^ V *, V 

w v>' vsT p 

C C C ChC» V c 

5 2 2 5 5 Ch 5 
K t ^ 

Ch Cl C» «•» C% >' C»CxC*C 


hd tr" S* O 03 •-• «-• 
59 2.B»a c P 3 

' S e s e 

e 2 

f: q q *^ ^ ^*^ 

2 8 § 0-5 "^ 

§ 8 i - 

9 9 9*' 

^ a-ii 

J*2 2 2 e S ^ 

•3 2^ 





Digitized by 







to loose 


MiDDLK (Passive). 


Present, I Imperfect. 


1 Imperfect | 









XiJ-iy, Xv-ffi 


































Present | 


































































P. 2 




Xv-c-T«(rai' or 


Xu-c-cSwcrai' or 



Xv-€^3a& 1 















Digitized by 







First Aorist System, 






Fint Aorist. | 






Xva-ffy Xva-ei 















































XvtraiSy Xvatias 




Xvacuy Xvo-ctc 



















Xvaat€v, Xvtrttdv 













Xvo-drAxrav OF 

Xvada^caaap Or 



























Digitized by 








First Perfect System. 

Per/ec^ if ttWfe 


MiDDLi (Passive) 

1 1 1 Perfect. 1 1 Pluperfect. 

Perfect 1 Pluperfect 

S. 1 









































c-XcXvic-fo-ov ' 

1 I 1 Perfect. 1 


S. 1 


XcXvfw'i^^f (-17,-ov) £ 








/' J 




XfXv/if y-tt (-0,-0)) ^rov 




" ?rov 




XcXvficy-oi (-at,-a) ^ficv 





" i7i 

S. 1 

XfXvKotfii or XfXvKOfi^p 

XcXvix€V-off (•»7»-o»') "J?" 


\t\vKOit \t\vKoirjg 




XeXvicot \t\vKoirj 





XfXv/icp-tf (-a,-fi>) cti^roy or cirov 



XeXvKolTJjv XcXvjcoA^n^y 


XiXvKOififv XtXvKoirffiiV 

XfXv/ievoiiraira) etrjixtp €ifi€P 
" ctiyre eirt 


XcXvJCOtrr XcXvico/i^rc 


XfXvKouv X€XvKoiri<rav 

" €Lfja-ap tlfP 

S. 2 














P. 2 





XcXvjccnvcrair or 

XfXt/(r3a>0-ay or 





















Digitized by 



piRASiaMS or 



-Ftr»^ Passive System. 

Middle (Pass.) 


Futare Perfect 1 lAoriat. 1 1 Future. | 


XtXvtrjfi^ XfXvcrct 
















Xv3^977, Xv3^(r(i 























Xv3(/nroy Or Xv3f troi^ 
Xvdctiyn;!^ Xv3fiTi7y 
Xv3c(i;fi€y XvScIftcv 
Xi/3€ii;r« Xt/3€iTC 
Xt;3((i;o-ay XdHtUp 














Xv3}^r«»(ray or 


















Digitized by 








Second Aorist System. 

Second Perfect System. 

to leave 






2 Aorist. 1 

2 Perfect I 2 Pluperfect 

S. 1 













































1 1 2 Perfect | 






































XfXoiTTotfAi or XcXoiiroc^v 




XcXoiVoir XtXotnoirft 





XfXocVoi XfXotTTo/i; 





XfXoifroirov XcXociro/nroy 
X€XotnoiTfjp XtXoinoifjTTfp 









XcXoiVocfici^ XcXoifro/7/uicp 




XcXoiVoirc XtXoinoifjT€ 





XtXoiirotcP XtXatrroiij(rap 



















P. 2 






XtYTcrtto-ay or 

X&irca3a>(ray Or 

XcXoitrerttcray or 



1 X€Xonr6vTap 




\ XtXotniptu 






















Digitized by 







Second Passwe System, 

to send 


2Aori8t. • 1 2 Future. 









OTitkjfrjf^ o-roX^o-ft 


1 1 



















(rroXccV'*'' *^^ OTaX€iroi» 
OToXciiyn^y aTaKdniv 
ordKeirfiitif arakrlfifif 
OToXctV* crroXfirc 
(rraXtirja'av ffrakeUv 











P. 2 



irraXijraxrav or 














Digitized by 






to honor. 

Present System of 
Contract Verbs m aco. 













Ti filaoiio-fMai 






















Tifi(doi)^-fu or rt/x^aoi^ 

rc/if doi^^ r(fi(aoi 

Tt/ifdo«)^-Tov rifi(aoi 

Tifi(aot)<)i'Trjv rtfifaot 

rt/xfdotl^fKJ' Ti/Araot 

Tifildou^^e Tifi(aoi 




















rifirac m-rco(ray or 



Tifi(ai)d-<y?i»<rap or 








Digitized by 




Digitized by 






^Xo-o) to 

Present System of 
Contract Verbs in ow. 


Middle (Passite). 











u or d) 





OV dl 


■771/ dl 

l€l/ dl 


e b^ 












^X(o€)ou-Ta)(rai/ or 

di;X(o<)ou-o'3a)<rav or 














Digitized by 







gr Future System of 

First Aoriat System of 
Liquid Verba* 



AcTiYi. Middle. 

Fature (contracted). | 1 Aoriat. | 





(fMplJ, <l)aP€t 














(fMP-oifJii^ -oirjp 
(fxuMiis,, 'oitjs 

(fxiP-oiTOP^ 'oirfTOP 
fJKiP-oiTriP, 'Otri'njp 

<f>ap-oiT€^ 'oirjTt 
<l>ap^i€P^ -oirj<rap 









if^ripai£^ <l)fiP€ias 
<f)riP<Uy <l>rjptit 
(liTivaup^ <t}r\p^iap 



(l>rjpai<T^rjP , 






(fnjpdraaap OF 







iprjpda^Qifrap or 


(t>aP€ip 1 <^veT(r3ai 



<t>apa>p i qyapovfi€Pos 
xftapovaa ' (japovfitpfj 
<f>apoiip 1 fj.aPOvfi€Pop 
tl>apovPTO£ \ KJapovfi€POv 
<l>apov<njf 1 (i apovfifwis 









Digitized by 






Perftct Middle and 

Pure Verbs, 
with added <r. 

Liquid Verbs, 


rrXco) (rcXe) 
to complete 

OTcXXft» (oreX) 

to show 



S. 1 









TfrcXe-cr-^fvot ctcrt 








€vrdk}Uifoi tl<rl 





S. 1 













€aTdKfi(voi ftrav 







Per/. Sub. 

rffrcXro-ficvof & 

tardkiuvos & 

v«<f)a(rfxivos & 

P&rf, Opt. 

rcrcXe<r/Acyoff erJ7i» 

€ardkfX€vos iltfv 

7r€(f>a<rfut/os fiiyjf 


S. 2 


P. 2 





rfTcXe-orftwotii' OF 




coToX3tto-av or 



Perf, Inf, 




Per/. Par. 




Fat. Perf. 










lFut.Ind.\ TeXf-<r-3^<rojuun | | 


Digitized by 





First Passive Systems of 

Mute Verbs. 

to throw 

aXXdo-o-o) (aXXoy) 1 eXcy;^^ (jtXryx) 
to exchange \ to convict 

fff i3a) (trra) 
^0 persuade 



fppififiipot tltri 








riXXaypt¥Oi tltri 








tXriXryfitvot fieri 



ntntiapipoi ttcri 








rjXXayfAtvoi ^creip 








fXTJXiyfiivoi rj(rap 








7rinu<rpfPoi ^trap 

ippippivos 2> 

rfX\ay}uvos la 

tXrjXtypivos & 

n(n€tap€Pos & 

fppipfUvos iujv 

rjXXayfuvot tuiv 

tXrjXtypipos (iTjv 

frtirtia-fjJpos tLijp 



tp^^^^oy » 



ippiif/iwrav or 







nXXdx'5i<o<ra» or 







fXrjXiyx'Siao'ay or 






frcTTcto-dcDO-av or 


a;^3at | fXrjXiyx'^ai 1 nfirtta^at \ 



iXrjXfypipos | ntntiayikvos 









liriaopm I fftftcra^o-o/iai 

Digitized by 






Synopsis of rlfui^ to honor. 

Pr. Impt Active. Futnr* Active. 

Aorist Active. 

Pert Plnp. Active. 













Tift^fUj -arjv 




























rcrifirjpfpos & 





T«rifjajpL€Pos cii;v 

















Fut Pert 























Srjpd-fa to hunt 

Pr. Impt A. 

Future A- 

Aorist A. 

Perf. Plnp. A. 





























^rjpdaap > 

















rt^Tjpafifvoi & 





TtZrjpafiiPos €iTjp 



















, u 



1 if 






1 1"^ 






Digitized by VjOOQ IC 






to iove. 


Fatim A. 


Ptrf Plup. A. 










<l>ikoifu^ ^iriv 















It P. 









ir€<fnXrffififos i> 




irt<fn\ri}i€voi ttrfv 














Fut Pert 



ntcfyiKfiorofuu • 

- c S 













TtXeHo to complete. 

Pr. ImpC iu 

Future A. 


Perl Plup. A. 


rf\S> (tcX/ctw, 874] 









rcXoT/u, -o/i;i/ 

Ttkoifu^ 'Oirfv 























tT€T€\f a- flTJP 



rerikforfitvos 2> 




reTcXftr/x/ws €T7*» 














0? s 









Digitized by VjOOQ IC 






817X0-11) to manifest. 

Pr. Impf. A. 

Future A. 

Aorlfit A. 

Pert Plup. A. 






cdi7Xoi) (ra 







d^Xoifti, 'oirip 































dcdi^XcD/MPor & 





MrjXiniUpof ti9fv 








































areXXo) (oreX) to 5e?irf. 

Pr. Imp£ A. 

Future A. 

Aorltt A. 

Perl Hup. A. 













aTrXoIfii, -oti7i» 








OTfXXrip . 























€<rr(iXfi€Pos & 




ioToXfUPOs iirjp 












8 Future P. 







u § 














Digitized by 






^aiV<o (0av) to show (ini 

second tenses, to 



Fatare A. Aoilst A. 

1 Pert Flup. A. 

8 Perf Plap. A. 










^ (p^vv 




^ayot/ii, 'Oirjv (f>TipaifU 








if>av€iP <l}rjifai 




{fkxvav <f}rfyas 




M. M. 












ireifHurfifpog & <^p& \ 






m<tMV(ro [cTi;* 



0ay«4<r3ai ^ijrao-dat 



KfxumvfjLtvos <f)fjvdfievos v€(iKuriiivos 


1 Future P. lAoristP. 

2 Future P. 

<f>a»'Sirj(rofUU c^ai^i/v 




<f>ai^ri(roifir)v ipta^tifiv 


^y3]7(rc(r3ciA 0a»3$yai 


(fxu^ria'dfiipot ifimfiltis 



X€L7r<i} (AItt) ^ Uceve. 


Future A. 







































XrXe«fifi€vof & 




XfX€l/ifUPOS tttfV 










1 Future P. 


Fat Pert 









f /</< 






Digitized by 
















Pr. Jmpt A. 






parna (pt^) to threw. 
Fatiiro A. Aorist A. 













a. Less common are 2 Aor. P. ifft^, etc., 2 Fut P. 













S Peru Flap. A. 







€pptpfl(WO£ » 

tppipfjLfvos ea/p 




Fat Pert 




ft^mpM, etc 















Pr. Imp£ A. 



oAXooroxo (oXAay) to exchange. 
Fafcnre A. 



Aoriat . 



S Pert. Plop. . 



^Wa^dprfp rjWdyfiriP 

aXXd^tt/iai nXXayptpos & 

oKKa^Mfirfp ijWtryfims iUfP 

a\Ka(ai ^\a(o 

d\\d(atr^at nWd^flai 

d\\a^dp€vos riKkayfJLtPOg 

2 Aoriat P. 

I Aor. P. iiKKdx^t etc., 1 Fat. P. iJJ<axH<ro/uu. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


2 Future P. 







irci^co (irt^) to persuade^ Mid. to o5e^ 



PutoreA. AoriatA. 

IPerflPlup. A. 

2 Peril Plup. ik- 




frcfrM3a fruif 






• iTf to-a> . 











7r€i(r(iv frcto-at 




irctcTttP ireiaas 




FatnreM. AoristM. 

Peil Plap. M. P. 1 


' not used * i 
frffia-ofuu " ""'^ irtirturfiai | 


f cirfTTcta-fu/v 


ircTretcr/icyor & 

ntitroifirip irfftiratfii^v 

» v€ir(i<rfMvof ttfiP 





irr((rra2ku irctVacrSai 



vtiaofuvog muydii€vos] ntntiafuvot \ 

m FotuieP. 





u O 



^ ss 





a. Poetic 

u« 2 Aor. A. fhtt^v, etc., 

2 Aor. M. hn&Sfiny, 



l^l(fi> (€^18) 

to accustom. 


Fatare A. 


Pert Plnp. A. 


cdi^ (from €31- 



-y», 876) 


































ti^urfifvos Zi 




ftSiiafi^vot fujv 














f3ta3£ . 



. €3t<r3€ti7i» 






- — ,r^ —a 

Digitized by^ 




297. Present Systeniy 

rC^rifU (Se) to put. 


Middle (Passive). 


Present | Imperfect 



S. 1 



Ti-3c-fiai . 





€-ri-3i;-f, m3fcff 

Ti-3c-o-ot, t/3^ 

c-r4-3«-cro, -3ou 




€-Tl-3iy, cV(3f t 





























































Ti-'^f i'firjv .or Ti-3oi-;«;v 



rt-3ei-o Tt-3oi-o 




n-Sct-ro rt-3o«-To 



ri-3eii^ov or Tt-3€?-Tov 

m-3ei-<r3ov r*-3ot-cr3oi' 




Tt-^drjTtjv Ti'fSfi'^p 

Tt-3ci-<r3i;i' Ti-3oi-<r3i7i» 


ri'^iirf-fitp ri-^ii-fitv 

ri-3c/-/;ic3a Ti-3oA-ft€3a 


ri-Stftiy-Tc Tt-3fT-Tc 

rt-3€l-o-3€ Tt-3oi-(r3f 


Ti-3€ti7-(rav rt-3ct«-v 

ri-3€r-wo ri-3oi-vro 



T4'-3c-oro, TiSou 

















Tt-3€-r«crai' or 

r4-3e-a-36)(ray or 























Digitized by 





Ml'Form. 298. 

Siboifu (So) to give. 


Middle (Passiye). 

PreBent | Imperfect 







f-birbcu'Vj tbibovv 
^d(-d«>-r, t'bibovf 
f-bi'b»y tbibov 








i-bi'bo-aoy 'bov 






Present Present | 









bi-bS>-a^ov * 




bi-boin-rov OF bi-bol-rov 
bi-botfi-^y bi-boi-TJJv 
bt-boiTj'fuv bt-boi'fuy 
bi'boirj^€ bf^diTe 
bfboljj'arav bt-boU-y 











bi-b6'T<a(rav or 

bi-bo'troy bibov 



di-d(J-or3a>cray OF 
♦ di-do-<r3a)» 












Digitized by 





299. Present System^ 

icmffii (ora) to set. 


Middle (Passite). 

1 ] Present. | Imperfect 1 Present | Imperfect | 






















t-ora-co, toTo) 



























e-orai^-Tov or l-orai-^ov 
l-OTCUTfrrju I'OTClI-ttjv 
l'<rTairffitv i'<rTai-fi€V 
i-araiTj-Tf i-orai-re 
i-aratrf-crav i-araU'V 















i-ora-rftxrav. OF 

4-OTd-(rO, (OTO) 

4-OT<i-<r3fi>(raj/ or 







i-ard-yros ' 


Digitized by 





Wi'Farm. 300. 

^iiarv/u (Scuc-vv) to show. 


Middle (Passitk). 



1 Present. 










































































dctic-i'v-rtto'ay OF 

bt^K-vv-a^iOfrap or 














Digitized by 





. Second Aorist St/steniy 



tiStj/ii {$€) to put. 

Si'Sa»/.i (So) 

to give. 

aAot.l Acave. 


Active. 1 


S. 1 (ftiyica) 













































3fid-fuu r 





3.7-^ * 




































3€t-/ii7V, 3oifij;y 





3cT-o 3o<o 





3«r-T0 3oiro 





3ci-(r3oy etc. 





















3et»;-<rav, Or 


boifj'O-ap^ or 















































3€-T«orav or 

3c-c73aMray or 

d^Ttotrap or 

do-(r3ei}0'ai> or 










3ei(, 3cto-a, 3<-y 

3cV»«fi i;, oir 

dour, dovtra, do-i' 

dl>-/i€Wf, 7, Ol' 


3e-yrof, 9rt(n;r 

3ff-/icyov, i/f 

dfJ-i^of, dovcn/r 

do-fiivov^ rjs 

Digitized by 





303. 304. 

/S«»nci Per/ecr A^^tem, 

umjfjii (ora). 

Su-o) to enter. 

Lcmjfii (ora) to 5e^ 



2 Perfect A. 1 2 Pluperf. A. 

c-<TTiy-v stood 


(f<mfKa) stand 



























2 Perfect A. 








































arairj-a-av^ or 


{'(TTairfacw^ Of 







crrat-rc ' 



















bvTtaaav or 

tf-oTa-Tflxray or 





1 fii}-vat 


trroff, araaOf ard'P 

duff, dOora, du-y 

€-OT«f, C-OTOO-O, f-OTOff 

0TO*VrOF, cnYKTI/ff 

dv-vrof, dvcn/r 

^-OTwroff, i'trroanis 


Digitized by 




306. The elementary parts, which are comhined in the different 
forms of the verb, are the augment^ and reduplication ; the atenij 
original or modified ; the signs of voice^ tense^ and mode; the con- 
necting vowels, and the endings. 


307. The augment is the sign of past time. It belongs, there- 
fore, to the historical tenses of the indicative, the imperfect, 

aorist, BJid pluperfect. It has two forms : 

1. Syllabic augment, made by prefixing c. 

2. Temporal augment, made by lengthening an initial vowel. 
Rem. a. The syllabic augment is so named, because it increases the 

nimiber oisylloMes : the temporal augment, because it increases the quan- 
tity {time') of the initial vowel. 

308. The syllabic augment belongs to verbs beginning with a 
consonant: Xvw to loose, l-\vov, crrcAAo) to send, i'ordKrjv, piirro) to 
throw, l-ppuffa (43). 

men form with c : t-fitWov^ €-/3ovX<Jfii;i/, (-dvydfirfu. So in the Aor., ^-^wX- 
Xrifra or e-fuWrjaa^ etc. 

309. The temporal augment belongs to verbs beginning with a 
vowel: IjXawov from iXavva} to drive, wvctSifov from ovtiSt^ta to re- 
proach, 'ucirevara from "tKcrcwi) to supplicate, ^vfipiarBrjy from *vj3pt{o) 
to insult. a becomes -q : ^ov from ayio (a) to lead. 

SOY D. In Hm., tho augment, both syllabic and temporal, is often omitUd: 
X^e, lAawTf, |;^ff, for ^Ave, ffXavvc, cTxe- So also in lyric poets, and the lyrio 
parts of tragic poetry ; bat seldom, if ever, in the tragic dialogue. 

808 D. In Hm., initial A. is sometimes doubled after the augment (40 D) : 
i-hTdervrro (Tdtrtrofieu to pray). Similarly, /a is doubled in (l*fifta^€ learned, if in 
i-yvMw vere svfimming, <r in the verbs ctw to drive and trtlv to ekaJce^ and Z in 
the stem 8ci : i-irffwa drove, i-W^urt feared. 

a. The other dialects have only c as augment in ju^AAw, etc. ; so also the 
Att. Trag. 

800 D. In Hd., the temporal augment is often omitted; the syllabic aug- 
ment, only in the Flup. ^In the Dor., a by the temporal augment becomes 

a: ^r(24Db). 

Digitized by 


Si21 AuaiosMT. 107 

The long Yowelfl remain unchanged ; only d becomes rj : ifsXow from 
'dSXctf to contend, dt^ (i) to Tiear makes Siop (d). 

310. Diphthongs take the temporal augment in ih» first vowel: 
^a^avofiTp^ from aur^dvofjuu to percewCj (pfcrctpa from ohcrtiptu to pity^ 
yfi^ffiyfv from av^ to increase* 

But in av, oi, the first Towel sometimes remains unchanged : it is 
usually So in cv, and always so in tiy ov. Only ciVd^iu to conjecture 
sometimes has 27 : ^Kava, 

Rem. a. If a verb has the rough breathing; it is always retained in 
the augmented form. 

311. Augment of the Pluperfect The augment of the pluperfect 
is applied to the reduplicated stem : l-XcXvxetv. 

But if the reduplicated stem begins with a Yowel, it remains 
unchanged: (rrcXX«> to sendy Perf. foroXica, Plup. i<rrdXK€iv (not 
rjaTaXK€iv)i ouceo) to inhabit^ Perf. (pKi/Ko, Plup. <^ic^K<tv. But d#cov(i> 
/!0 hear^ Perf. aKrJKooy has in the Plup. usually i7io7KO€tv. 

Rem. a. The augment of the Plup. is often omittedyQTea in Attic: 


312. Syllabic Augment before Vowel-Initial. A few verbs be- 
ginning with a vowel take the syllabic augment : ayyvfju. to break, 
&fa. This with c is contracted to ct : iSiiat to accustom, el^i^oy 
(from €'€Siioy). Here belong 

aymjfu to break idto to permit 

^ia-KOfiai to be taken i2i{;<a to aeeustom 

Mdyta to please {kiaaui to turn 

dvolyoi to open cXico) to draw 

6f>d(o to see iirofiai to follow 

ovp<« to make teater €jrya{ofuu to work 

ttdfu to push tpn4o or ifmv(m to creep 

ttyffofuii to buy ioTida to entertain 

fxtt> to have, hold 
Here belong, further, the aorists ciXoy (alpim to take^ 450, 1) and €l(ra 
I set (431 D, 6). Cf. 2 Aor. of iiy/i* (0 to send (403, 1). 

Or these, opd«> to see and dp-oiyct to open have both the syllabic and 
the temporal augment at the same time : ioapnv^ dp-i^^a, 

311 D. Hm. liKfiXoTo for ^Xord Plup. 8 S. of ikairm («A«) to drive^ ^i^p- 
tiero from ip9l9-w to wupport^ &p^p§i for ip^t from tfnrufu (op) to reuse, 

812 D. To this series belong also ctXof (eX) to press, ttpv (sp) to join, ip6t» 
(§p6) to draw, Hm. forms i^pox^^t from otwoxo^w to pour out vfine, Ijp^canp 
and ^i^aivy from Mdpm to pUaee, In Hd., Sywutit, SfXicw, rro/uu, Ix* &re 
augmented as in Att. ; hMpwhtLS Impf. ||r9ayoy (iiySoror^X 2 Aor. caSoir: the 
rest usually (perhaps always) reject c, and Uke either the temporal aofment 
(so hkUrKOfuu, hpdat), or none at all (so kpoiym, idof, ipydCofiat, ii^4», wytoftai). 

Digitized by 




Rem. a. It is belieyed that all, or nearly all, of theeo Tcrbs began 
originallj with a consonant, f or <r : Sywfu, orig. Taywfu, Aor. cFajfa, 
Za$a ; cpiro), orig. (reptro), Impf. ctrf/m-or, ttpnov^ tlpnov. 

b. Irregularly, iofyrdCn to keep festival has the augment on the 
second Towel: i^pra^ov instead of ^opraCoi^, cf. 190 f. 

Augment of Compound Verbs. 

313. Componnds, consisting oi d^ preposition and a verhy take the 
augment after the preposition : €kif>€p(o to bring tn, cc?e</>epov, vpoq- 
ayci) to lead to, vp<Krjyov. 

The prepositions 1$, iv, avv recover their proper form before c: 
iKT€Cv<a to extend, iimofov, ifipaXXto to irwadey Ivi^aXkov, avXXeya) to 

collect, (TweXcfa. ^Prepositions ending in a vowel lose that vowel 

before c : diro</>€/xi> to bear aioay, dirc</>cpov. But ircpi and vpo retain 
the final vowel : vpo is often contracted with c : irpofiaCvin ta advance, 
irpovpajyov for trpoiPajLVov, 

314. Exc. In some cases the preposition has so far lost its separate 
force, that the compound verb is augmented as if it were simple : nxdcuda) 
to sleep. tKa'iivbov (yet also xoai/Odov), Ka^iC<o to sit^ iKa^ii^ov, Cf. d<f>itjpi 
(403, 1), Kd^rifxai (406, 2), dfi<t)i€vwfu (440, 1). 

Some verbs have a dottle augment : dvix^y^^ ^ endure^ fjptixdfjLfiv ; 
dvop'i6<a to set rightj fn^p'iovv ; ivoxKta to annoy, rf»a>x\ovv, — -So, also^ 
the two following, wnich are not in reality compound verbs : duurdm 
(from diaira mode of living\ cdci;r»y ; diaKovia (from diuKovos servant), 


315. Denominative compounds beginning with a preposition (265). 
Some verbs, beginning with a preposition, aro not compounds of a prepo- 
sition and a "^erb, but are derived from nouns already compounded : thus 
tvavTioofMu to oppose does not consist of <V and dvrioofiat, but is derived 
from the compound adjective tvavrios opposite.^^^uch verbs are prop^ 
crly augmented at the beginning: ^min-iov/xiyy ; poet, ivaifm to Ji;fU, 
2 Aor. rfvapov, fi«T€«>pt(ta to raise aloft (from iJL€T€a>pos raised aloft), 
€fi«T€d>pifoif. More commonly, however, they are augmented aft^ the 
preposition: cVxXi^o'td^co to hold an assembly (cxKXi^o-ia), cf cKXi/o-ia^ov ; 
inrtmreva to suspect (viroTrros suspected), vnwmvov , KaTnyopita to accuse 
(Karriyopos accuser), KOTj/ycJpovi'.— Irregularly, vapavopao to transgress 
law (from jrapd-vopot contrary to law) makes naprjvofxow (as if from mip- 
avo/xco)), napotvia to act like a drunken man (ndp'Oivos) makes iiraptovovv, 

316. Compounds oftZ and hvu Verbs compounded with hvs ill 
have the augment after the adverb, when a short vowel follows it : 
dvsapfm<o to be ill-pleased, bvsrfptarow (but dvsrvx^io to be unfortunate, 
cdufTvxovir).^— The same thing occurs also, though seldom, in com- 
pounds of €v well : tv€py(Tta to be a benefactor, tvtpytTovv or tvjfpymw, 

317. All other compound verbs are augmented at the Ijeginning : 
ddv/jico) to be dispirited, rj^vpow. 

Digitized by 




318. The redaplication is the sign of completed action. It" be- 
longs, therefore, ix>thQ perfect^ pluperfect, kh^ future perfect, through 
all the modes. It consists properly in a repetition of the initial 

319. Yerbs beginning Math a consonant repeat that consonant 
with c: Xv(i>, Xi'XvKa. A rough mute becomes smooth in the redu- 
plication (65 a) : ^^vm to offer, ri-SvKa, 

Exc. But when the reduplication-syllable is long by position, it 
omits the consonant and consists of c only. This applies to verbs 

a. with a dovhU eomonant C^ i^yfr: yjfMofAai to lie, t-^twyMi, not 

b. with tnjoa consonants, unless they are a mute and liquid : ariWa 

to send^ ([-arakKa, not ae-arciKKa ; ypd(f}a to write, yi-ypa(f>a, -But the 

stems icra and iiva make K€KTijfuu possess and fiifiirrjfiai remeniber. Gf. 
ir€irroi>Ka am fallen (449, 4), trtirraficu am spread (439, 3). 

c. with yv, yX, and, in some cases, /3X: ytyvo>aK(a (yvo) to Jsnoto, 
r-yvcDita, not y€-yva)iea ; ^Xaardvon (/SXaor-e) to sprout, i-ffkdfmiKa, also 

d. with p : ptWa> (/5t<^) to throw, t'ppi<t>a, not pt'ppi(f>a (43). 

Note. e. Instead of the reduplication, wo find cc in tTKriJM. from Xa/x- 
9dy«> (XoiS) to take, cTXi^xa from Xoyxdvo) (Xax) to obtain hy lot, eiXo^a 
fipom Xryoo to gather, Bt-€iXry/i« from dia-Xcyo/iai to converse (although 
Xcyo) to speah makes XcX^y/iat) ; also in ttprfKa {p€ 450, 8) have said, and, 
with rough breathing, in tlpaprai (jup) it is fated, 

320. Verbs beginning with a vowel lengthen that vowel (i. e. re- 
peat it in quantity). Thus the reduplication in these verbs has the 
same form as the temporal augment : Airtf o) to hope, ^Xiruco, opfidtDy 
to move, wpfjiTjKa, airopda to be at a Joss, -qTroprjKo, alplta to take, "QprjKa, 

818 D. The reduplication is regularly retained in Hm.; yet we find 5/x»- 

Tou (for SeS^x^rcu, Pf. 8 P. of Htx^nat to receive), -^tfuu, ecrrox (orig. Jttrfjuu, 

FcaTOi, from iyyvfit to clotlie), -Ipxaroi, tpxoro or i^pxatro (from lpy» or itpyoo 

to %huC) cf. Pf. oTSa kn<nio in all dialects. The loog a remains unchanged 
in the defective perfect participles, 'oHi/fciSf sated (Aor. Opt. 'aS^trece might be 
toted), and 'apnfiiros distressed. In 2 Pf. &wya order, a is not made long. So 
in Hd., an initial vowel in some words remains short in the Pf. 

819 D. Hm. has ftpvmtfi^pos soiled (for ififivw.); but, on the other hand, 
tpfju>p€ (for fU'fiopt) from fulpofuu to receive part, iir<rv/uu (for ct-mtfuu) from 
o-c^w to drive, like the verbs with initial p. In 8c£-8ofica and iti-iutfear (409 D, 
6), 9t(-9«yfMi greet (442 D, 8), the redupl is irregularly lengthened. The Ion. 
has reg. itcnuuu. 

Digitized by 


110 VEBB-ELEMEMTS. frTEM. [821 

321. Attic Reduplication, Some verbs, beginning with a, c^ o^ 
followed by a single consonant^ prefix that vowel and consonant : 
the vowel of the second syllable is then lengthened. This is called 
Attic reduplication. 

The vowel of the third syllable is cenerally short : aXct<^&) ((iXr6) to 
anoint, ak'rjkKfia^ aX-T]\tfifiai ; oKovci tonear^ oKrffKoa (39), but Perf. Mid. 
rJKovafiail opvaaa {ppvx) to dig^ op-ap^xa^ op^pvyfuu; (Xaufoi (cXa) to 
drive, fX-^Xa/ca, fX-fjKafuu J eXcWo to convict, tX-^IKryficu (391 b), etc.- 
Irregularly, tydpa (tytp) to wake has eyp-rjyopa^ the last letter of the stem 
being repeated, as well as the first two; but the Perf. Mid. is regular, 

322. E as reduplication he/ore a voweUinitial, The verbs mentioned 
in 312 have c for the reduplication also, and contract it with initial e to 
€1 : aypvfit to "break (orig. Taypvfii, Perf. rcraya), ? dyo, c3<f« to accustom, 

ftiiKa (from (-(3ii»x). opdto to see makes imp&Ka } ai^oiy» to open, dv 

€<^ya or ciK-eWa. The Stem ctx (not used in the Pres.) makes Per£ 

€-oLKa am like, ap2)ear, Piup. c-^xciy. Similarly the stem cd or 1^3 makes 
ci-coda am accustomed, 

323. In compound verbs, the reduplication has the same place 
as the augment. 

Stem and Changes of Stem. 

324. Stems are named, according to their final letters, vou}el'' 
stems, consonant-stems, mute stems, liquid stems, etc. 

Verbs are named according to their stems: thus mute verbs, 
liquid verbs. Those which have vowel-stems are commonly called 
pure verbs. 

The original stem may be modified in form by various changes. 
They are especially frequent in the formation of the present system. 
In reference to these changes, we distinguish the following 

821 D. In Hm., more verbs receive the Attic redupl., and sometimes with* 
out lengthening the vowel after it : ix-dKripuu wander from ii\d-ofiai to wander, 
ii\-a\vKTri/iai am distressed (of. Hd. it\.vKTd(e» to be dietreseed), Ap^pa am fitted 
from iipafia-KM (op) to fit, 4p^pcrro from io^iww (tplir) to overthrow, ^S-c^Swrrcu 
(st. o5vf, Aor. i^vcdfi-nvy 55, became wroth), tp-wpa am roused from tpwvpj, (op) 

to rouse J etc. and with inserted y» 4fUf-^fAVKa from jifi^ to bow the head; 

also the defective perfects, ikif^ro^t issues (or issued), iT-tv^yo^* is (or 

was) close upon. For ix-ax-fi^yos sharpened, see 46 D. Hd. has irreg. 4p- 

alpriKa from alp4-w to take, 

822 J), For ^ntba, Hm. haft also ll-«9^ (Hd. only lf»^) : the orig. stem 

was perhaps trrri^, Pf. c-<rro0i^^ (25). Further, Hm. has flKvw (rcXir) to cause 

to hone, Ff. ioK-wa hope, Plup. <^Xirc;y, and tp^ (r«f>7» £og* w>rk) to do, P£ top^ 
ysy rinp. i^pytiy. 

Digitized by 


828] CHAKQES OF 8TE1C. Ill 

Glasses of Yeiibs. 

^25. I. First Class {Stem- Class). The stem appears without 
change in the present : Xv-o), TiiiA-ui (contr. ti/u!>), /ack-<i) to remain^ 
rphr-ia to turn, a-y-co to lead, / 

326. II. Second Class {Ftvtracted Class). These lengthen a 
hhiJrt a, £, V of the stem to rj, «, cv respectivelj. In most of them, 
the short stem appears only in the 2 Aor. and 2 Fat. 

Here belong a number of mute stems, as r^ie-o> (tAk) to melt, Xtiir-ta 

(Kin) to leave^ ^fvyta {<f>ijy)<oJUe; -also a few stems in v, which lose 

this vowel in the Pres. by 39 : thus 3e-o> (for 3(u-o>, st 30) to run, x«"» 
(xp) to pour. 

Some verbs of other classes (especially cl. 5, 437 N) have, in particular 
tenses, a similar lengthening of the short vowel : Xafi^dva (\d^) to take, 
Fut. X^^ofuic (= Xtj^-aofiai) ; tpxpfiai cl. 9 (epXi ^X\i%) to come, Fut. Iktv- 
voyxit (= cXcvd-o-ofiac). 

327. III. Third Class {TaurClass). The stem assumes r in 
the present. Here belong many stems ending in a labial mute 
(tt, P, ^) : TUTTT-tD (tCtt) to Strike, KoXuTrr-o) (#caAvJ8) to cover, pdirT-io 
(Po40 to dip, dye. 

Rem. a. Whether the stem of these verbs ends in ir, or p, or <^, can- 
not be determined from the Pres. It may be ascertained by referring to 
the second aorist, if this is in use, or by referring to other words con- 
nected with the verb in derivation; e. g. to the 2 Aor. c-rwr-iyi^, •-^d^-i/v, 
or the noun koXvjS-i; eainn, cover, L 

328. IV. Fourth Class {Iota-Class). The stem assumes i in 
the present. This occurs in palatal, lingual, and liquid stems : it 
always occasions euphonic changes (see 58-61). 

a. Palatals with t produce or<r (later Attic tt) : ^vAxurcr-u) (for 
<^vXaKt-(i)) to guard, racra-^iJi (for rayt-o)) to arrange, Tapaxrcr-oi (for 
rapaxirw) to disturb. 

axno (ttw) may arise from a lingual, and even from a labial stem : 
see 429^0. 

Rem. The final consonant must be determined as above (327 a). In 
some instances, however, it can only be ascertained that the stem ends 
in a palatal, or lingual mute. This is shown in the future, which has 
(a> from a palatal stem, and o-o) from a lingual. 

828 D. b. Aeol. o-Sw for (», frequent in Tbeoc. (56 D) : ^pltrZv for ffvpi^w 
to pipe. In Dor., most verbs in (<» have stems in y : icofil^w to take care of, 
Aor. Mfuffa (for c-ico>fuS-<ra), bat Dor. M/u^a (for t-Kofuy-ca), In Hm. too, 
these verbs have y much oftener than in Att. : so in iL\entd(u to lay toaste, 
9«it(m to divide, iwapt(m to slay, ttripf fitpfiriplCat to debate in mind, toAc/i/^« to 
tosr, tfTv^fX/^tf to push^ etc. 

Digitized by 



b. 8 (less often y) with t produces { : <^/}ai-o) (for ^po^t-w) to 
tell, Kpa^-ia (for K/wiywD) ^o en/. 

Rem. Here also the Fut. will show whether the stem ends in a lingual 
(5), or a palatal (y). For f arising from 3-«, see 429. 

Note. The following have stems in yy : xXu^-oi («cXayy) to make a 
loud noUty TrXdf-o) (wXayy) to cause to wander^ aaXm{-(a (o-oXiriyy) to 
sound the trumpet, 

c. \ ^ith I produces AX : fiaXk-to (for jSoXt-oi) to throw. 

Only o<^iX-a> (for o<^fXt-<0) to he obliged follows the analogy of d, 
being distinguished thus from o(jScXX-a> (also for o^cXi-co) to increase. 

d. V and p with t transpose it to the preceding syllable, where 
it unites with the stem-vowel : </)aiV-a) (for </)avt-a)) to show, </)^ctp-<u 

(for </)^€p4-a)) to destroy. If the stem-vowel is i or u, it becomes 

long (33) : Kpivta (for KpXvtrw) to distinguish^ crvp-m (for avpi-w) to 

e. To this class belong further two Xiowel-stema in av: Kai-ta (for 
mv-i-o) by 39) to hurn^ and KXat-a> (for icXav-t-w) fo treg^. The Attic, 
however, uses the forms icao), K\d<o ^(39 a). 

329. V. Fifth Glass {Nasal Class). The stem assumes v, or a 
syllable containing v, in the present : 

a. V : <f>Sd-V'(i} to anticipate, Kct/i-v-o) to he weary. 

b. dv (alone) : dfioLpT^ay^a} to err. 

av (with inserted nasal) : fmv^-dv-to (fia&) to leamj Xa/i/J- 
aiMi) (Aa^) fo ^o^, Xay;(-av-<i) (Xa;() to obtain by lot. 

Rem. ai' is used alone, if the stem-vowel is long by nature or posi- 
tion ; if otherwise, with an inserted nasal (v, /z, y according as it precedes 
a lingual, labial, or palatal mute). 

c. vc : tK-v€-o/jtat to come. 

d. w: 8ctK-n>-/i.i to show; after a vowel^ vw: a-fii-vw'fxi, to 

330. VI. Sixth Class (Inceptive Class). The stem assumes o-ic 
in the present, sometimes with a connecting t : api-a-K-u) to please^ 
tvprCo'K'Qi to find. 

Rem. a. This class is called inceptive^ because some verbs which be- 
long to it have the sense of beginning or becoming : yrjpd'trKra to grow 

c. Hm. has c^Xm (eX) to press (not cXAiv). Bat instead of 6^tl\w he com- 
monly uses the form 6<ptK\». 

e. In Hm., some other vowel-stems annex i, see 434 D. 
829 D. A number of stems assume ra, chiefly in Epic, see 443 D. 

Digitized by 



331. Vn. Seventh Class {Epsilon- Class). A number of stems 
assume c in the present : 8o#c-€-a> to seem, think, Fut. Sofw (=Sox- 
co)) ; pL7rT'€-ii} another form for piVro) (pi<t>) cl. 3, to throw, 

I the stem, 

I especially 

with many yerbs of the first^ fifth/ and sixth classes. Similarly, a 

few stems annex o : Sfi-wfii to swear, Aor. Inf. dfiA-crat, And a few, 
chiefly poetic, annex a, see 448 D. 

332. VIII. Eighth Class {EedupUcating Class). The stem as- 
sumes a reduplication in the present. This consists of the first 
consonant repeated with i: so ri-rpd-to to bore, rC-Srffu, {&€) to put 
(65 a). 

Consonant-stems of this class omit the stem-TOwel (839) : yiyvofuu 
(for yt-yew-o/xat, St. ytv) to hecome, riKTa (for n-reK-o), r<rica>, 44 a, St, t«#c) 
to beget, bring forth. Nearly all vowel-stems have the fu-form. In 
tijfu (= i-rj-fjn^ St f) to send, the breathing is repeated as If it were a con- 
sonant.— lonjfit (ora) to set is for ai-arTj^fn (03) Lat sisto. t(rx» 

(<ir€x) to hold, another form of c^o) cl. 1, is for co-xo> (05 e), and that for 
o"t-o"x-« (03) : with this are connected dfiwitrYVfOfiai to have on and vip* 
iaxv€Ofiai to promise, which belong to the mil class. The Attic re- 
duplication is seen in dvlvrifu (= ov-ovri-fii, st. ova) to profit. 

Rem. a. Seyeral reduplicating stems are referred to the sixth class, 
because they assume o-k, as yi-yvw-crK-ta (yvo) to hno^jfi 

333. IX. Ninth Class {Mixed Class). This is added to include 
the verbs in which different parts are derived from stems essentially 
different : ffiipno to bear, Fut. oi-o-w, Aor. ^cyK-ov. 

Other Changes of the Stem. 

The stem is further modified in different parts of the verb, chiefly 
by vowel-changes. ^ 

334. I. Vakiation (of vowels, 25). 

s^ a, €, o may be interchanged : rpiffi-io to nourish^ 2 Aor. c- 
Tpdif>'r)v, 2 Perf. ri-rpof^-^. 

This occurs chiefly in consonant-stems of one syllable, which have a 
liquid before or after the stem-vowel. Verbs which make this inter- 
change, haye a in the 2 Aor. of all voices, o in the 2 Perf. But liquid 
stems of one syllable have a also in the 1 Perf. and the Perf. Mid. : arcX- 
X» to send, Z-araK-KO, e-ffroX-fia*. 

b. ci, arising from X, is exchanged for oi in the 2 Perf. : Act7r«(u 
(A!iir) to leave, Xc-Xoiir-a. 

0. c is rarely exchanged for i : mr-yi^ (irer) to faU, 

Digitized by 




d. Oases which stand hy themselves are ppywfu (pay) to hreak^ 
2 Perf. Zp-fHoy-a (25) ; st. rpdy, 2 Aor. t-rpdy-ov^ Pres. r/Moy-w {iOTrpr\y(a) 
to gnaw ; st. c3 or 1/3, 2 Perf. ci-wS-a am accustomed, 

335. n. Lengthening (of vowels. Protmctionj 28). 

1. Vowel-stems lengthen a final short vowel, wherever it is fol- 

. lowed by a consonant^ and hence, in general, everywhere out of the 

present system. The short vowels pass into the corresponding long : 

^iA.c-(D, Fut. <^tA.iJ-<r(tf, Si/Xo-cD, Aor. c-SiJAco-o-o. But a becomes d only 

after c, 4, p, elsewhere i? : STjpa-n}, Perf. re-^^i/pd-Kiz, riful-o), Aor. Pass* 

Exc. a. The stem xpa (xpaa t(? ^t«0 oracles^ xpoojxai to use^ Ktxpfjfii to 
lend) is lengthened to XPV * XPW^i ^XPl^^M^' ^ ^^^ T(;rpa-ai t& 0<?f^ 
erpY/o'a. On the other hand, aKpod-oficu to hea/r makes aKpo&aorpm^ etc. 

For many vowel-stems w^ich retain the short voWel, see 419. 

For pn-forms of vowel-stems, we have the following special rule : 

336. 2. Mt-/<?rww lengthen the final stem-vowel 

a. in the Pres. and Impf. Act., but only in the Sing, of the Indie. : 
I'orrj'fii (<rrci) to set^ (-dtUpv-s 2 Sing. Impf. Act. of btUvv-'iu to sJuno. 

b. in the 2 Aor. Act, Ind., Imv., and Inf. : vrrj-^i 2 S. Imv., diro* 
dpd-i/ai 2 Aor. Inf. of dnodi'dpd-(rK» to run away. Of. 400 n. 

337. 3. Liquid sterna lengthen the short stem-vowel in the first 
aorist system, as a compensation for the omitted tense-sign cr. The 
vowels are changed as in pure verbs, except that c becomes a : irc- 
polv'in (ircpav) tu bring to an end, i'Tripav-a, if>aiv^ (^^) to show, 
l-^iyv-o, fjiiv-ia to remain, l-yxctv-a, Kpiv-m (xptv) to distinguish, c-xpiK-o, 
afivv-u) (ayxvv) to Ward off, ^/AW-a. 

338. 4. a is generally lengthened in the 2 Perf. of consonant-stems : 
icpd^-o) (Kpay) to cry, Kt-Kpdy-a^ (paiv-c^ (0d>') to sh&W, irk^^fitiv-a. But be- 
fore aspirates it sometimes remains snort : ypd<^0 to write, ye-ypd<^a, 
rdccr-w (rdy) to arrange, ri-rH^-a. 

339. III. Omission (of vowels, 38) : yC-yvofmi (for yi-ycv-ofwu, 
St. y€v) to become, dicov-a) to hear, 2 Perf. d#c-iy#co-a (for aic-i;Kov-a^ 39). 

835 D. In Dor., the lengthened form of a is a after all letters (29 D) : M- 
nd^Vj larafii, oTo^i, i^Kum, vi^peu In Ion., a is lengthened to 17, even after 
c, <, p : l-fifTOftcu {Idofuu to heal), ci^p^yeu (ev^pflt/yM to gladden). Yet ^dw <o 2MT- 
mit makes a (not 1;) : iaca, cTatra. The stem tra to aet (cbieflj poetic, rres. 
not used) always appears as «xU wiffo/uu, iteUirdfiriy, witra/uu possess. 

886 D. b. For stem-vowel lengthened in the (uncontracted) 2 Aor. Sub of 
/w-forms, see 400 D i. 

338 D. In Hm., the 2 Ff. Far. Fem. sometimes keeps the short vowel, when 
it is lengthened in other forms of the tense : ^pAs fitted^ Fem. iipapvTa, Ind. 
Hpiipa (ipaplcKw), rt^iiKAs blooming, Fem. rc^^o^vw (dd\X»). 

Digitized by 



340. IV. Transposition (of vowel and liquid. Metathesis^ 57): 
St ^ay to diey 2 Aor. c-^ctv-ov, 2 Perf. 1 P. ri-Svai'/iey, Pres. Sir^ 
iTKta (335). 

341. y. Aspiration (of labial or palatal mute). This occurs Id 
some second perf ects (387 b) : irc/iTr-o to send^ Tre-irofw^o, Toorcr-a) (ray) 
to arrange^ ri-ra^a. 

For aspiration in Perf. Mid. 3 P., see 392. For transfer of aspiration 
in Tp€<li-c»y Fut apc^o), and the like, see 66 c. 

342. VI. Addition of a- (to a, vowel-stem). This occurs in the 
perfect middle sjid first passive systems of some jp^rtf verbs, especially 
such as retain a final short vowel (419-21) : tcAc-w to complete^ tc- 
Te\e(r-/xae, aKov-m to heary tfKowT'Srp^. 

For V omitted at the end of a few liquid stems, see 433. 


343. The active and middle have no special voicestgn^ being dis- 
tinguished from each other by their different endings. But the pas- 
sive voice afiOxes to the stem a passive-sign, <5e in the first passive 
system, and c in the second. 

In both systems, the c is contracted with a following mode-sign : Xv- 
3uft€v for Xi»-3c-«-fif V, oTfiKtirjv for 0TaX-*-«;-y. And in both, the c be- 
comes 17, when a single consonant follows it : eXuSfiy-v, fXvSiy (for cXu^^-r), 
(rraX^ffo;iai ; but 3 P. Imv. Xvdc-vra>y, Par, Fem. (rroXcIcra (for crraXc- 
vcra), Par. Neut. XuScV (for XvSe-vr). 


344. In some of the tense-systems, the consonants k and o- are 
added to the stem, as tense-signs. Thus the tense-sign is 

K in th& first perfect system : AeXv-x-o, IXfkv-Kr^w. 

o" in thejJrs^ aorist system : cXv-<r-a, ^Xv-cr-d/iiyr. 

o- in the future of all voices : Xv-or-w, Xv-o*»o/xai, Xv^rfHr^iioju 

o- in \h& future perf ect i Kekv-a-ofiai. 

345. But a liquid before <r was a combination of sounds which the 
Greek generally avoided. Hence 

343 B. In the uncontracted 2 Aor. Sab. Pass., Hm. often lengthens e to ei 
(in 3 Sing, also to ij) : 9a/ic(-ffrc for (8a/t^-i}rc) So^^c ye may be overcome 
^aHi-V for (^ayc-27) ^ayy he may appear. • 

844 D. In Hm., the tense-sign c is often doubled after a short vowel : &• 
r6ffert» for itytirw Fut. of Met to achieve, iy4xainra for iy4xaa'a Aor. of y^Jiw 
to laugh. 

For Doric Future with o't as tense-sign instead of o-, see 877 D. 

Digitized by 



1. Liquid verbs, in the fuiure system, take c instead of <r: 
ifiav-i-Ho, contracted ifiavlo, instead of <^F-o^a), from ^aivco (^ov). 

2. Liquid verbs, in the Jirst aorist system, lengthen the stem- 
vowel in compensation for the omitted o- : i-tfyr^v-a instead of €-<^v- 
c-a. For the consequent change of vowels, see 337. 

Rem. a. k was first used in pure verbs to separate the vowels : co-n;- 
K-a for iarrj-a. Ilomer uses it only in such verbs. But it was after- 
wards extended, as a tense-sign, to liquid and to Ungual verbs. 

b. € in the Future of hquid verbs appears to have been originally 
inserted for the sake of euphony : <^al^^-o■<» for <^i^(r<k>. The a- after- 
wards fell away between the two vowels (64), which were then subject 
to contraction. 

Tense-Stem. The elements already described, so far as they are 
found in any tense, form its tense-stem. The augment, however, 
being confined to the indicative, is not considered as belonging to 
the tense-stem. 


Connecting Vowels and Mode-Signs, 

346. In most cases, the endings are not applied directly to the 
tense-stem, but vowels are interposed between them. These, for the 
most part, are mere connecting vowels : they serve to facilitate pro- 
nunciation : when not required for this purpose, they are sometimes 
dispensed with. But the suhjuncUve is always distinguished by the 
long vowels i;, w : the optative, always by the vowel i. These vowels, 
therefore, are properly called mode-signs. 


347. Suhjunctive. The Sub. has w before a nasal (ft, v), elsewhere 
rj : Xv-o> (for Xv-u^fu), Av-oy-ct (for Xv-tn-vaf), Xvcr-Tj'a-^c. 

845 D. In Hm., several liquid verbs have o* as tensc-aigD: Fut. ip-irotf Aor. 
Zp-(ra {tp-yvfu to rou9€\ ticvpffa {xvp-^ct to fail in toith), t^Xffa (KiXXw to drive), 

fK€pea {K€lpu to 8hear\ ^ipffofiai (^^p-ofuu i0 grow loarr/i), ^^pfrm (Aor. Sub. 

of 4>i/0-« to mingle), t\m (clXw to press), and the defective ikv6*(Hra took awag. 
The nrst four of these are found atso in Attic poetry. 

In Aeol.f c of the 1 Aor. is assimilated to a preceding liquid : so in Hm., 
In one word, &^€XXa (= w^cX-ca) for di^ciXa, Fr. o^cAAw to iticrease* ~ 

847 D. Hm. often has o, c, instead of », ri, as mode-signs of the Sub. ; 
but the Sing, and 8 PI. of the active voice (and of the Aor. Pass., 354) have 
only M, rf. 

This formation occurs especially in aoiists of the /u-form and in the 2 Aor. 
Pass. (895) ; the preceding vowel is then usually lengthened (400 D i, 843 D) : 
8(6-o/My for (8^/iey) H&fitv^ M-ofiai for (^i-tofitu) ^/uu, frHi-erov (for erd-nirov] 
crnTOVf 8afic(-crf for (Sofi^-irrc) Sofi^c. 

Digitized by 


850] GOKNEcnNa vowels. 117 

Rcu. a. The » subscript of the 2, 3 Sing. Act and the 2 Sing. Mid. 
comes from the original endings cri, re, and aai, 

b. The mode-signs of the Sub. were formed bj lengthening o and c, 
the usual connecting vowels of the Ind. Hence the Sub. neyer has a con- 
necting Towel in addition to its mode- sign. 

348. Optative. The mode-sign of the Opt is i: Xvou-fu, kva-al'firjv. 
Before active endings, irj is often used instead of t. This is always the 

case in the Sing, of the passive aorists and of fii-fonnSj and frequently in 
their Dual and Plur. : Xv^c/iy-v, dcdoti}, oraXcT-rc or (rraktiri'Tt. It is also 
frequently the case in contract forms and in the Ferf. Act. : Tiiiaoirj-v^ 
COntr. rifu^Vy ntiroiHoirj'V. 

Before v in the 3 Plur. Act., <e is always used. 

Eem. a. The mode-sign of the Opt. is usually joined to the 
tense-stem by a eonnecting vowel : it is always so, when the tense- 
stem ends in a consonant, i forms a diphthong with a preceding 
vowel : kv-oi'fu, Xva^ai-jJiriv, 

CoNNECTiNa Vowels. 

349. 1. The first aorist system has a throughout : Xva-tu-fu, 

£zc. a. a is changed to c in the Ind. Act. 3 Sing. : tXytr-f^ ^to o 

before f, in the Imv. Act 2 Sing. : Xva-ov^ ^to at in the Imv. Mid. 

2 Sing. : \v<r-€u ; also in the Inf. Act : Xva^at, All these forms omit 
the ending, as does also the Ind. Act I Sing. : tlXwa (for cXvo-a-v). 
. Rem. b. In the irregular, but more common, forms of the Opt Act, 

2 Sing, rc-a-ff, 3 S. c«-*, 3 P. ct-a-v, the connecting vowel of the Ind. is 
thrown in i^r the mode-sign c, in consequence of which the preceding 
a is changed to c. 

350. 2. The perfect active indicative has or: XcXvx-a-re. But the 

3 Sing, has c : XeXvx-c. 

The same short vowels are frequent in the Sub. of the first aorist system : 
y9futHi^9T9 for r€fi€iHiir'-rrr€ (t^tfUffd^ to resent)^ i^>d^€€u for (it^^-jfcu) ifda^ 
(^^dbrrofuu to tcueh upon). These forms are often liable to be confounded 
with those of the Fat. Lid.— >In other tenses this formation is less frequent. 
It is seldom or never found in the Pr. Sub. of verbs in w. 

848 D. Hm. almost never has vn in the dual and plural. In contract verbs, 
n} is rarely used by Hm., never by Hd. 

849 B. In Hm., the 1 Aor. sometimes has the connecting vowebi o, e (852) 
like the 2 Aor. : !(«, Ifyty came (Jkw), ifiiiaero toent (jSo/i^w), iZ^ctro toent under 
(9^w). So especially in the Imv. : ^pceo, 6p<rtv rise {6pwvfju\ &{ctc lead (&7»}, 
otr§ bring (^p«),X^(co lay thyself, vt^Jtrfferor bring near (ircX<i^«). 

850 D. In Dor., the Sing, of the Pf. Ind. may have the connecting vowels 
of the Fres. : XcX^ic-«* for A^Xvic-a, XcA^ir-cis , -ci (the forms \9\vkiis, -q are 
probably incorrect) for \4KvK-as, -c. 

Digitized by 



351. 3. The pluperfect active has ce, bat in the 3 Plur, com- 
monly c : AcAuK-ct-v, ^XcXuK-c-crav. 

Rem. a. iKtkvKtaav ought, in strictness, to be divided eXcXvie-c(ra-j/(7), 
c£ Lat. pepend-erornt for pepend-esarnt. taa here belongs to an old 
Impf. 01 f «/ii = ^o-fit, Lat. («)«-«?», Impf. era-m, for Ma-771. In the other 
numbers and persons of the Plup., o- was dropped, and cc formed by con- 
tracting the vowels. The Old Attic 17 for tiv and ct (1, 3 Sing.) was 
also formed by contraction from c (o-)a(f) and €(p)€, 

352. 4. The other forms which have a connecting vowel, take 
o or e : thus 

a. The indicative has o before a nasal, elsewhere c : Xv-o-/tcv, 
Xwr-ov-ct (for Xuo-o-v<ri), XcAvo'-c-c^c. 

In the Prcs. and FuL Act., o in the I Sing, becomes «> (on account of 
the omitted ending /it) ; r in the 2, 3 Sing, tidces i (derived from the 
original endings ai^ n) : Xi>-ci>, Xvcr-ci-r. 

b. The optative has o : XcXvK-oft-/x,e, XvSrfO'-oC-fnjv. 

c. The imperative follows the same rule with the indicative : 

XvO-VTO)!', Xu-€-<r^€. 

d. The infinitive has c, which becomes ci in the Pres., Fut., and 
2 Aor. Act. : Xucr-ct-j', XcXvk-c-voi, Xu-c-c^cu. 

e. The participle has : Xv-o-vres, Xv<^•ot^o'<u (for Xwr-o-vcai). 

853. 5. Forms without Connecting Vowels. ' There are no con- 
necting vowels 

a. in the perfect and pluperfect middle, the aorist passive, and 
the perfect participle active. 

b. in /u-forms (of the present, second aorist, and second per- 
fect systems). 

351 D. Hd. has in the Flap. Act. 1 Sing, fa for tt-r, 2 S. §a-s for ci-i, 3 S. 

c« for CI, 2 PI. ta-^€ for f«-T€, 8 Fl. only co'a-y. ^Hm. has 1 S. «a, 2 S. ««-s 

(also contracted i^s), 8 S. cc or ci-v (contracted from cr, cc-y): irtdiiw^ti uxu 
aitonish^, ^cd^cos, ZtBtim^Kfiy he had feasted. The uncontracted 3 Sing. 

is seen only in ^8er, comm. f/^ he knew. In two or three words, Hm. 

forms a Plup. with the connecting vowels 0, c, after the analogy of the Impf. : 
li^w^o-y (also ^pc^ca) Plup. of (b^ovyB comtnand, 4fi4firfK-o-if Plup. of fi«/ii)ica 
bleat^ iy^tty-e (also 4yty^v-tt) Plup. of yiywwa s/iotU, Still more irreg. are 
8 PL iiv^eWf yey^t^wy (contracted from -eft-y). 

352 D. Hm. and Hd. oflcn have 4u-v for u-y in the 2 Aor. Inf. Act. : 
fiaX-^ei-y to throw^ tS'4et-y to see. 

The Dor. (Theoc.) often has «-s for ci-i in the Ind. 2 Sing., and e-y for «■>> 
in the Inf : pvple9'€-s for trvpl(-ei'S art piping^ kelB't-y for &c(8-ri-y to ting. 
The accent is the same as in the Attic forms. Bare is Dor. yj-p for u-y in tht 
2 Aor. Int 

Digitized by 


855] ENDINGS. 119 








'"r , 




<rt [TtJ 















fi€i^ [>cs] 

^€V [/1€S] 







M<rt [vnl 




354. There are two aeries of endings, one for the actwe voice, 
the other for the middle. The passive aorist has the endings of the 
active ; the passive futurey those of the middle. 

The endings of the finite anodes are called ^^rsono/ endings, 
because thej have different forms for the three person^. 

355. IxDiCATrvE. The personal endings of the Ind. are 

a 1. 


D. 2. 

P. 1. 


or (rav [cavr] 

The endings in brackets are earlier forms, not used in Attic Greek, 
but found in other dialects or kindred languages. For change of rt, 
wTi, to crc, {v)<Tiy see 62 : for change of ^ to y, 77 : for dropping of a^nal 
T, 75. The forms /xi, ai, rt, i^t were weakened in the lust6rical tenses, 
on account of the augment at the beginning, to /x, r, r, vt. In the middle 
they were extended to juai, o-at, rm, vrai ; of these, again, the last three 
were wei^ened in the historical tenses to ^ro^ ro, vrd, 

855 D. a. The Dor. retains the earlier forma ri for ci, m for (r)oT, }its for 
/icy. It has rap for ti}K, /tor for fiiyr, ai^ax for o^r (24 D b).- Tnus rldTjTt, 
k^m^ \6irvrrh XtX^icarrit X^tro/tcj, /Xu^fuu^, ^AtA^day, for r(;^<ri, X^vo**, 
X^OMTf, XcX^Ka<rc, X^tro/xcv, i\v6fiipf, iK^X^c^y. 

b. Hm. sometimes has rov for rrir and o-^^or for irdTiy in the third person 
dual of the Ustorioal tenses. ^ 

c Hm. often has y for ffop in the Aor. Pass, and in fu-forms: A^i^e-y 
(orig. eXu3e-Kr) for ^XtSdr^^oi^, l<rra-i' (orig. cora-Kr) for f&rn^ay, 
d. The poets often have fico-da for fu^i Xv^-ftco-da for Xv^/icdo. 

c. Hm. often has arcu, aro for yreu, kto in the Pf. Plup. Mid. This ocf^urs 
chiefly after consonants (cf. 392), but sometimes after vowels : litHai-orat {BtUo- 
fuu to divide)^ /ScjSX^-aro ($dWo9 to throw). Also in the Pr. Impf. of xcifteu to 

/i>, ^fuu to 91 1: K^-csTOi, tt-aro. ^Hd. usually has otcu, oto in the Pf. Flup. 

Mid., even after vowels, and often in the Pr. Impf. of fic-forms ; a preceding 
a or 1} becomes c: olKi-wru for ^pfcn-yrai (oM-^t to inAahi^j rid4'arai for ride- 

yTMf iBvy4-aro for Hidya-yro (Bvva-fxtu to be able). The endings orai, aro do 

not occur after a connecting vowel. Sach forms as miS-^-oroA for tdfi^-^rrcu 
they eare /or, iywl-aro for iy^o-yro they become^ which are found In most 
editions of Hd., are probably incorrect 

Digitized by 



356. a. The endings of the three singular persons are clearly seen to 
be appended pronouns, /, thoii^ that: thus fit, <n, n, the original forms, 
correspond to the personal stems /i€, a€ (231), and the demonstrative 
stem TO of the article. 

The ending tr^a for r is found onlj in a few /tit-forms : t^ptj-a^a thou 

b. The ending of the first person plural is also used for the first per- 
son dual. A special ending fi€^ov^ for the middle first person dual, 

occurs onljr in Hom. 11. yjr, 485, Soph. El. 950 and Phil. 1079, beside two 
instances cited by Athenaeus. 

Tr/v is sometimes used for rov in the second person dual of the histori- 
cal tenses. 

c. The ending <rav is found in the Plup. Act and Aor. Pass. ; also 
in /it-forms: cXcXvice-o-ai', iXv^rj^a-ay^ irlZt-vcof, 


357. Subjunctive and Optative. The Sub. and Opt. take the 
personal endings of the Ind. The Sub. has the endings of the 
prmcijpal tenses : the Opt, those of the historical tenses. 

Exc. a. The 1 Sing. Opt. Act. takes /it: Xvoi-fii; unless 117 is the 
mode-sign. In that case, the 1 Sing, has v: Xv^fitj-v; and the 3 Plur. 
has o'av : doirj-a'ay^ or doT<-v. 

358. Imperative. The personal endings of the Imv. are 

Active. JiiiddU. 

S. 2. ^l 3. TW 2. o-o 3. O-^CD 

D. " TOV " TCJV " <r^OV " (Ti^F 

p. « Tc " TtDo-av " 0-^c " o-^oxrav 

or vTiav or a-^iov 

359. Infinitive. The infiii^itive-endings are 

Act. V after ct, elsewhere vat : Xvct-v, XcXvicc-vat, XvBrj-vai^ 
Mid. (rBaii Xvcra-o-^aij Xv^crc-o-^at. 

857 D. In the Opt., Hm. and Hd. always have aro for rro : ytyyoi-aro for 
yiyvoi-rro ; though in the Sub. they always have ktcu : ytyyw-rrau In the 
2 Sing. Sub., Hm. often has tr^ for 5: i^4\ii<r^a for i^eKps {4^4?<» to loish); 
rarely so in the Opt. : icAaiourda for K?iaiois (icXa(» to weep). 

858 D. The endings rwrcv and <r^iray do not occur in Hm., and the Attic 
drama. Even in Attic prose they are less frequent than wruy and ir^y, 

869 D. For y or ycu, Hm. often has fityai or /ley (also Dor.), with the accent 
always on the preceding syllable : v4fiir§iy or vtfnr4fji«yai or mfar4fA€y to send. 
Hm. never uses /ack after a long syllable or yai after a short one : hence frrfifi§' 
ycu or ffT^yac, never <miiity^ dafi'ifityai or ^ofiriyai Aor. Pass, to be subdued, 
i:ever 8o/iij/*€i^, iarofjLeyeu or Icrriftcjr, never icrriyctu Yet we have //i^oi as well 
as tfAtyoL, tfity to go. • 

In Dor., the Inf. of the FfL Act. is sometimes formed like the Pres. : Xihjntr 
€7y for \t\vK4y<u. 

Digitized by 



360. Participle. The participle-endings are 

Act, M, N. VT F. (v)cra : Avo-vr-t, A.wd-{v)(ra-v : but 
Perf, Act. or via : XcXvK-dr-wv, XcXvic-vta-v. 

Mid. fievo jJLtvd : Xvo-fievo-^, Xvo-fjutva-s. 

The participIoHstem is farther declined by case-endings like an ad- 
jective: see 207, 214-6. For the feminine endings (1^)0-0, via, see 214 a, 
216 b. 

Endings Omitted or Altered. 

361. 1. The active endings /mc, o-t, di are dropped after a vowel : \v<r-a> 
(for Xvcr-o-^xi and Xva-a-ixi), XcXvx-c (for XcXuic-c-at), Xv-e (for Xu-e-3i). 

But if the vowel belongs to the tense-stem, the endings are retained : 
ri3i7-fic, dciVio^-a-i, 0TdXi;-3i. gxi remains also in the Opt. : Xvoi-fu. 

For an exception in regard to 3i, see 401 b. For n in Xv^rj-ri, see 65 b. 

362. 2. The personal ending (v)ai and the participle-ending (1^)0-0 
always drop v before o- : the preceding vowel is then lengthened in com- 
pensation, see 48. 

363. 3. The middle endings aai and a-o^ after a vowel, drop 0- (64) ; 
this is followed by contraction : thus Xva-jj or Xvcr-ci from Xv(r-c-(o')ai, 
Xwo-17 fjX)m Xva-Tfl^a^aij cXu-ov from tkx)'€-(<r)o, «Xv<r-a> from €Xvcr-a-(ff)o, 
Xvoc-o from Xvoi-(o')o. In the last case (the optative), contraction is of 
course impossible. 

But if the vowel belongs to the tense-stem, 0- is generally retained . 
Ti3€-<rai or Ti^if (riSf 1), tara-a-o or i<rr« ', it is always so in the Perf. and 
Plup. : X<Xv-<rai, XcXv-co. 

Hem. a. From €-{(r)ai are formed both ff and et. Of these, jj is the 
usual form ; but the Attic, especially the older Attic, has also cc : fiovko- 
fiai t0 wish and otofiai (oifiat) to think have only povXti^ oUt^ in the 
2 Sing. 

860 B. The participle of the Pf. Act. is formed like the Pre& Far., in 
MKkhy-HhtrhMS Hm. for iccicXiry-^r-ci (icAi^w to make a noise). Cf. vc^p(ic-o-i^-«tf , 
xtx^di-o-rr-ot in Hndar. 

Hm. often lengthens or to c»r in the Pf. Par. : rc;^£rof , Att. rt^mKiros 
(Mtffitm to die). 

861 D. Hm. often retains /tti, m in the Sub. : i^4\«tfUj i^ixyiri (more cor- 
rectly written 4^4\riin) for 4^4\m, ^\p, may msh. 

862 B. The Aeol. has aura for ov<ra and aura for d<ra in the Fem. Par. : 
rpi^tffa wmriehin^f dp^^o-o. The first of these forms is used by Theoc, and 
both of them by Pmdar. 

363 B. In Hm., the vowels, after c is dropped, usually remain uncontract- 
ed : X^o-cai, X^anfai^ A^co, etc. Hd. contracts nai to p and sometimes co to cv : 
2 Sing. Sub. fio^Kfif Imv. fioi\Mo or 0o6ktv wish. Hm. contracts ecu to €i only 
in &|^t thcu v/Ut ue. 

Hm. sometimes drops 0* hi the Pf. Plup. : fi^fiyrtat Lat. meministi, also con- 
tracted n4iurjf. So in Hd., 2 Sing. Imv. /tt^^urc-o, with t for ^ 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


364. 4. lihe first aorUt system omits the endings in the 1 Sing 
Ind. Act., the 2 Sing. Imv. Act. and Mid., and the Inf. Act. : cXvir-a 
(for fXw(r-a-i/), Xv(r-oi/ (for Xw<r-a-3i), Xvcr-oi (for Xw«r-o-(ro), Xv<r-ai (for 
Kva-arvai). The v in Xvaov is a euphonic addition. See 349 a. 


Accent of the Verb. 

365. As a general rule, the accent stands as far as possible 
from the end of the form {recessive accent, 97) ; on the penult, when 
the ultima is long by nature; otherwise, on the antepenult: Xvo-a- 

Final at and ot haye the effect of short yowels on the accent (95 a) : 
Xvovrai^ Xvarat^ \virja6fi€voi. But not SO in the Opt. : Xvo-ql, XcXvkoi. 

For contract formis, the accent is determined by the rules in 98 : 
hence BokS^ (doiec-a>), iXStfitv (cXa-ofirv from cXat^vcu, 435, 2), ntaovfiai 
(irta-t-ofuii from 9riWo», 449, 4), didwfuii (did(^o»fuu), Xv3», Xvlijjs (Xv3c-o), 


366. In the finite verb there is only the following exception : — The 
2 Aor. Imy. 2 Sing, accents the connecting yowel 

a. regularly in the middle : Xifr-ov contracted from Xifr-c'(o-)o. 

b. in the following active forms : ciW say, *X3-« come, tvp-i find, 
ld-€ see, Xafi'i take; but not in their compounds: air-ttnt. 

Rem. Of course, this exception has no reference to fu-forms. which 
are without connecting vowel. ' « 

367. The infinitive and participle, which are essentially nouns, pre- 
sent numerous exceptions. 

a. In the 2 Aor. Act. and Mid., they accent the connecting vowel : 
the Inf. Act. is perispomenon, the Par. Act oxy tone : Xi9r-rt-v, Xifr-o-y, 
Xifr-c-ffSai, Xiir-o'ntvos, For the 2 Aor. Par. Mid., this gives the same 
accent as the general rule. 

b. In the 1 Aor. Act and Per& Mid., they accent the penult: rt/i^o-at, 
Tifuivas, rmfAija^aLi rtrtfirffifvot. For the 1 Aor. Par. Act, this gives the 
same accent as the general rule. 

c. AH infinitives in vai accent the penult : ndcMit, XtXvKtvai, Xv'Sirjvai, 

864 D. In all tenses, v of the 1 Sing, is dropped when a precedes : Hm. fa 
(ori^r. Tiffofif riffaof) Iweut, fjta I went, yBwa I knew. Only ficra-y Ikilledj where 
ci belongs to the stem. 

S67 D. a. In Hm., the Inf of the 2 Aor. Hid. conforms in some words to 
the general rule: iyiptff^ai (&ycipw to asaemble)^ fp^a^ai (^pofiai to ask), 
i[X^<f^M (iXf^ofAOi to be odious), iyptir^cu (iytipct to arouse). 

b. In Hm., the Perf. ix^iftrdtu, &AaX4ftcyof fhxdofuu to v>ander\ hedxt 
r^ai^ hKKxfiiiMvos or &ici}x^Mo«s {txpfiuu to h$ pained), ivcift^vos (ffs^m to drive), 
conform to the general role. 

Digitized by 



d. All participles of the third decL, formed mtTuntt arnnecting 
90W€lSy are oxjtone : dtdoi/r, XcXux^r, Xv^eU^ a-rakfU. This includes all 
third declension paiticiples in r, except that of the 1 Aor. Act 

Rem. e. In the 1 Aor., these three forms, the 3 Sing. Opt. Act., the 
Inf. Act., and the 2 Sing. Imy. Mid., which have the same letters, are 
often distinguished by the accent : 

3 Sing. Opt. Act. ttXc^oi vavaai reXiaai drjXfixrai 

Inf. Act. 7r\*iai navaai reXeVai BfjX&aai 

2 Sing. Imy. Mid. nXt^i navcrai riXecrat 8fjX<aa'cu 

368. Compound Verbs follow the rules above given, but with the fol- 
lowing restrictions : 

a. The accent can only go back to the syllable next preceding the 
simple verb : iiri-ax's hold on, <Tv»U-bos give out together^ not emaxfSj 

b. The accent can never go back beyond the augment or reduplica- 
tion : dw'fjX^€ he went away, d<f)'iKTai he has arrived, nap-^v he was pre- 
sent, not awiX^e, S<t>iKrai, naprfv. This is the case, even when the aug- 
ment, fidling upon a long vowel or diphthong, makes no change in it : 
vTT-cIicr he was yielding^ but vtr-uKe Pres. Imv. he yielding, dv^vpov 1 
fotmd again. 


PassENT System, or 
Present and Imperfect. 

369. Formation of the tense-stem: see 325-33 {Classes of Verbs). 

Inflection {Paradigm, 270). The elements of which the forms con- 
sist are generally obvious. For Xva, Xvti^ Xvj), and Xi/r, see 361 : for 
Xvawrt and Xvovo'cl, see 362 : for tha middle Xvri, X^ct, iXvov, Xvoio, and 

Xvov, Bee 363. For the present system without connecting vowels 

{iu-form), see 399 ff. 

370. Contract Verbs {Paradigms, 279-81). The connecting 
vowels of the present system are contracted with a final a, c, o, in 
the tense-stem. Verbs which have this peculiarity are called Con- 
tract Verbs. 

For the rules of contraction, see 32-5. In reading the paradigms, the 
iineontraeted form will be seen by omitting the syllable next after the 
parenthesis ; the contract form, by omitting the letters in the parenthesis 
itself: thus in Tip(a-fi)q^Tifi{d-ov)Si-ari, the uncontracted forms are ri/iaci^ 
Tipdoviri ; the contract forms, rt/xa, nixSxn. 

Digitized by 




Uioge of Homer, a. Verbs in o« are commonly contracted ; but often, with 
a peculiar Epic duplication of the contract vowel. By this a contract « be- 
comes iM», or (after a long syUable, 28 D) «m» : 
^pj«, from 6pdU»y dp&totee; 6p6^fu, from dpdotfu^ ^P^Mi; 
6p6mfft^ " Spdowrt, 6p&o'i] fitroivim, ** ti€youfd», fierotyv to long ; 

6p6mvr9Sy '* 6p<LoPT€S, dp&trr^s] ^/StScMTo, " iifidovca, iifiwtra beinff ifouHff, 

Under like circumstances, a contract a becomes ad or da : 
6p^ from 6pd€i, Spa; /tpdoff^ai^ from fufd§<rdaif fuw^ai to «nx> 

6pia^€y *' 6pd§ff^f 6patr^ ; fthe sylL before fiya is long by position). 

mv becomes «o, when the latter syllable will not be made short by it: iifii^ 
orrtst {i$Aoi/u, The duplicate form has the accent of the uncontracted form. 
It is only used where the second of the two syllables contracted was long : 
thus we do not find 6p6mfifp for 6pdofur, 6pSfi€w. 

Hc0 to permit has only the duplication of a, but often lengthens c before « 
to ct : idas, ^l&ci. Irreg. forms are fum6^€yos (jufti6fitros\ ywK^oyrts {ytXdoms 
laughing\ muerdoMra {vaierdavira inhabiting)^ xp^Afixpos {xpo6fi€Fos using), 

oo is sometimes changed to to without contraction in the ImpL Act. : 
ffyreoy (jk^rdm to encoitnter% 6fioKk4o/jM¥ (SfioKkdw to rebuke). 

b. Verbs in c» are commonly uncontracted, but sometimes cc, eci go into 
ft; CO, cov, into cv: rcX/ei, rtXwvtrtf reX^croi, rtKdo/Atyos^ or rektt, rcXciHri, 
rcXcTroi, rtXtifiwos, co may unite by Synizesis : i^piivwv they were mourning^ 
as three syllables. In the 2 Sing. Mid. ^-c-ai, is-o may become fMU, c7o, by 
contraction of cc, or ^ac, ^, by rejection of one c : fiv^Zai or fiv^iai^ for /jLv^i- 
€Hu thou sayest. The final c of the stem is sometimes lengthened to ti : 
ycfffcftf for ytuc4w to quarrel, VreXc^cro from tcX/« to complete, 

c* Verbs in am are contracted as in Att. But sometimes they have forms 
with a duplicate O-sound, as if the stem ended in a (see a above): kp^ci 
(as if for apa-ovciy iLp6t» to plough), 9rii6^fiep (as if for ^Sia-oi^ey, 9iil6m to treat 
as an enemy), bfridtovras (as if for 6«ya-orraf , ifwvim to sleep). 

Usage of Herodotus, d. Verbs in «» commonly change a before o, ov, «, 
to c : rifi4oPTaif rtfieS/ieifoSf Ti/i^cvffi, rifi4m, rtfie^fit^ (the first three are often 

less correctly written riiiimrrai^ rtfisAfieroSf Tt/t4mn. ro rarely goes into 

«v: Mfuwy Att. irifimp). In their other forms, they contract a with the fol- 
lowing vowel as in Att. : rififs, rifiare, riiitfiitip^ riftSia^at ; so also 2 Sing. 
IGd., Imv. Ti/id, Impf. Irt/td, from (c)ri/ia-e-((r)o. 

e. Verbs in c« are uncontracted, except that to, tov may go into ev : 
^<\^, ^t\4et, ^t\4oifu, ^i\4ofuu or ^iXcv/uu, ^t\4ova'i or ^tKevai. But 8c7 it is 
necessary and its Inf. ieuf are usually contracted. Instead of 2 Sing. Mid. ^1X4- 
ff-oi, ^iX^«-o, 4^x4-9^, we find forms with only one c, ^iX4aiy ^iX^o, 4^i\4o; 
but these are of doubtful correctness. 

f. Verbs in om are contracted as in Att., but sometimes have cv instead 
of ov : 8i}X«9 ZftiXjcn, hikufuu, hiXol/iriVf hiXovai or ^\cv<ri, i^Kov or i94i\€u, 

Doric Contraction, g. The Dor. contracts a with o, » (not in the ultima) 
to ci instead of « : it contracts a with e, 17, ci, p, to if, p, instead of a, 9: xtwa- 
/Jits (for ireiy&fiev), ir€iycam (for vtivwrt), bprjre (for dpare), 6p^ (for 6p$), dfnjp 
(for dpSof). The Ion. contraction of co, cov to cv belongs idso to the Dor. 

371. lUmarhs an Contract Verbs, 

a. The oozmecting Towel of the Inf. Act. was origioally r, not ci 
(352 d) : henoe for a-cty, S^iv^ the contract forms are not ^v, otp, but ay, 
ovp (as if firom dcv, drv). 

Digitized by 



b. Stems of one syllable in e admit only the contraction into «. 
Wbereyer contraction would result in any other sound, the uncontracted 
form is used. Thus xrXc-a> to sail makes in the Pres. Ind. frXc-a>, n\(U^ 
irXfT, Du. trXfiTOJ', PL n\i'Ofx€Vy jrX«irc, 7rXc-ot/<r<. Except di-a to Mnd, 
which makes to iovv (for dc-ov), dovfitu (for bt-ofuu)^ etc., and is thus 
distinguished from dc-o to toant^ require, which follows the rule, making 
dct it is necessary, but rd dt-ov the requisite. 

c. A few stems in a take 17 instead of d in the contract forms : (d-a> 
to Uve^ Qs (not C?0) Cp^ C^^^ Cn^j ^^ (^ ^70 D g). So also xrciva-o> to 
hunger, di^d-eo to thirst, k»&» to scratch, afm-a to wash, yfrd-a to rub, 
and xpd'Ofjuii to use. 

a. pvy6-^ to he cold has « and ^ in contract forms, instead of ov and 
01 : Inf. piyo>v, Opt. piy4v^' 

e. Xov-co to lathe sometimes drops v (39), and is then contracted as 
a verb in oa> : tkov for cXo(v)-r, Xovfuu for Xo(v)-o-/uii, etc. 

FuTURK Ststxii, or 
• Futu7*e Active and Middle. 

372. The futore active and middle adds o- to the stem, and has 
the inflection of the present. (Paradigm, 271.) 

a. Mute Verbs. A labial or palatal mute at the end of the 
stem unites with cr, forming ^ or f : a lingual mute is dropped be- 
fore <r (47). 

iciSirrco (koit) to cut ii6i^» ratrva (ray) to a/rrange rd^a 

jSXcnrrtt (filKafi) to hurt /3Xd^a> 6pv(nr<a {opvx) to dig opv^fo 
ypd^o) to write ypdyoo ^pa^w (^pab) to tell <f>pdam 

irXc«e-«» to twist 9rXc^a> <nrcvd'a> to pour airflara (49) 

For r/Dc^M to nourish, 3pc>|r«>, and the like, see 66 c. 

b. Pure Verbs. A short vowel at the end of the stem becomes 
long before cr (335). 

«d-» to permit idtro nou-m to make ytoi^o-co 

TifAO'fo to Junior rtfi^aa dcvXd'n to enslave dovXaxrco 

For exceptions, see 419. 

871 D. c. Hm. has 2 Sing. Mid. SpriM with irreg. accent for Spd-t-cu. Be- 
fore Tfiv of the 3 Du., Hm. contraots at, tc, to i| : irposovS^nyy {xposctu9du to 
addreu\ awcarrfrniv (<rwcanim to meet together), AvtiX^y (jkwttk4it to threatenX 
So, before firwuln the Inf. : irciv^/Acyai (ircivcu* to hunger)^ wtpd^fiweu {irty^iiu 
to m<»im\ xod^fiweu (voi^eM to miss), ^piffxtyai and more irregulurlj ^pTjyou 
(^p^tt to bear), 

Hd. seldom, if ever, contracts ac, act, to if, p : xp^^^ to tM«, not xp^io'i^ai. 
e. Hm. has Impf. X6% uncontracted for lAo(v)c ; and, with e added to the 
stem, K&wv for c\o(v)c-oy. In the Aor. he has txowra and ixdMora. 

872 D. a. For Fut. in (« from Pres. in (w, frequent in Hm., see 828 D b. 

b. For lengthened forms of a, Dor. rifuur&. Ion. I^tf'o/icu, wtip^trofuu, see 
835 B.^^For ff doubled in Hm. after a short vowel (Mwm), see 344 D. 

Digitized by 



c. Verbs of the second class have the lengthened stem in the Fat. : 
irctdo) (n-ra) to persuade^ irticrm (not irt<ra>) ; irvcw (ttvO) to hreathe^ trwuo-o- 
liai (not iTPvaofUu), 

373. Liquid Verbs take c instead of or in the future (345) ; c is 
contracted with the connecting vowels, as in the Pres. of ^tXco) : 
(fxuvw (^oLv) to show, <l>av€'0}, contracted ^avw. {Paradigniy 282.) 

Exc. KcXXo) (jcfX) to drive and Kvpe» (icvp) to /aW in- «t«A make jceX- 

(Ttf, KVpVOi^ with (T. 

Contract Future from Pure and Mute Verbs. 

374. 1. Some pure verbs in ecu drop cr in the future, and contract : 
TtXe-ta to complete, tA^Voo, TfXf-«, tcXw, 1 P. rcXou/xci/, etc The Put. thus 
made has the same form as the Pres. 

375. 2. Mute stems in ad (Pres. afod) sometimes do the same : j3t/3a^« 
to cause to go, ^i^daa, /3i/3a-«, /3t/3«. Similarly iXavva (jeKo) to drive, 
eXa(cr)a), (Xa>, cX^r, cXa, etc. 

376. 3. Mute stems in id (Pres. t^Q>), after dropping a, insert f and 
then contract: Kofii^a (KOfjub) to convey, KOfiia-fn^ KOfn-t-a, «co/xcw, 1 P. 
xo/xiov/Acv, etc., Fut. Mid. Koiiiovfuu. The name Attic Future has been 
given to this formation. 

377. 4. Some verbs take o-c instead of cr, contracting c with the con- 
necting vowel : TTw-o) (ttvO, ttv^v) to breathe, wtvart^fuu^ nvtvo-ovfuii (also 
frv€V<rofiai) ; ?rX«-o) (frXo, ttX^v) to sail, nXevaovfxai (also ttXc u<ro/iai) ; ^vy-t^ 
(4>Cy) to fee, <f>€v$ovfiai (also <p€v(ofiai). This formation is found only in 
the future middle, and only when it has an active meaning. It is csJled 
the Doric Future (377 D). 

378. Future without tense-sign. A few verbs form their Fut. with- 
out any tense-sign : x«<» (x^) ^ pour, Fut, ;^€a), Mid, v^ofuu. So the ir- 
regular futures tdofiat shall eat (450, 3), mo^iai shall drink (435, 4). 

379. Future Middle used as passive or active. Beside its proper 
meaning, the Fut. Mid. has in many verbs a passive sense : in not a few, 
it has an active sense. The latter is found especially in many verbs 
which express an action or function of the body : aKoOa to hear, f8a> to 

873 D. The Fut. in e» has in the dialects the same forms, contracted and 
UDContracted, as the Pres. in c» (370 D b, e). 

For poetic Fut. in o-w from other liquid verbs, see 845 D. 

876 D. The Fut. in a» faas in Hm. the same variety of forms as the Pres. 
in au (370 D a) : thus i\6w, ixd^, iKd^. In Hd., it is contracted as in Att, 

877 D. In Dor., the usual tense-sign of the Fut. Act. and Mid. is o-c instead 
of 0-: « is contracted with the following towcI: Kvcu (for Kv<r4-u), \v<rtiSf 
\ua€t, \vaurov, Kwrtvfift, \v(r6rrc, XvcrcGyrc; Mid. Koffcvficu (for A.u-(rc-0ftai), 
\wrpj \va€iratj etc., Xvtrcicr^ac, Xvatvfittfof. 

878 D. Similarly, Hm. has Fut. fittofxcu or pUfuu (89 a) sliall live connected 
with fit6v to live J 3^» «Aa//^fuf connected with 2 Aor. Pass. i-Zi-riv learned, 
Ktlu or k4» (89 a) shall lie from ircvtai.— Hm. sometimes omits c of the Fut. 
after v : ip^tt Fut. of ip6» to draw. 

'Digitized by 



iinffy mnM^rdti to meet^ mrokavio to enjoys /3adt^a> (Fat. fiadtovfuu) to walky 
fiodm to cry^ veXaa> to laughj olfioaf^a to wail^ a-iyda and a-KOTrdea to he nUnt^ 
(nrovbdC<^ to 06 lusy. 

Yutst AoBiST Ststxm, or 

First Aoriat Active and Middle. 

380. Ikvlection {Pa/radigmj 272). The connecting vowel is a through- 
out: for cXvcre, Xvtrovy \vaai (inf. Act., and Imy. Mid.), see 349 a: for 
ZkuetL, see 364. For the middle fortns tkvfrat^ '^vajfy Xvirato^ see 363. 
For the optative forms cior, nr, ttau^ which are called Aeolic, but are 
more used than the regular forms, see 349 b. For the accent of certain 
forms, see 367 e. 

381. Formation. The first aorist actiye and middle adds o- to 
the stem. 

The future and first aorUt systems, when formed with o-, have the 
same tense-stem : hence the rules in 372 apply also to the 1 Aor. 
itajr-To> f ifo^a * rda-aro) (ray) tra^a id'o tidaa 

pXdvrio cijSXa^a opvaaoi (pp^x) &pv£a Tifid-a iriixijaa 

ypdtft^ eypaifra <j>pd{ta (<^paB) €<ppaaa noU-tn tnoirjo-a 

frXfK-a> eirkr^a «nr€vd-<» ttnrtiaa dov\6-<o tbovXaura 

rp€<f}-o c^pci^a irtiSim (fri3) enetaa irvita (ttw) (rrv€V(ra 

Xc'tt) to pour makes tfxea (for exrvva) corresponding to the Fut xf» 
(378). Of. the irregular (ha wid (450, 8), ^vfyxa (450, 6). 

For three aorists in xa, tf^ijKa from ri^rjp^i (U) to put^ ed<ttKa from di- 
da>/ii (bo) to ffite^ rJKa from trjpi (c) to send^ see 402. 

882. Liquid Verbs. These reject a in the first aorist, and length- 
en the stem-vowel in compensation for it : ^aivu) (^av), l^va (for 
c^i^ona) ; see 845.. {Paradigm^ 283.) 

Rem. a. The verbs alpta (ap) to ram and S^ikofuu (dX) to leap make 
dp and *dX in the 1 Aor., except in the Ind.^ which has rj on account of 
the augment : ffpa^ ijAo^r/t^, but apas^ dKdftevos. 

b. A few other verbs have a where the rule (335) requires 17 : Kcp- 
dcdvoi to gain^ Utpbava ; opyaivat to enrage^ apyava ; — or, on the contrary, 
have 17 after p, instead of d : rtTpalva to bore, mrpTjva. 

380 D. For 1 Aor. in Hm. with o and e, like the 2 Aor., see 849 D. 

881 B. For c doubled in Hm. afler a short vowel (ly^Aao-^a), see 844 D. 
For ix6wtra=zflXavaa from Ao^w to haihe^ see 871 D e. 

For ix^a^ Hm. has commonly tx"^"^ Similarly, Hm* makes 1 Aor. imta 
* (also written ficcia) Att. tKcwaa from koXm (icav) to 6um, Hcffma from ire^ (<rv) 
to drive, liXtdfifip and iiKtvdfiritf from ii\4ofuu or iXc^fuu to avoids and the de- 
fective Aor. 94aro itemed (connected perhaps with i-9d^p learned). 

Hes. has Setr^flW^oi from 9cir4ofuu to divide. 

882 D. Hm. has 1 Aor. in tra from some liquid verbs (345 D). ^Hm. 

A^9JJ<a for A^Om from 6^\\u to inereaee (846 D). 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Second Aorist Ststkm, or 

Second Aorist Active and Middle. 

383. The tense-stem of the second aorist active and middle is 
the same as the verb-stem. It has the inflection of the present 
system, the second aorist indicative being inflected like the imper- 
fect. {Parcdigm, 276.) 

For the change of c to a id the 2 Aor., see 334 a. For the accent of 
the 2 Sin^. Imv., the Inf. and Par., see 366-7 a. For the second aorist 
system without connecting vowels {ju-fiynnp^y see 399 ff. 

384. "Kyta to lead has in the 2 Aor. a redaplicated stem (332) : (fyay- 
ovy dyay^lv. Syncopated stems (339) are seen m d-nr-ofirfv (n-cr-o/Luit to 
fiy\ t-cx'ov (for €-<r€xyv^ Pr. €^« to have)j4-(nr^fiffv (for t-a-tir-ofirfv^ Pr. 
fjrofuu to follov>\ j^XSov (for ^v2i-ov Hm., JPr. tfpxofuu to come), and some 
others : ijvtyKov (for i^p-rycx-ov, Pr. ^pa> to hear) has both redupHcation 
and syncope. ^For Tpmy<o to gnaw^ 2 Aor. ?-Tpdy-oi', see 334 d. 

Fertsct Activb Ststeks, or 
Perfect and Pluperfect Active. 

385. The two perfect active systems have the reduplication (318 ff.) 
in common, and are alike in their inflection (ParadigfM, 273, 277). For 
the augment of the Plup., see 311. For the connectixig vowels of the 
Ind., see 350-1. For the older Attic rj in the 1, 3 Sing, of the Plup., see 
351 a. For vop in the 3 PI. Plup., see 356 c. For the forms XcXvxa 
and Xe'XvKc, see 361. For the accent of the Inf. and Par., see 367 c, d. 

883 D. In Em., a few stems which end in a mute after /», suffer transposi- 
tion as well as variation of vowel in the 2 Aor. : 94fuc^/iai to see, f^poKov^ iripd^ 
to destroy f irpa^y. 

For Ion. itw instead of uv in 2 Aor. In£, see 852 D. 

884 D. In Hm.f a considerable number of verbs have reduplicated stems in 
the 2 Aor. : ^-^/^paS-oy {^pd(0 to deelare\ x4fit^-o¥{xti^ topermade\ rerafw 
6fi'titf (rdftw-w to delight)j wt^t^c^ai (^c(8o/uu to spare)^ eto.— — 1ipap-op (st. op, 

Pr. iipetpiffKm to Jit), Apop-oy {6p-wfu to rotMe). Keduplicated and syncopated 

are i-KfKK'Sp.iip (jc^A.-o/xai to command), &\aAjc-oy (st. a\cic, Pr. i\4^m to tpard 
off). Not used in the Fres. are W^K-oy (st. ^ey) killed, rirprov (st. tc/a) came 

up to, reray-t&y (st. ray, Lat. tango) taking hold of, Two verbs, ipiic-w to 

draw, iytir^w to chide, reduplicate the final consonant of the stem, with a as a 
connective : ^pvK-aK-oy, iitdfr-dv^y (also ^v^ir-oy). 

Of syncopated stems, Hm. has also ^p-6fi7iy awoke (found even in Att.^ 
from iyt(p» st. ryep), iyp-6fi€vot aseembled (Inf. ityip-tadiu 867 J), Pr. iiyeipu), 
4nr\-6pL'riv (jciK-opxu to he). 

886 D. For Dor. », mis, ei, instead of a, ea, c, in the Sing, of the Pf. Ind., 

see 850 D. ^For Dor. eiy instead of evai in the Pf. Inf., see 869 D. ^For 

Ionic forms of the Plup. in Hm. and Hd., see 861 D. For £p. en instead 

of or ui the Pf. Par., see 860 D. 

Digitized by 



For the second perfect system without connecting vowels Qurform) 
see 399 ff. 

The Sub., Opt., and Imv. have the inflection of the Pres. The Imy 
is Teiy rarely used, and only in perfects which have a present meaning. 
In place of it, the Perf. Par. can be used with the Imy. of tlfAi to be : 
thus XcXviea>s lodi, ?<rrA>, etc Even the 'Sub. and Opt. are quite generally 
made in this way: thus XrXvxoip &, XfXvxwf ttrjv^ instead of XcXvje«, XcXvk- 
oifu^ which do not yery often occur. 

386. FnfflT Pebpbct akd Pluferfbct. The first perfect and 
pluperfect add k to the reduplicated stem. (Paradigm^ 273.) 

a. This id the only form for pure verbs (but see 409). It is the pre- 
vailing form for liquid verbs, and for mute verbs with lingual stems : 
the lingual mute is dropped before k : xo/x/^o) (xo/icd) to eonveyj K€K6fitKa, 

The pure verb okpvo) to hear has the 2 Perf. oKriKoa (321), 2 Plup. 
rfiofKotuf or wajKotuf (311), — ^the only instance of the kind in Attic prose. 

b. Pure verbs, and verbs of the second class, have the lengthened 
stem in the 1 Per£ 

ca*fi» cidxa iroic-tf rrciroii^xa rrct3o» (nti) wintiKa 

>ftfki-tt rerlfjajKa dovXd-tf MovKaica irvea> (xri^) ircVvcvxa 

c. Liquid stems of one syllable chai^ r to a (334 a): <rrcXXtf (oreX) 
to sendf caraXica, <(>'S3€ip<a (</>3rp) to destroy, €<bliapKa. ^ 

V is rejected m a few verbs : Kptum (Kpiv) to dietinguiah, KtKpXKo^ r^ivvi 
(t€p) to extend, rir&Ka, etc (433). K not rejected, it must be changed 
to y nasal : <l>cuv» (<^Nzy), frc^oyica. 

Several liquid stems suffer transposition (340), and thus become 
vowel-stems : fidkXa 03aX) to throw^ /^c-jSXi^-iea, Kafi-vn to he weary f kI- 


387. Second Pekfect and Plupebfect. The tense-stem of the 
second perfect and pluperfect is the reduplicated verb-stem. 

{Faradigmy 277.) 

a. Vowel' Changes, c in the stem becomes o in the 2 Perf. 
(334 a) : <npi4^-^ to tum^ tLrrpofjiay tiktw (tck) to bring forthy rcroica. 

Verbs of the second class have the lengthened stem, but change « to 
Oi (334 b) : r^/c-» (rdJc) to meU, rirr)Ka^ \tin-» (Xlw) to leave, XcXoin-o, 
^vy-a> (^i?y) toflee^ nt^vya. 

386 D. In Hm., only vowel-stems (or such as become so by traDsposition) 
form a first perfect ; and even these often have a second perfect form : irc^^aci 
Att irc^^Kwri. {fit-v to produce), K^Hyert^s Att. K^KfiriK^s {Kdfi-vu to be foeary), 
rerat^s troubled (defective, used only in this form and in Ff. Mid. rcrdf/Aoi, 
Par. rvntifUyos troubled), 

387 I), a. In Hm., Uie Fern. Far. sometimes has a when other forms of 
the perfect have i} (38S D). 

b. The aspiration of a smooth or middle mute in the perfect active is 
unknown to B^. 


Digitized by 




In other verbs also, a is lengthened (338) : «epd^<io (lepdy) to cry^ jcc* 
KpOya^ ay 'Will to hfeak, cdya, \ayxay<o (\dx) ^ obtain bylot^ *^1X^ ^iv» 
{<f>dv)i rti<pvfva. 

But the stem -vowel remains short, 1. After the Attic reduplica- 
tion (321) : dX€i<j}oi> (aki<j}) to anoint^ oX^Xri^a. 2. In some instances, 

before a rough mute : ypa^-a> to wrtt^ yiypd<\)a^ rao-o-o) (ray) to arrange^ 

For tpptaya from priywfu (fidy) to break, and c7«>3a am accmtomed 
from St. c3 or rfi^ see 334 d. 

b. Aspiration of Final Mute, Some verbs aspirate a labial or 
palatal mute at the end of the stem (341), changing ir, fi, to <!>, and 
X, y« to X • kXcttto) (kXctt) to steal, xckAo^, aXXda-tno (oAAay) to ea> 
change, ^AAa;(a. 

A few verbs have two forms, aspirate and unaspirate : npdvaio (wpdy) 
to do, ir*npaya intransitive, am doing (succeeding, well or ill), ninpdxa 
transitive, have done; dyoiy-a to open, dvit^a intrans. am open, dvii^x^ 
trans, hate opened, 

Pervkct Middle System, or 
Perfect^ Pluperfect, Fut, Perf., Middle {Passive). 

388. Perfect and Plijperfect. The tense-stem of the perfect 
and pluperfect middle is the reduplicated verb-stem. The endings 
are applied directly to the stem, without connecting vowels. 
{Paradigm, 274.) 

For the accent of the In£ and Par., see 367 b. 

389. Vovoel- Changes. The vowel-changes which occur in the 1 Pert 
Act., are found also in the Peril Mid. 

cd-a> cMfiat bovk&oi d*dovk<i>fiai orcXXw (otcX) taraikpaL 

Tipd'<a TfTipfjpai fTc/SoD (frI3) ntrrtiafuu ^3cip» (<^d«/>) tfpl^apptu 

iroic-tf ir€7roirifiai 9rXca> (irXc) ir€n\€v<rfiat /SaXXv (paX) fit^XijpaL 
Further, the verbs r/>c<^*a> to nourish^ Tpivw to turn, and oTpc<^ci> to 
turn^ change e to a : riipappai (66 c, d), rcrpa/x/iai, ttrrpappai, 

390. Addition of or. Many pure verbs add cr before the endings 
of the perfect middle: tcX-c-w to complete, Tc-rcXc-o^-fuu, ^c-tcXc-ct-to. 
But the added o- falls away before endings that begin with o- (55) : 
Tc-reX-c-o-ai, irt'T^t'orSe, {Paradigm, 284.) 

This <r is almost always added to the Perf. Mid. of pure verbs which 
retain a short stem-vowel (419) oontraxy to the rule in 335 : c-cnra-cr-fiai 
(not €'ainf-fiat) from oTrd-oa to draw. Other pure verbs in which it 
occurs, are enumerated in 421 ; some have both forms, with and without 
a : icXct-o» to close, KtKktKrpai and xcKXti/icu. 

S88 D. For Ionic forms such as fiipyrtai or ftipyp (Hm.), ptfiyt^ (^d.)* 
see S68 D. 

Digitized by 



391. Liquid Verbs and Mute Verbs, The concurrence of con- 
sonants in the stem and endings gives occasion to a number of 
euphonic changes. These are shown in the Paradigms^ 284. They 
take place according to the rules of euphony in 44-7. 

a. Verbs which reject v in the Perf. Act. (386 c), reject it also in the 
Perf. Mid. : KiKpHtiai^ rcVdfuu. If not rejected, it becomes a- when the 

indmg begins with /li (51)4 <f>aivv> {<i>av\ nicfMafuu ; but sometimes it 

becomes /x : 6$vp^ to sharpen, a^vfxficu. Before other endings, it remains 
inchanged : irf<f>avcrai (51), &^vvTat, 

b. When ftfi or yy would be brought before /a, the first consonant is 
rejected: irifiviA to send^ ni-wtfi-fMi (for rrt-ntfiijirijuu)^ cXcyx-o» to con- 
vict, iX'tj/kty-fuii (for eX'TjKryyfJMi), 

c. <nrcV^a) to poUT makes €<rnft<rfiat (for eoTrtva-'fuu^ for ccnreyS-fiac). 


392. Third Person Plural of the Indicative. The endings vrat, 
VTo can only stand after a vowel. When the tense-stem ends in a 
consonant, the 3 PI. Ind. is made by using the perfect participle, 
with the auxiliary verb curt thei/ are for the perfect, and ya-av they 
were for the pluperfect. See 284. 

Rem. a. The Ionic endings drai, dro (before which, tt, /3, #e, y are as- 
pirated) sometimes appear in Attic, after a consonant : rtTdxaroL, cVcra- 
Xo^o, for rcroy/xc'voi fict, ^aav, from rdoa-a (ray) tO arrange, 

393. Perfect Subfunctive and Optative. The perfect subjunctive 
and optative are made by using the perfect participle with the Sub. 
and Opt of et/At to be. See 274, 284. 

Rem. a. A few pure verbs form these modes directly from the stem : 
KTorofiai to acquire, Perf. K€Krr}' possess. Sub. xricrco^ai, k€ktj, kckt^toc 
(contracted from K^Krrj'Oifiai, etc.), Opt. Kticnafuju^ k€kt^o^ kf jcr^ro (from 

K€KTTI-OtfiriV, etc.), or KfKT^fAtlV, KtKT^O^ K€KT^TO (frOm KfKTTI-LfirjV, etC, With- 

out connecting vowel). So fiifipriaKa (jiva) to remind, Perf. iiefivrj-fiai 

394. FcTURE Perfect. The future perfect adds o- to the tense- 
stem of the perfect middle. It has the inflection of the future middle, 

892 D. The use of oroi, aro ia much more common in Hm. and Hd., see 
856 D e. Hm. has rrr^^-aroij wro (1 S. rhvyitM^ t€^x» to make) with w for r, 
ipnp^^-aro (1 S. ipiipttfffiriPf ipd^ct to support) with c for ci, — ^the change of 
quantity in each case being required by the hexameter verse, cf. 28 D. Before 
tiiese endings, he inserts 9 in hK-^x^^"^^-^*^^ (Vslt. iucjjx^'f^^^' paine{[)^ ^X- 
i|A^S-aro (for cXiiAa-S-ortf, St. cAo, Pr. iKa^yw to drive). In ifipdSareu {^ciyu to 
sprinkle)^ ^ appears to be the primitive stem, cf. Aor. piacwr^. And d be- 
longs to the stem in Hd. irap-c<rKfiM(8-arai {tcapu^KwiCm to prepare), and like 
forms from verbs in (». In ikwU-areu, aro (Hd.) = Att. hi^tyikivoi ehl, i)iray, 
K is not changed to x- . 

893 D. Hm. has Sub. 1 P. fUfufdfjM^ (Hd. /ue/Arti^fif^), Opt. /ufunjfiny^ 
8 S. jupy4^o (cy for noh «^h 2^) i &^0 ^P^* 3 P. XcXvfto (for XcXvt-rro, 88). 

Digitized by 



from which tense it differs in form only hj haying a rednplication. 
{Parody 274.) 

The Fut. Peril is not used in liquid verhs, nor in yerhs heginnmg with 
a yowel. Yet we have /Sc/SX^o-o^ac, rrrfirja-o^tat^ from )3aX-Xa> to throw^ 
Tffji-vut to euty with transposition of the liquid (386 c). 

Rem. a. There are two cases of a Fut. Per£ with aetiee endings : in 
hoth, the stem is formed hy adding o- to the stem of the 1 Per£ : tarrffu 
{ara) to set, 1 Perf. ttrnjKra «tafl^ Fut. Per£ icrrrf^ shall stand; Syijoncc* 
(3tSy) to die^ rt^tnjK-a am dead, rram^^ shall be dead, 

Passttx Ststsms, or 

Aoriat and Future Passive. 

395. FoBMATiON. The tense-stem of the passiye aorist is formed 
by adding a passiye-sign to the verb-stem (343). The first aorist 
takes Btj the second aorist c. These become Sri and 17 before a 
single consonant. ^The passive future annexes o- to the tense- 
stem of the corresponding aorist (344). Thus the first future adds 
SyfCTy the second future i^cr, to the verb-stem. 

Inflection {Pa/radigms, 275, 278). Both passiye systems have the 
same inflection. The Aor. Pass, takes the endings of the Act. without 
connecting vowels, and thus resembles the ui-forms. For the contrac- 
tion of € with the mode-signs of the Sub. ana Opt., see 343. For a-ap in 
the 3 Plur., see 356 c. For the mode-sign of the Opt., see 343. For 
the ending n instead of 3i in the 1 Aor. Imv., see 65 b. For the accent 
of the Inf. and Par,, see 367 c, d. 

The Fut Pass, has the inflection of the Fut. Mid. 

396. Bemarlcs on the First Passive System. 
a. In regard to vowel-changes^ the 1 Aor. Pass, agrees with the Perf. 
Mid. ^389). So also, in the rejection of v from liquid stems (391 a), and 
the addition of o- to vowel-stems (390). 

cd-o) rtoSli/v »r€t3M (irl3) rVciVSijy /SoX-Xtt e'/SX^di^y 

rtfid-o) fTifiTj^riv irXea (irka) cVXci/o-di^i' mrd-a rWdtrSi^y 

n-oic-tt (iroi^^Tjv rctVo) (rei/) crdS^y reXt-m crrXcVSi/y 

dovXd-cD fdovXa^rjv KpivtA {Kplv) iKpfyrjv dieov-oft fjKova^ijv 

395 D. Hm. r for o-oy in 8 P. Aor. Ind., see 865 D c : the passiye-sign 

c lengthened to €t (or 71) in the uncontracted 2 Aor. Sub., see 843 D : the 

mode-Yowels of the Sub. shortened in the Du. and PL, see 84*7 B :— /lenu 
for vat in the Aor. Inf., see 859 J). 

In the Aoi^ Sub., Hd. contracts ei; to 17, but leaves e« uncontracted : Xv^c«, 

In Hm., the 1 Fut. Pass, is never fonnd ; the 2 Fut only in Miffo/uu (2 Aor. 
Pass. iZdffp learned)^ fjuy^ffofuu {fUy-tn/pu to mix), 

896 B. Hm. adds r before ^ to some vowel-stems: I9p6-^d7iv hteame seated 
(ISp^), ikfi-wr^y^y revived (st. ww, iryew to breatheX. In ^whi^rfv {fatiym to 
shine^ = ^yu) he changes ^omv to ^aay (of. 370 J) a). 

Digitized by 



Bat <rTp4<l>e», r/>eir», and rpi<f>» ^389) haye c in the 1 Aor. Pass. This, 
howeyer, is b'ttle used, the 2 Aor. Pass, of these yerbs being much more 

b. Mute StefM. Before 3, a labial or palatal mute (tt, i9, k, y) be- 
comes rough ((^, x)' ^ lingual mute (r, d, 3) becomes o-: see 44-^, and 
FcMradigmSy 284. 

For cSi/)€<^2[7»', etc, see 66 d. For tri^rfv^ M^rjv^ see 65 c 

397. B&mariB <m the Second Passive System. /^ 

a. The yerb-stem is only modified by yariation of c to d (383) : 
frrcX-Xo> to send, iardktfp. 

But irXrjtrtra (irXdy) to Strike mskeB cirX^v; yet in composition with 
€K and Kara, it tiJces the form -fnkdyfjp, 

b. The second passiye system is not formed from yerbs which haye 
a 2 Aor. Act. The only exception is rpiira to turn, h-pdwov and irpdmfv. 

Some yerbs haye both passiye systems in use: /3Xain-o> 03Xd/3) to vi^ 
jure, i^dfpiiTiv and iPKafiriv, 

Verbal Adjectives. 

398. The yerbal adjectiyes are analogous to passiye participles. 
They are formed by annexing to or rco to the yerb-stem. 

1. Xv^d-s^ 17, d-v loosedj looseable (solatos, solubilis). 

2. Xi>-T€o-s, a, o-v (requiring) to be loosed (solyendus). 

The yerb-stem assumes the same form as in the 1 Aor. Pass., except 
that a mute before t6s and riot must be smooth (44). 
ca-M cdrdff, riot n-ctStf irrtordr, rcop jSoXXo /3Xi;rdr, rco; 

Tiftd-a niirjrdsy rios n-Xcoi trXcvordr, tcop vrXcica) irXrierdr, Wos 
TfXc-fli) TeXeoTcJf, rt off Ttiv<a rardr, Teof ra<r<rta rcucrdr, rcoff 

oKou-A> dxovoTor, rcoff Kpiva icpirds^ riot rpfffm ^peirros^ rtos 

Fresent, Second Aorxst, Ain> Second FEarEcr Ststemb, 
according to the fit-form. 

399. Some yerbs inflect the present system without connecting 
yowels. These are called Verbs tn /u (267). 

In like manner, but less often, the second aorist and second per- 
fect systems are inflected without connecting yowels. These also 
are cdled fw/oims, though belonging for the most part to yerbs in to. 

{Paradigms, 297—305.) 

897 D. Em. has rpair-tlofitp gaudeamus (2 Aor. Sub. 1 Flur. for rpmrSifiw 
343 Df from ripr-to to delight^ 2 Aor. Pass, irdfm'^) with transpofiition and 
yariation of vowel as in 888 D. 

898 D. Hm. ZflSrr6si by transpoaitioD, for Soprdy, from Up^ to fiay. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

184 m-FOBMS. FURTHER peculxabihes. [400 

400. Further peculiaritiea qf this formation, 

1. In respect to the endings, 

a. fxi and at are retained in the Ind. : c^ij-m^ <l>T^i 

b. 3t is often retained in the Imv. : <^a-3i say, 

c. (TOi and <ro usually retain a : cora-o-ai, €d€lKw<ro, 

d. the 3 PL of the histor. tenses has a-au: €<i)araaw^ Sif-acof, 

e. the Inf. Act. has vat : ^a-Mic, doO>vot. 

f. the Par. Act. retains s in the Nom. Masc. : dtdovs (not M^v). 

g. for the ending a%a in the 2 Siog., see 356 a. 

2. h. A connecting towel a is inserted before (v)<n in the Pres. Ind. 
3 PI. : ri3c-d-(ri (for riSc-a-yo-Oi dido-d-crft : — ^thls a is contracted with an 
a in the stem : hraat (for lora-a-vo-i) ; — and sometimes with c or o in the 
stem : Tt3*I<ri, dtfiouo-i, rare forms for rtSfao-t, di66aa'i. ^The same in- 
sertion appears also in the Perf. Ind.: Mi-a-at they are <tfraid^ itrrcun 
(for eora-a-wi). 

* 3. i. A final a, r, o of the stem is contracted with the mode-signs of 
the Sub. and Opt. : ri3£fxac (for rt9£-a>/MiOi dotijv (=^0-117-1'). 

k. Hence these modes have the accent of e(nUract forms. Compare 
the accent of the Sub. and Opt in contract presents (279-81), and in 
the passive aorist (275, 278). 

4. The stem-^owcl in /xc-forms is generally short; but 
m. the Pres. and Impf. Act. make it long in the Sing, of the Ind. : 
</>i7-/4i, €017, but <t>a'fiiv^ <f>airitf^ <f>a-vat. 

n. the 2 Aor. Act. makes it long before a single consonant : ctm;-?, 
fOTTj (for ccmj-T), crr^-Slt, arij'vat ; but arairiv, ara-vrtov^ ardv (Neut. Par, 
for CTa-vr). 

For the accent of the Inf. and Par. Act., see 367 c, d. 

400 D. a. The Dor. has rt for cri: ^a-ri for ^trirf; and yrt for {v)<n: ^-rrl 
for ^(r(. Sec 856 D a. 

d. Hm. V for {raof^ oflen : l^^a-v for H^-^w, U-v for Tc-cror (855 D c). 

e. Hm. fi€yat or ft«y for yat: Z6-fitpcu or d^ficy for Bov-tnu (359 D). 

g. The ending a^a is more freq. in Hm. than in Att. : rldijcrdo, ittoto'dra. 
For arcu, aro used instead of ptu, vto (Hd.), see 855 D e. 

h. Hm. and Hd. always have rii^eTcri, 9(8oD(ri, prtyvvvi^ etc. ; but two pres- 
ents insert a, Ido-t (or cM) Mey are, fdo-t they go. The forms lari-acrt^ ioYc- 
suri (in Hd.), for iaraatj iffrSurif are doabtful. 

i. In Hm., the Sub. of the 2 Aor. Act. often remains uncontracted. The 
Btem-Towel is then usually lengthened and the mode-vowel shortened : but in 
the Sing, and 3 Fl. of the Act., the mode-vowel is always long : or^-rroy for 
(<rra-iyToy) arriiroyf ^tl-ps or ^-pt for (^t-tis) ^$t, 9t&-^<rt for (80-p) 8^. Similarly 
we find btl-ofiM for {l^t-ufuu) h&fiat in the 2 Aor. Mid. rj, lengthened from d, 
is sometimes changed to €i : cr^i-otitv (instead of ^rjfoiJLw) for tfrwfi€y. 

In Hd., only aw and tu of the Sub. remain uncontracted : aw he changes 
to cm: ar4'<>»fitsf for {cra-wfiw) tfr&fuy. The same change is also found in Hm. 

ro, n. In Hm., the stem-vowel is sometimes long in other forms: thus in 
the Pr. Infl rt^fuvatt 8i5oiVai, &^wu to 6/010, Pr. Ind. Mid. Hfy/uu to teek^ Par. 
Mid. rtdifurof. For the 2 Aor. Sub., see 1 above. 

Digitized by 


401] m-FORMS. J T Utf i' liKK FECULUEmES. 185 

401. JSemarJks an the ahove peculiarities. 

b. In the Pres. Imv., Si is commonly rejected, and the vowel before 

it lengthened : la-rrf (not lo-Td-Si), TtS«, 5tdou, btUvv. In the 2 Aor. 

Imv., ^i tSter & short Yowcl loses i, and 3 is then changed to c bo-s 
(not do-3()f ^''^- ^^^ ^< remains unchanged after a long vowel : (rr^3i, 
^^3i (in compounds sometimes crra^ ^a : thus irapdardy «rarr//3a, poetic). 

c. o-ac and ao drop ir in the 2 Aor. ; also in the Pres. Sub. and Opt. ; 
and occasionally in other forms : l^ov (not cSr-cro), fSg (not Sij-o-oiX dtdoco 
(not bidot-vo) ; (crrao-o and laro^. 

h. A connecting vowel is sometimes found in the Sing, of the Impf. 
Act. : cdtdovy, edidovf, cdtdov (contracted from edido-oi^, -cr, -c) arc almost 
always used for cdida>v, <dida>f, cdidcd. So also cViSrir, cVidn are more 
common than cVtdi/r, cVcb?;. 

The connecting vowel o takes the place of the stem-vowel c, in the 
Opt. ri^oifirjn for (ri3«-ifii;v) ri^tifjtrjv. y 

L In the contraction of the Sub., 017, ajj^ on give i;, 17, <}> (not d, 7, 01, ' 
32, 34) : ioT^rai (for fo-To-iyra*), OTjjs (for «rTO-?;f)i ^^ tf^^ do-17). 

k. The Sub. and Opt Mid. are sometimes accented without reference 
to the contraction. This is always the <aise with the deponents, duvd/Aot 
to he able^ tmirr&fxai to understand, Kpf'fjtafuu to hang, together with the 
second aorists tvpidfuiv hought^ ^pfifujv received profit: dvvc^fiai, Svatro 
(not Bwuffiai^ ovaiTo). And it is sometimes the case with irjfit, ri'ai/fic, 
dtdtt/ii: ridui/iai, dtdoiro. 

1. A close vowel (i, v) at the end of the stem, is not contracted with 
the mode-sign (33) : the Opt. then takes a connecting vowel o: i-<a, buKvv- 
oifxt. In such verbs, the Sub. and Opt. are not distinguished from the 
ordinary formation. 

n. The 2 Aor. Act. of (17/it, rtdij/^i, biba>iii, lengthens only the Inf. : 
tl'vai, 3«i-vat, doxhuai ; though in trjfu, the 2 Aor. Ind. is long (f i-) by the 
augment (312) : e to-av, c t/icSa. 

The poetic 2 Aor. Act. ttcrdv (kto) is also short. On the other hand, 
the 2 Aor. Mid. ui/^/1171/ (om) follows the rule for the Al;t. 

401 D. b« Hrl sometimes retains ^t in the Fr. Imv. : ZlBct^i and 9liov give, 
6fA9ti^i swear. He has Ko^iffra for Ko^lffni. Pind. 8(801 for Sltov. 

b. Hm. sometimes has a connecting vowel in the Sing, of the Pr. Act. : 
8i8dif (cf. SiiXoftr for 8i7A^-cif) and 8i8oMrda for 8(8»r, 8i8ot (and 8f8o»o'i), ri^ti 
(and Tto7j<r0» ^«* (yrith irreg. accent) for Ti|», Tei (aiid Tij<r«). In Hd. Ui, rt^ttSj 
ri^ci, Mois, 8(801, Icrf, are perhaps always used in place of the Attic forms. 
So too, Hd. has Impf. 3 S. 7<rro (= /<rro-e) for Tony. 

The connecting vowel takes the place of the stem-vowel o, in fiapyotfit^a 
(Hm.) Pr. Opt. of fxdpyofAot to fight, Hd. has bt-otfinv for {^t-ifAtiv) ^tlfirif 
2 Aor. Opt. of rtdiifu. 

k. So in Hm. and Hd., the Pr. Sub. Act. o(tvfir. thus Iptri (Hm.) for ly, 

\. Hm. contracts 1, v of the stem with the mode-sign of the Opt. in 9vr} 
(for 8u-ii|) 2 Aor. Opt. of 8iJ«, Houifvro (for Zcuvv-iro) Pr. Opt. of 9aitfufuu to 
feast, ^iro (for ^i-iro) 2 Aor. Opt. of ^-rw to perish, 

n. With (itrwf compare Hm. oh-a wounded; with Miiaiv, Hm. irX^o ap- 

Digitized by 



402. Peculiar First Aoriat in xa. Three verbs in fu^ trjfUy rbrjfu^ 
Bi^cofu^ have with the 2 Aor. a peculiar 1 Aor. in ku (tense-sign c). But 
this is almost confined to the Ind. Act : ^xa, cdi^xo, eda>«ca. Here it is 
very common in the Sing., of which number the 2 Aor. is not in use : 
thus cdflDfca, tdcoKos^ cdttKc (neyer €d<uv, edof, cdo)). It occurs also, but less 
often, in the Plur.: ibaKafitv^ cda>iear£, tbatKcw (usuallj idofuv^ edore, 


403. Verbs in /u belong to the first, fifth, and eighth dassea 
(825, 329, 332). Those of the first and fifth classes have the 
/u-form o nly in the present and imperfect (for one exception, see 
408, 9). We begin, therefore, with 

Verbs in fic of the Eighth Clasa. 

1. Vi {k 332) to wndy mflected like rt3i7/it (297, 301, and 403, 2). 
Act. Pr. Ind. Itiyn (3 PI. always lacr*, 400 h^ ; ^ 

Impf. ii;v, Irjs^ ii;, etc. (also [lowl, icir, ?««, 401 h ; a^t» and 

ri^Ui from d<l}'irjfu^ cf. 314) ; • 

Sub. 2a>, Opt. itirjvy Imv. ici, In£ IcVat, Par. Uig (Um), 
2 Ao. Ind. (5#ca, 5#caff, ^lee, 402) firov, ^^'^''i **/*«"» <*■»"£, etcrov; 
Sub. &, Opt €trjv, Imv. €f , Inf. tipoi^ Par. etr (evr). 
Mid. Pr. t€/iac te' A^u^n, strive; Imp£ tcfii;^; 

S. lufuu^ 0. leifirjUy Imv. ircro (or lov), Inf. ica-Scu, P. Ufuvos* 
2 Ao. Ci/i);!') euro, eiro, €4(7301/, €io'3i;i/, ci/xcSa, ero-Sc, clvro ; 

Sub. t>iuuy Opt. eift);!', Imy. o^, Inf. €<T^ai^ Par. efupos. 
Fu. i7(r», 1 Ao. ^Ko, Pf. cIkq, Pf. M. ct/xat, Ao. P. ttSSriv^ V. cror, fT€Os. 

Rbic. a. The Pr. Opt has also toifu (loir, toi, etc.) for/e/^y, loi/ii;^ for 
Ulfirfv', 2 Ao. Opt, ot/ii/y for ctfii/v: cf. 401 h. 

2. r(^i7/iu (3c) fo jptf^. For /^t-forms, see Paradigms 297, 301. 

Fn. d^orw, 1 Ao. c^i^Ka, Pf. re3€iica, Pf. M. reSct/xai, Ao. P. cVcdijv (65 c), 
V. Z€t6s, Sercof. C£ 402. 

3. BU^rjfAt (dc) f<^ dind^, rare form for dca> (420, 1). 

4. dtdoifii (do) to give. For fu-forms, see Paradigms 298, 302. 
Fu. d(»(ro>, 1 Ao. eda>«ea, Pf. dedtfica, Pf. M. dedofiai, Ao. P. edddiji', 
V. dordf, doTcor. Cf. 402. 

5. icmy/ii (ora 332) to set.^ For /xi-formSp see Par. 299, 303, 305. 
Fu. OT^oro), 1 Ao. (tarrfaoy Pf. etmjKOy Pf. M. eorafuit, Ao. P. ioraHrjVy 
Plup. 4aTTjK€i)f or cioT^Kciy, Fu. Pfl A. itrrri^ia (394 a), M. iaTrj(ofuUy 
V. oTdTdv^ arareos. For irregularity of meaning, see 416, 1. 

403 D. 1. Hm. Impf. 1 S. Teiy, 1 Ao. IJKa and SFiyjca (312) : fh)m &r-/i|/u he 

has a Fu. Wo-w, Ao. &i'c<ra. Hd. Ff. Ind. 8 P. &y-/»rrcu irreg. for ir-ciWai, 

dnd Pf. Par. fi^-fur-i-fidpos very irreg. for fi«d-ci-/i^yoi. 

2. Hd. Impf. 1 a fr£&f^ with irreg. comiecting vowel a (406 D a, 864 D). 

4. Hm. Fu. Z^icw, and with redupl. 9Mtrw. 

Digitized by 



6. ovhnjfu (ova 332) to ben^t ; 
Mid. oviydfuu to receive benefit^ Impf. atvivafujv^ 

2 Ao. o>vrifU]v^ &vri(ro^ &vrfTo^ Opt. 6yaifiT}v (401 k), Inf. ovav^cu, 
Fu. oi^o-w, oi^o-o/Mi, Ao. &vrifTCL^ Ao. P. ^vtiHriv. 

7* mfnrKijfn (trXa) to filly Impf. tTrlfinXrjp^ Inf. fr(/A9rXai«at ; 
Mid. mftTrkdfiai to fill one's eelf^ Imp£ tiniiirXdfirjv^ Inf. n-i/in-Xao^ai. 
Fa. irX^o-o), Ao. cYrXiyo'a, Pf. ircVXi/Ka, Pf. M. vrenXria^at^ Ao. P. cfrX^(73i7y, 
V. irXiyoTcor. A kindred form is irX^Sco to &d /t^/, Lat pleo. 

Rem. a. In this verb and the next, the rednpl. is strengthened bj the 
nasal /x. This, however, falls away in the oomponnds, if the preposition 
has fi : €fi-iriir\rifu^ bat Impfl 3 P. ev-fmfiirkaa-av. 

8. mfiTrprffu (trpci) to bum transitive, inflected like trifnrkrjfit. 

9. Kixprjfu (xpa) to Ifnd, Mid. KixpAfuu to borrow ; 

Fer J« in ficofthe First Class. 

404. A. Stems in a. 

1. Tjiu (cf. Lat. d-io) &? «ay, used only in Pr. 1 S. ^fu and Impf. 1, 3 
S. Ijp, ^ (^v d* €y& eaid i, { d* orfaici^ he). 

2. <^/u (<^) to 8ay, (^^r, ^<''t'i ^rdvi <t)€n'6v, ^df/icv, <^r£, ^do-t ; 
Imp£ ei^i^i', e<^c oomm. c c^i/crda, e^i;, €<f>dTov^ itjyarrjv^ €<f>dfi€V^ f<6ar€, €<f>ao'<uf» 
Pr. Sab. <^, Opt. i^'ijv, Imv. 0d3t or <^i, Inf. (payai (Par. i^dr). 
Fu. ^<ra>, Ao. t^va^ V> ffxtrSs^ tfiartot. 

Rem. a. The forms of the Pr. Ind. are all enclitic except the 2 Sing. 
(105 c). The Par. k^ms is never used in Attic prose, which takes <l)daKt»v 
instead: c£ 444^ 8. 

3» XPV (jCP*h XPO */ beJiOves, Impf. e^P^JJ or xp^v; 
Pr. Sub. xpi7; ^P^« XP^hy ^^^* XP?''^^ ^* XP^^^ (only neut., for xp^op 26). 
Fu. xp^<r<i (o35 a). In composition, 

djr<5-Ypi? it u en^n^^, 3 P. (contract) dnoxpSxrh Impf. antxp^ ; 
Pr. In£ an-o^piiv (371 c), Par. diroxpS>Py -SxrOi -mp, both contract. 
Fu. diroxp^trct, airoxpy)<Tova'i^ Ao. airixPW^^ 

5. Hm. 1 Ao. 3 P. tarwrw as well as tarfivw. 

6. Hm. 2 Ao. Imv. {{yiTtro, Far. 6p4i/upos, 

7. Hm. Pres. Hid. also Ti/AvAiycroi (829 a^ ; 2 Ao. Mid. 8 S. vKnro, 8 P. 
vXSjpTo, became full, and in comp. f/tvAi|ro, MforKriPTo (in Aristoph. Opt. ^/i- 
vX^/iiyv, Imv. l/iir\i}<ro, Far. ^/iirXVcivs). lU^v is chiefly poetic, 2 Pf. vc- 
vA^o. 8. The form vp^w occurs only in ip-4wp7t^p H. i, 589. 

10. Hm. Pr. Far. fiifids^ from st. jSo, common Fr. /SiUiw to go (485, 1). 

404 D. 2. Middle forms of <^fil are rare in Att. (thus in Plato, Pf. Imv. 3 
S. ve^iitfdw), but common in other dialects ; jet the Pr. Ind. Mid. is not used. 
Hm. has Impf. i<pdft7tpf i^wro or ^ro^ etc., Imv. ^, ^^^, etc., Inf. ^ia^at^ 
Par. ^dfupos, 

8. Hd. has xp^t xfi^* Xfi^'^ hut itiroxp9 (j^^^XP§9 ^^^XP^\ iiroxpw. 

Digitized by 



To which add the following depooeot verbs : 

4. ayd-fiat to admire^ Imp£ ffydftriv. 

Fu. oydo-ofuit, Ao. P. rfyda^tiv (413, rarely M. rjyao'afirfv), V. ayaoT<$r. 

5. dvvd-fiai to he ahle^ dvvaa-ai (poet. duin/), ivvaraiy etc. ; 

Impf. ibvvdfirjv^ €bvv<D (401 c), tBvvaro^ etc. ;* Pr. Sub. ivvtsfiat (401 k), 
Opt. dwaiiiTjv (401 k), Imy. duv» (401 c), Inf. bvva&iai^ P. duva/xcvor. 
Fu. bvytitrofiai^ P£ Mvjnjfiat^ Ao. P. fbvvri^ijv (413. seldom ebwda^iijv), 
v. dvvardf ablB, pombU. Augment often 17 (308 a) ; but never ifiwaa^rfw. 

6. fmard'fjuu to understand^ iirlaraa'at^ eirtararaiy etc. ; 

Impf. rpntrrdfjafVy fjwioTm (401 c), ffrri<nraro^ etc. ; Sub. ftrlfrraftat (401 k), 
Opt. €frtOTaifirjv (401 k), Imv. iirlariOy Inf. iirltrraa^at^ P. iiriardfjifvos* 
Fu. firurrriaofMat^ Ao. P. ^jrtoT^3i;i', V. cVicmjTcJf. 

7. rpd-fiat to 2ai?d (poetic for c/mx-o) 419, 3). Ao. P. i7fKi<r3iyir (413), 
V. ipavrds, 

8. Kpiix&'iiat to hang intrans. Tcf. 439. 2), Impf. inpifidfuiPi 
Sub. KpifuofjLtu (401 k), Opt KpffMUfjajv (401 k). Fu. KpffiricofAtu. 

405. B. Stems in i. 
1. e7/if (r, Lat. i-re) to ^(?. 
Pr. Ind. e(j(i(, €?, €i(7<, troy, iroy, t/xrv, trr, uSo-t ; 

Impf. fjtiv or tJo, v^tfifv or ^^xei', 

pfiff " fjda^Oy ^fiTov or ^rov, ifctrf •* ^rt 

Pr. Sub. to), 7i7f, iiy, iiyrov, irjrop^ t<afx(t'^ *»?''*» *a>o-i; 

Opt. loiTJV^ tOl£y 101, lOCrOV, loiTrjVy Xotft€Vy lOLT€y (oici^; 

Imv. t3i, tro), iroy, iroiy, trf, tr<»(ra»' or (($in'a>y J 

Inf. Uvai ; Par. ic&v, lovira, 2ov, G. loiror (Lat. euntis) ; 

Verbals. Irost ircor (also IrtfTiov one must go), 

5. Hm. and Hd. have in Ao. P. only iZvviirbjiv, Hm. has also Ao. K. 
i^wfnadfviiv, 6. Hd. Pr. Ind. 2 S. ^|-cir((rrcai for ^Irrtfrrmrm. 

9. St. opo, common Pr. itpdofiai to pray^ Hm. Pr. Act. Inf. iipffititwai only 
Od. X. 822. 

10. St. lAa, common Pr. IkJurKOfiai (444, 6) to propitiate^ Ep. !Xa/uu rare ; 
also in Act., Imv. iKn^i Hm. (tXa;^< Theoc.) 6tf propitious, 

Hm. has the following /u-vcrbs of the first class with it^ma in c : 

a. &11/U (ac) to 6/010, 2 B. &i}roy, Impf. S S. 6.11 or &ct, Inf. &^mu or &V<>^ 
Par. &c(r ; Mid. Impf. 8 S. ftip-o, Par. iefifiMvos. 

b. St. 81c to make flee (in Mid., also toflee\ Impf. S P. ^K-Sfctrcur; Mid. Pr. 
S P. iUvrat, Sub. Sfco/xot, Opt. 8 S. 8/oiro (401 k). Inf. BUo^tu, See 409, 5. 

c. diCnfioi (8t{c) to «eeA;, 2 S. ttCriai, Far. 8i(f^/i6yof ; Vu. HiCficofiai. 

d. St. Kixc (from ictXi common Pr. kix^« to com« v/> to, 436, 7), Impf. 2 
S. Mx^is, 8 D. Kix^r-nv^ Sub. Kixfi»t Opt. jcixc^^l^f Inf« kix^voi or Kix^/Acyoi, 
Par. itix'^s* Mid. Kix^fi^vos (400 D m). 

405 D. 1. Hm. Pr. Ind. 2 S. %Uha\ Impf. ^ra (406 D a, 364 D) or ^Xw 
(401 b), 3 S. 4^i« or Je, 1 P. ffo/icy, 8 P. ^toy, ffZd'oy, or ^o», Hm. has also an 

Impf. with simple C : 3 S. Tc, 3D. tn^y, 1 P. Xiup^ 8 r. t<ray. Hd. has in 

Impf. 1 S. ffro, 8 S. 4tff» 3 P. ffro-oy. 

Digitized by 





RxH. a. The present has a fatare meaning, especially in the Ind., 
cf/ju lam going ^ i. e. aihmit to go. 

b. The Impf. has the inflection of a pluperfect. The initial ^ is 
formed from the lengthened stem » bj applying the augment. 

c The Par. has the accent of the 2 Aor. (367 a). 

2. K€i]tm (k€i) to lie, to he laid or set 

Pres. lad. Impf. 

jcri/toi, jcei/xeSfo, (Ktifirjv, ciCfi/tcSa, 

icclcrac, KcicrSrop, Kccirdf, e/cfco-o, tfKtur^ov, excKr^r, 

KCiroi, Kfi<r?ioVy Kclirrcu ; eiectro, €Kfia^ijv^ €KfiVTO ; 

Pr. Sub. 3 S. KfTjrat^ 3 P. ic/ovrai; Opt. 3 S. jceotro, 3 P. moivto ^39 a); 

Imv. Kt7crOy Kf <<r3a), lecio-^oi^, xciV^ui^, ffrta-df , jcWo-SMO-av Or Kf MrSo)!' , 

Inf. K€ta9€u ; Par. Kfifi€vo£» Fu. Ktia-ofuu. 

Rek. a. The Inf. icct(r3ac retains its accent in composition : jcaraMiadai, 
contrary to 365. 


406. C. Stems in s. 
1. ei/xi (fSt Lat. es-sc) to &e. 


Pr. Sab. 



^trrov or ^rov, 
Pr. Opt. 

C(i7roy Or ctrou, 


i;tc or Tjart, 

tiir)fifv or (r/i€y, 
f7i]T€ " circ 
€irjaav " eicy ; 

Hm. Sab. 2 S. Ii^ir^ 8 S. ri7<ri, 1 P. to/icy (Y) or tvfur (l), Opt 3 S. foi (once 
Icfip), Inf. I^yai, f/ucitu or t)i«ir ; Fa. ^ofieuy Ao. tlirdfiriy, irreg. ifurdfAiiy.——' 
tcrroi Od. Xt 304, Bometimes regarded as Pr. Hid. of ttfUy ahoidd be written 
Urrai (403, 1). 

2. Hm. Pr. Ind. 8 P. iccivrai, Ktiarai (355 D e), ircWai (39 a); Impf. 8 P. 
fjrcuTOy KtiarOf K4aro; Sab. 3 S. Kriru; Iterative (410 D) 3 S. ic^cjerro; Fu. 

jcciM or ir^M (878 D). Hd. resolves ci into c«, but only in cases where c 

might be used as a connecting vowel : iccctoi, MerOf Kt4<r^Wy xUff^at (not jcce- 
ficu, M^fitpos), In the Ind. 3 P. he has Kiaraij Maro, 

Hm. has two or three ^i-verbs of the first class with stetJM in o and v : 

a. tyo-fuu, to find fatJi vfith, 2 S. Btwrat, Opt. 8 S. Siroiro (401 k) ; Fu. 

ipSinrofiaiy Ao. inwrdfiifi^ (Hd. &y6{rdjiv), Hm. has also from st. w, Pr. 2 P. 

oCy§<r^9 (24 D c^ and Ao. &ydfai». 

b. ipiofiot {$f^j tipv 24 D c) to guards preserve^ Ion. and poet. The fu-forma 
are Pr. Ind. 8 P. cfp^Woi, Impf 2 S. IpiVo, 8 S. fyvro, cfptn-o, 3 P. ct^vrro, 
cip^crro, Inf. Upwdatf ttpwr^ai, Fu. ip^ctrofuu^ (844 D; ^/y^co-i^oi, 378 D), 
etpvffaofuu, Ao. ^pv(0')o'ijbii}v, €2pv(ir)<rijtii}i'. Cf. ^p^ to <frat0 (420 D, 12). 

From /^^o/iM (^b) = ip6ofuu come ^-forms, Impf. 8 P. p^aro. Inf. pvtr^eu, 
Fu. pvtrofuu (Hd.), Ao. i^f!tiffifvt\v, 

c. St. 0TCV to «tonj to, unier^aAiv, Pr. Impf. 8 S. <rr€vra<, orcvro (Aesch, 

Digitized by 



Pr. Imy. To^i, t<TT»j tfarov^ tlar»p, tarw, tarwrtuf Or Zarwv ; 

Inf. Mivai ; Par. &Vy ovo-cl, ov {pw), 
Lnpf. Mid. ijiifiv Trare, and only in 1 SingJ. 
Fa. Mid. to-ofuu (3 S. carat), 0. €0'oifu]y^ I. co-ccSai, P. «<r6fifpos. 

Rem. a. In the Pr. Ind., 1 S. €lfu is for ccr^^u, a being dropped and c 
len^ened: 2 S. el is for co-c (properly ^o-o-i) : 3 S. cV-W retains the orig. 
ending rt : 3 P. eiVt has arisen u-om co-yrt. In the Impf., rjv^ ^afna, ^v 
are for »^(cr)-y, i;(<r)-<r3a, i7(<r-T) : in ?o-a-i/(r), a is a connectmg vowel. The 
Sub. & IS for ?a> (Ion.) from r(r*o> : the Opt. ettfv is for fv-uj-v. The Imv. 
3 P. e<rT<av is for co-nriuy (a form Hvrnv occurs only in PI. Leg. 879 b). 
The Inf. tlvcu, is for ftr-vai : the Par. &» is for f6» (Ion.) from eo-oyy. 

Rem. b. The forms of the Pr. Ind. are all enclitic, except the 2 S. e?. 
After a paroxytone, they have an accent on the ultima) by 108. But 
the 3 Sing, takes the regular accent, ccrrc, 

1. when it expresses existence or possibility: 

2. when it stands at the beginning of a sentence : 

3. when it follows o&, fifj, c^, w^ KaL 

Thus TovTo t coTft that tohich exists, ^trri /xoi iSovXo/xci^ it is according 
to my wishy et ttmv ovr»s if it is so. 

Rem. c. The Par. Sy, o^o-o, €tc., retains its accent in composition : 
irapwi', vapovaa ; SO also the 3 S. Fu. tarai for ea-enu I vaptarau The 
retention of the accent in several other compound forms is not irreg. : 
napijv (368 b), iraptf, irapiUv (400 k), traptlvai (367 c)« 

406 D. 1. Hm. has many peculiar forms: 
Pr. Ind. 2 S. i<rai and cTf, 1 P. tlfih, 8 P. {eUrl, and) Heuri not enclitic ; 
Impf. j|a, Ifa, toy, 2 S. (Ija^ and) 4fi|<rda, 8 S. (ijv and) j|cf, li|y, fhlTt 

8 P. (fffoy and) Iftray ; Iterative (410 D) fcicoy (for co'-o'ieoy); 
Sub. f«, diw, 8 S. Hvf ipffif iffij 8 P. f»<ri (once i(<rt); 
Opt. (ffqif etc., also) lion, iot; Imv. 2 S. Icr-o'o (middle ending); 
Inf. (cTyoi and) ffi/uwai (for e<r-fteyai), t/ifify, also l/icvoi, f/icy ; 
Par. ^«ir, ^ovo'a, ^^y (eorr). Fu. often with 0-0*: Utrtrofiat; 
Fu. 8 S. (Iff'eroi, loreu and) Hccrrcu, also iarurai (as in Dor.). 

Hd. Pr. Ind. 2 S. cTf, 1 P. cZ/i/r; Impf. fe, 2 S. r<u, 2 P. lart; 
Iterative litrxoi^; Sub. I», Imtx; Opt. once ^k-^oi; Par. ^i^y. 

Dor. Pr. Ind. 2 S. 4cal, 1 P. cI/a^s, 8 P. ^rr(; Impf. 8 S. h, 1 P* i(/a<x ; 
Infl cI/iCF, i(/iffr; Par. ^«iv. Fu. itrtrev/Mtf f, cireu, etc. 

BiM. a. Some of these forms have a connecting vowel: so Hatrt for c(o')-a- 
(r)o'i, i|a for ri(<ryar(y) or lyirafi Lat. eram, cf. 8 P. iltr-a'tiT) Lat. erant. In la, 
fff^ay, the augment is omitted: liw is for ^o')-c-i': li^v, ffijir come from Ijy by 
doubling the E-sound: foy for c(0'W'y omits the augment, and has the usual 

connecting vowel 0: this appears also in the Opt. fois, Hol cfccro Od. v, 106, 

Boraetimes regarded as Impf. Mid. of c{/J, should be written ffaro (406 D, 2). 

2. Hm. has Ind. 8 P. clorcu, cToro (866 D e), with irregular change of ij 
to ci, rarely larai, Itaro, only once fyro, Hd. always coroi, caro. 

From two other consonant-stems, Hm. has fu-forms, viz. 
8. Prom l^« (460, 8) to eat, Pr. Inf. (9-fttyat ; cf. Lat estis for ed4ia, 
tsss for ed-^e, 

I. From ^^ (460, 6) to hear, Pr. Imv. 2 P. ^fhrt; cf. Lat/n^/e. 

Digitized by 


408] sECoao aobists of the mi-fobic. 141 

2. jjfuu (rfo) to sit retains o- onlj before r. 

Pr. Ind. ImpC 

^crrai, ))<r3o»| tjinxui tjaro^ ifa^ijp, 

Pr. Imy. h<ro^ f (r^tt, f crdoy, f a9o*y, f o-dc, rfa^uaoM or rja^wv ; 
Inf. I)a3ax; Par. rffxtvos. 

For 9fuu, the Attic prose almost always uses the compound 
KoSitifMi to iit down. 
Pr. Ind. ica3i7fiac, KaSrjacu^ koSi^tvu, etc 

Impf. €KaSirifjLr)v, tKa'Siriao^ tKa'irjfro^ etc. (314) 
or KdSirifiTfVy KaZtjiTOj leaS^oTo, etc. (368 b) 
Pr. Sub. Ka'i&fuuy Kc&§^ Ka^rjraiy etc. (400 i) 
Opt. KdSoififjrj KoSoioy jcaSoiro, etc. (400 i) 
Imy. KoSiijao^ icc<3^cr3a>, etc. In£ leadiJo-Slai, Par. KoSifjfuvos, 
BxK. a. Kcarja^i irregularly keeps the accent of ^a^ai : cfl xoraicct- 
<rSku (405, 2 a). 

Verbs in fn of the Fifth Clasa. 

407. In these, the endings of the present and imperfect are 
applied, not to the verbHstem itself, but to the syllable vo or 
(aAeravowel) wo;, which is added to the stem: Scuc-vv-fit to 
shoiOf Kefxi-v^fu to mix. The added v is short, except in the 
singular of the indicative active, according to the rule in 836 a. 
Faradigm^ 300. 

Rem. a. These verbs often take a connecting vowel, and thus con* 
form to the ordinary inflection : df (ki/vo), dctKvucif , etc. ; especially in the 
3 P. Pr. Ind. Act : deiicvvovo-t. In the Sub. and Opt., they are never 
distingoished from verbs in » (401 1). 

The enumeration of these verbs will be found in 439-43, under Special 
Formation, Fifth Class. 

Second Aorists of the furform. 

408. For the 2 Aor. of Ftfr&« in /u, Tn/u, see 403, 1 ; WSi^/u, 403, 2 ; 
dftdtofu, 403, 4 ; {OTTT^fu, 403, 5 ; dpitnjfUy 40o, 6 ; irlfiirXtjfii^ 403, 7. 

Stems in a. 

1. /3mV» 03a) to go (435, 1). 
2 Ao. (firjv, /3^, /3aiVi Pn^i (^1 b), iS^wu, fiat, 

408 D. 1. Hm. Ind. S D. Mr^y and fidrrpf, 8 P. D9i}(rar, and Hfiea^, fidtf 
(400 D d), once Hfimrw, Sub. fitUi (400 D i), 8 S. /%, 1 P. fitlontr (Hd. fi(»fup), 
hit fflji^ and Mfuim, 

Digitized by 



2. yrfpd'(rK<a to groto old (444^ 1). 2 Ao. Inf. yrfpavat (poetic). 

3. bibpda-Kio {mpa) to run (444, 2), used only in compounds. 

2 Ao. cdpav, tfbpas^ tbp&f etc. ; Spa>^ dp?fi d/>?) ^^* > bpairjv^ dpaSi, dpoMU, 

4. m-etVtt) (ktci', <cto) to JcUl (433, 4). 

2 Ao. (poetic) licrav, ?icrar, c^rd 5 Par. «rdj, M. Krafitvos. 

5. nirofiai. (tr«r, also wra) tojf^y (424, 19). 

2 Ao. Act. (only poetic) ^im/i^, wraitjv^ irrrjvai^ irrds* 

Mid. (also in prose) tirrdfiTjPy frrdo-Stoi, nra^voff. 

6. St. rXa <<> endure^ rare in Attic prose. 

2 Ao. trkrjVy tX«, rXai?;v, rX^Si, rX^yat, rkds. 
YvL. rXfifrofiai, Pf. «rXj;/ca (409 D, 10), Y. rXirrds. 

7. ^adfo) (<^da) t^ anticipate (435, 3). 
2 Ao. tl<j)fSrjVy <f)^S>^ (plialfip^ ip^TJvcu^ ^Sdr. 

8. St. fl-pid, used for Aor. of avionai to Jmy (450, 7). 

2 Ao. inpiafirjVj npttofiai^ irptaijjLijv (401 k), Trpto), irpiao'Sai, irpidiAfVOt, 

Stems in e. 

9. afiivvvfu (o-jSc) to put out, extinguish (440, 3). 
2 Ao. fcrjS^v f^en^ out (41i5, 5), Inf. a^fjvai, 

10. o-KcXXtt (<ric«X, <rjcXf) <^ dry trans. (432, 16). 
2 Ao. €<rK\rju became dry (416, 6), Inf. (neXfjpat. 

11. fx" («^fX» ^''xO *<^ ^^^) ^^'^ (424^ 11)' 

2 Ao. Imv. ax^s (for o-^fSt, 401 b). » 

Stems in o. 

12. aXicTKo/xat (ax, dXo) to &0 taken (447, 1). 

2 Ao. idKav or ijXo)!', <iX^, ciXoi^i^, dkuvai^ 6Xov£ (d only in Indie). 

13. i3td-a> to ;it)e ^423, 2) 

2 Ao. ejSiwv, /Stfio, Puj^rjVy /3ia>yac, Plov^. 

14. 7iyv(»o-jCM (yw) to ibMHO (445, 4), 

2 Ao. eyyuv, yi^tti yvolrjv, yi'todt, 'yi^mi/ai, yvovf. 

Stems in i and v. 

15. niva (m) to drinJc (435, 4). 2 Ao. Imv. irl3t (poet tru). 

2. Hid. Far. ynpis, 8. Hd. I^pi^y, Inf. Ip^vau but Par. SpcUw 

4. Hm. 8 P. IjcTojf, Sub. KT4»fuy (400 D i), Inf. jcrd/icycu, rrt^ty; Mid, 
8 S. HicTaro wu kiUed^ Inf. ttrdc^ai. 

5. The 2 Ao. Act. is not found in Hm. ; in Att Trag. (chorus) it appears 
as Dor. Hirray. 

6. Hm. 8 P. llr\ay. Hm. has also Fu. raXdff^u, Ao. irdkoff^a (st roXa). 

7. Hm. 3 P. <p^^. Sub. 3 S. ^p or 4>;^J(ri (once »ap-(^da/u<n), 1 P. ^^ 
c»/My, 3 P. ^4u(ri. 

12. The form with c is not found in Hm. and Hd. Hm. has Sub. 3 S. 
iiXAp (400 D i), Opt. 8 S. hXalii and oA^i?, Inf. &A«ifiu and &X«$/icyai. 

14. Hm. Sub. 8 S. yr^ and tit^. Inf. ti^/mwu and ypimu. Find. Ind. 
8 P. fypttp, Pf¥W, 

Digitized by 



16. dv-0 top€u$ under J take an (423, 3). 
2Ao. edw(304; 416, 4), dva, dv3i, dCrai, dvs. 

17. <^u-a> to produce (423, 4). 

2 Ao. €if>w (toasprodueedj horn, 416, 3), (^va>, 0Gvat, 0v£. 

408 D. The following second aorists of the fu-form are peculiar to the Epio 
dialect : 

18. I&-W to tatxate, Pr. M. 8 S. JBuerm (370 D a), Fa. &r«, 1 Ao. lffa\ 2 Ao. 
heecme satedy Sub. 1 P. Iv/icy (400 D i, wrongly ^w/icy). Inf. Jfifteycu; V. 2tos 
ifuatiaie (for ftaros). 

19. diravpdE-w to take away^ 2 Ao. Par. iaroipas (M. ikrovpdfityos Hes.). 

20. iSdUAw Oa^» /9Aa) to throw at (482, 4), 2 Ao. 8 D. ^vfi-fiK^rny encoun- 
ieredy Inf. ^vfifiX/^f/itycu ; Mid. 8 S. IjSXsrro totw At^, rocundedy Sub. 8 S. /3X^cra< 
(400 D i), Opt. 2 S. fi\uo ffor /SXiy-io), Inf. fi\fi<r^at, Par. fiKiifitpof, 

21. o^ri-«» to wound (428 D, 6), 2 Ao. 8 S. o&ra, Inf. ovrificyof, obrdfitVy 
Hid. Par. o^itC^icyof wounded, 

22. vcX^Co* (vcAoS) to cofn« near (428 D, 21). From cognate stem irAa 
come 2 Ao. M. 3 S. vX^ro, IfirXirro, 8 P. (hrXi}rro, wX^in-o. 

28. irHiff-tf-w (vtv/k) to crouch (428, 7). From cognate stem irra come 2 Ao. 
8 Du. JcareMrHjnji', P£ Par. veimi^Sf wemywroj. 

24. fiifio^Kv ($op, fipo) to eat (445. 8), 2 Ao. ^/3p«r. 

25. vXi6-c» Ion. and poet for vX4» (irAv) to saiZ (426, 8), 2 Ao. (in comp.) 
fwXenff Par. vAid&f . 

26. rr((c» (kti8) to found. From cognate stem kti comes 2 Ao. M. Par. 
i^Krtfuns well-foundecL 

27. 4i;»r-jw to j)msA (435, 6), 2 Ao. M. iip^^iiiv. Sub. 8 S. ^(eroi, 1 P. <^»(- 
fuv^ Opt. ^ftijy (for ^i-ifiny^ 83), 8 S. 4>^<ro, Inf. ^l^^ui. Par. tp^lfievos. 

28. St. kAv (426 D, 8), 2 Ao. HxXvoy heard^ Imr. kAv^i, 2 P. jrXvrc, also 
k/jcAiaI^c, Jc^icXtfrc (384 D). 

29. Xw-w to /oow (269), 2 Ao. M. XiVijr, 8 S. XiSro and XDro, 8 P. At^»^o. 

80. «V€» (irw) to breathe (426, 4), 2 Ao. M. 8 S. A/i-xyf/ro recovered breath, 

81. <rc^ (<rw) to (fr*r« (426 D, 9), 2 Ao. M. 8 S. atrro. Par. tr^^tyos (Trag.). 

82. x^ (xw) to pour (426, 6), 2 Ao. M. 3 S. x^to, 8 P. x^yro, Par. xyfiwos. 
Also the following (all in the middle) from verbs with consonant-stems : 

88. Sxxofuu (&\) to leap (482, 8), 2 Ao. 2, 3 S. di\ffo, dk\ro (^»-o\to). Sub. 
8 S. SXerai, fixirrcu, Par. hr-d\fi€Pos (also ^Ti-(£A/ifKot). 

84. iMpltriw (op) to join (447 D, 15), 2 Ao. M. Par. &pfxwyos fitting . 
86. Sc yeif, only in 2 Ao. 8 S. yirro he grasped 

86. d4x-ofiat to receive, 2 Ao. iiiyiiriy^ 8 S. 8cicro, Imv. Sc^o, Inf. 9/x^w, 
Par. diyfifyos. 

87. X^y-« to a^eaJt, 2 Ao. i\4yfi7iy counted myself , 8 S. X^wro counted (for 

88. St. Xex (no Prcs.), 2 Ao. 8 S. fXcrro laid himself to rest, Imv. x/|o 
(as to X/(co, aee 849 D), Inf. jcaTflt-X^dcu, Par. K«ra-\4yfjLtyos. Fu. X^|o/mi, 1 
Ao. IXc|^i}fr, and Act. fXc^a /atcf to re«^ 

89. fdy-yufu to mix ^442, 7), 2 Ao. 8 S. HfUKTO, fuxro, 

40. Sp-yvfu to rouse (442, 11), 2 Ao. 8 S. ^pro, Imr. 6p<ro (as to 2^/Krfo, see 
849 D), Inf. (^pdoi, Par. ipfuvos. 

16. Hm. 8 P. iivy and DtVoy, Sub. 8 S. 8^, Opt. 8 S. 8^ (for 8imi|, 88), 
1 P. 9v/ity (for iihtMy\ In£ Biumm and 9vmu; IteratiTe S^itkof. 

17. Hm. 8 P. f^tff. 

Digitized by 



41. ir^y-wvfu to/ix (442, 12), 2 Ao. 8 S. icor^^icro Huck. 

42. «t£AAw (toX) to shake (432 D, 26), 2 Ao. 8 S. vd\ro dashed hinuelf. 
48. ir4p^» to destroi/, 2 Ao. Inf. Wp^eu (for wep^<r^ai) to be destroyed. 

Here belong also two a(^'ectiTe0, originally participles of the 2 Ao. Hid. : 

44. &erfA§yos well-pleased^ glad{sX. &8, Pr. hM^nt topUase^ 487| 1). 

45. Ufiepos favorable (st. Ik, Pr. /xeb^w to come^ 438 1), 2). 

Second Perfects of the furform. 

409. In the indicatiYe, the ;u-form appears only in the dual and plural ; 
the singular always has a connecting vowel: see paradigm, 305. 

1. tarrjfit (ara) to set^ 1 Pf. «ot»;ico (for ae'orrjKa) stand f416, 1), with 
regular inflection ; 2 Pf. Dual eararov, etc. Paradigm^ 305. 

2. jSotW (fia) to go (435, I), 1 Pf. fit^nKa hace gone, stand fast 
(416, 2), regular; 2 P£ 3 P. /3«/3o<ri, Sub. 3 P. /SciSwi, Inf. Pefidvu, 
Par. p€^Sy /3r/3»(ra, G. fiepSn-os (contracted from /Sc/Scwr)- 

3. yiyvoftai (yep, also ya) to lecomo (449, 1), 2 Pf. yiyova regular; 
2 pf. Par. yeyas, yey^a-a, 6. yeyaros (contracted from yeyaats). 

4. ?ivri(rKa> (day, Sva) f<» <2t0 (444^ 4), I Pf. reSi^Ka om (2«a<2 regular ; 
2 Pf. PI. Tc&WI/if p, T€3vao-i, 2 Plup. 3 p. cVcSWiffov, P£ Opt r€3i«iJ7», Imy. 
Tc3pd3<, Inf. rcSi^vac, Par. rc3pea>r, -00-a, -df, G. -oror (26). 

6. St. bi (a« 30. dot 25), 1 Pf. BiboiKo, 2 Pf. ded«a, /«ir/ 2 Pf. PL 
dc'ar/ici', d«aio(rt, 2 Plup. 3 D. €*ac&tn;p, 3 P. idedltrav, Pf. Sub. «««*«. Opt 
dcdtcii/v, Imy. dcdi3i, Infl dcdi^pac. Par. drdtiur. Fu. Siia-oum (412 a), Ao. 

Rem. a. Instead of the fu-forms of this verb, forms with a connecting 
vowel are sometimes found: Bebiafiev, tdebieaav. 

The following have stems ending in a consonant, and are sulg'ect, 
therefore, to various euphonic changes : 

409 D. 1. Hm. Pf. 2 P. tarrrre. Inf. itrrdfievtu, ^ardfutf, Par. lorcuit, loro- 
^s, Hd. Par. icre^s^ kffrewra, etc., Ind. 3 P. itrriofft (?). 

2. Hm. Pf. 8 P. fiefiddfft, Par. fie0cu&s, fiefiavia, G. fitfia&rof. 

3. Hm. Pf. 8 P. yeydouri, Plup. 8 D. yeydrnVf Inf. yeydfiw. Par. yeyads, 
yeyauMf G. yeya&Tos. 

4. Hm. Imv. rtdva^i, re^yirUf Inf. re^vdfievaif rcdyc(/icv, Par. G. rcj^d- 
rof, also rc^yq^oY (some write rtdveiwros, rcdyei^os), Fern. rcdn7i;(i}s ; only 
once rc3Ff »ri, as in Att. 

6. Hm. has Set for the rednpl., Sc(8<a, Heiiouea (once ScSfaeri), and dou- 
bles 8 afler the augment, iStcuro, as well as after a short vowel in comp., tc- 
piiBeicas (once ^^Itrare), Probably the original stem was 8rt : hence Pf. 
SeSrtOy Ao. ^reuret, wblcb, after f was lost, were changed to 8c(8ia, fiSeurut to 
preserve the long quantity of the first syllable. For {((Sta, Hm. has also 8c(8« 
with present form, but only in the first person sing. He has also an Impf 8^ 
Sloy, fearedy fled, always with Tcp(, though separated from it by tmesis (477 V 
cf. 404 D b. 

Digitized by 



6. St. id (tib 30, Ota 25), 2 Ao. tldov saw, 2 Pf. oJda hnoto, The 

second perfect system of this verb presents several forms of the stem. 
The original id (i. e. Fid, Lat. vid-eo) appears in the Pf. Ind. Du. and PI. 
and in the Imy. ; the lengthened ctd, in the Pf. Par., and in the Plup.i 
which changes it to rjb for the augment cid becomes oid by variation o^ 
vowel in the Sing, of the Pf. Ind. : in the Sub., Opt, and Inf., it assumes 
c (331), giving cidc. The 3 P. P£ Ind. taOai is whollj irregular. 

P£ Ind, otd'Oy oT-o^O) o(2^f, ter-roy, icr-roy, itr-fiey, Tct-tc, ta-dai ; 

Plup. Sd€ip or jjSiy, Sd(ifJL€v or mrfitp^ 

ib€uj^a " j^di/o-Sa, §b€irov or jarop^ fjdtire " Bore, 
af5et(v) ^ S^rjf TJbtiTTfP " fi(miP^ ^httrap " 2;crav; 

P£ Sub. cldfii), cJd^ff, c?d^, cldTToi', ctd^rov, elSStfitP, ctd^c, ecduo-i > 

Opt ridf ii/p, ccdc/i/r, e(dei7, etc ; 

Imv. i<r-3c, i(r-r<», tc-rov, *(r-T«>v, i<r-T«, t(r-Tm(ra»i 

In£ flBf-pat ; Par. ftd»r, cidvlo, cZdor, G. eidoror. 
Fu. tiaofuu (412 a) »Aa22 hnaw^ Y. itrrtop. 

Rem. a. The forms ^dcir and ^diyr are also used for ^dcio-da and ^btf 
a3a : oii^ff for otQ^a is rare ; still rarer, oXbayLtp^ oidarc, oiddo-t, for Xafi€P^ 
etc. ; rare and poetic,* S^fup^ afderr, for S^etfiw, ^deirc. 

7. St IK (f Mc, ot«f), only in 2 Pf. totKa am like^ appear. 2 Plup. ttfKeip ; 
2 Pf. 1 P. ioUa^LtPy poetic eoiyficv, 3 P. ioUdai^ irreg. cT^do-t (dT. ((rdo-c), 
Inf. toiKtpcu. and clxcVai, Par. iotxas and etxcor, vui, <k. Fu. ctf o> rare. 

8. Kpd^tt (icpay) to cry (428, 13), 2 Pf. xf/rpdya as present; 2 Pf. 

Imv. K€Kpa)fil, 

409 D. Add further for Homer, 

9. fudofuu {fuij ft9Pf of. 70, Tfv in S above) to reach after ^ seek/or^ 2 Pf. to 
preiS <m^ desire eagerly ; 2 Pf. S. pjfwpaf « , c, D. /xifuLroPf P. ij.4/iafitpj fi4/iarf, 
fiefjdi<ri, Flup. 3 P. fitfAoffcof, Ff. Imv. 3 S. fitfidrw^ Par. fiefiadsf vta, G. /iC|ia- 
6ros or fupu^ot. 

10. Pf. T^Ai7ita (rXa) am ;)a*itfn< (408, 6); 2 Ff. 1 P. r4r\afA€P, Opt. rt- 
rAafijr, Imv. r^Ai&^t, Inf. rerAafi«y(at), Par. rcrAi}(i&f, v7a, G. Sros. 

11. 2 Pf . flUvya, Off c (oycvy) command^ 1 P. ipuyfiwp, Imv. &ra;^t, 3 S. 
iv&X^ (with middle ending; so) 2 P. &/o»x^c: Sub. &»6yu^ Opt. iLp^oifu^ 
rare Imv. &M07«y Inf. iiy(ay4fuy. Plup. 4>^(^m, S S. '^y«(iyci(ir), commonly &i^«. 
For irreg. Plup. ^1^1070^ (or iMC9yop)y 8 S. ffrfl»7e, 3 P. iip^tvp, see 861 D. For 
Pf. 8 S. fty(»Y« he commanda^ kpiy^i is sometimes used : 2 B. &yc^croy for him- 
yofrov. Fu. ip^^et, Ao. ffv<0|a. 

12. lye/pw («7€p) to toake (432, 6), 2 Ff. iyp^yopa am awakey 3 P. H^6^ 
dcuri wholly irreg., Imv. 2 P. iyft^ryop^t (middle ending). Inf. #7p^p3cu (middle 
ending, but accent irreg.). Hence Pr. Far. iyfrnyop6ap, 

6. Hm. has Ff. 1 P. IBfitp (46 D), Plup. 2, 3 S,inri<r»a, ffhi or $8cc, also 
very irreg. ii^llhih ^«^>1 (perhaps for eFci9i}j, treiJiy) ; flap. 3 P. Xffat^ (for i^o-oy) ; 
Pf. Sub. cISS (ia^« ?), P. cflto/tcF, cYScrc, €28d<ri ; Inf. fS/xcyoi, YS/tci^, Far. Fern. 
«l8via and /8bia (cf. 338 D); Fu. ^trofiat and c/8^<rw. 

Hd. has Ff. 1 F. ^fitp, Flup. 1, 8 S. $8ea, ^Sce, 2 P. ^^«rc ; Fu. c25{<r». 
The Dor., with oti€if has a peculiar Pres. iadfu, toJis, YiorSri, P. tvofi^y Itravru 

7. Hm. Impf. 8 & e7jre, 2 Ff. 3 D. frrroir, 2 Flup. 8 D. itimip^ 3 P. ^ofjcc- 
fOMy Flap. Mid. 8 S. litiero or fi'icro. ^Hd. has Ff. oZko, Far. okcis. 


Digitized by 



18. lff»xofuu to eoTM (460, 2), 2 Pf. i\hX»S^ etc. ; also cfX^AMJ^ 1 P. 
cK^Aovd/My (26 D). 

14. V({«rx« (ira;^, tci^) to suffer (447, 13), 2 Ff. 'riwov^ 2 P. v^oo^ 
(better v^mur^^c, for vcrod^c), I'ar. Fern. v€*aAwa. 

16. irc(d« (in;^) to persuade (295), 2 Pf. wiwoi^a trutt, 2 Plup. 1 P. ^ir^id^ 
IU¥ (ImT. itirctia^i AesCn.). 

16. fitfifH&ffKw (fipo) to eat (446, S\ Pf. fi4fifwKa (Par. N. P. fitfipur^s Soph.^ 

17. irf«TW (»er, irrc, «to) to fait (^9, 4), Pf. vnrrMica, Par. A. P. wtmr^ 
Uras (wtwT^s^ vevrwrof, Sopb.), cf. 408 D, 23. 


Some formatioD& which are unknown in Attic prose, occur 
more or less frequently in other dialects. 


Tbe iterative imperfect represents a eontintted past action as repeated or 
tiswU : v4fan<rKt he toae eending {repeatedly)^ ueed to be -eending. The iteratiye 
aorist bas the same force in reference to ttukfinUe pa3t action, marking it as 

repeaiea OT usual: 4?Juraa'Kf he drove {repeatedly)^ used to drive. Both are 

confined to tbe Indie, Act. and Mid. ; and are generally foond without the 
augment (in Hd. always so). 

They are formed from the tense-stem of the Impf. or Aor., by adding the 
iterative-siffn ck, which takes the connecting Towels and endings of the Impf. : 
thus Act. -ffK-o-yf 'ffK-e-s, -VK-^y etc.. Mid. -aK-o-finvy -CK-t-o, 'ffK^-rot etc. 

These terminations are miited with the tense-stem by a connecting vowel^ 
viz. c for the Impf. and 2 Aor., a for the 1 Aor. : iniv-M-irKov (jx4im to remain\ 

^^y-e^Kt (^c^Tw to Hee), iprrr^'araK€ {fp/nr^et to reetrain), A very few 

iterative imperfects have a : ic/)^»r-a-fficoy (icpiJirT* to hide), fitwr-a-irKoy (plirref 

to throw). ^In contract verbs, c cither remains without contraction : k9\4-^ 

CKoif {Ka\4» to call) ; or is dropped : A^aKoy {w^4» to push). Verbs in am 

sometimes change ac to aa : voitrdMrKow {yaitrdm to inhabity, cf. muerdq. 

The connecting vowel is omitted, when the ordinary Impf. or 2 Aor. has the 
fu-form; t^-aKov {t^v «a«i), ffrd-aKoy {Horny stood), i-VKoy (iJiriMw), Ki-anvro 
(for Ku-OKeroy intifiTiy lay), pir/yvVKoy {^fp^ty^vy tocu breaking^ 

The iterative aorist is found only in poetry. 

411 B. Formation in d^ 

Several verbs annex ^ to the tense-stem of the Impf. or 2 Aor. : d* is usu- 
ally connected with the stem by the vowels a or c. This formation does not 
modify the meaning : it is mostly poetic, occurring very seldom in Attic prose. 
It is found chiefly in the Impf. or Aor. Ind. The following are the roost im* 
portant of these forms : 

8i(6icfi» to pursue 9io9Kd^ia 

cfKC0 to yield c2/Mt^o» 

iifi^yn to ward off iifiuyd^ 

cf/>7« to shut out %pyaboy or Uptfodov 

hietp^ to lift up iitpddoyrai, orrsy JlocU{ed) in air 

kyeipw to oMemble 1iy*p4^oyreu, orro 

^>4y» to bum ^Ary^^ 

^iw to perish ^ty6^ 

tx» to hold l<rx«3oy, Inf. ^e^4fty 

iKiay toent, Aor. iida^oy 

Digitized by 


415] msBQULAsmsa of MEAKDia. 147 


The most important irregularities of meahin^ are caused by 
using one voice in the sense of another^ or by mixing transitive 
and mtransitive senses in the same voice. 

A. Forms of one voice in the sense of another'. 

412. a. In many verbs which have an actiye voice, the future middle 
takes the place of a future active (379) : piySavo to leam^ fxaSStfo-ofuu 
(not ftaSififru) shall learn. This is the case with a laige proportion of the 
verhs which compose the fifth and sixth classes. 

b. In many verbs the future middle has the meaning of a future pas- 
siye (379) : XctVo) to lea/te^ Xctifro/uu (= Xrii^d^o-o^at) shall he left, 

413. c The deponent verbs are to be regarded as forms of the middle 
voice. Tet in the aoriat. not a few take the passive form instead of the 
middle : fiovKofiai to wish^ Fu. jSovXi^ao/xai, but Ao. cj3ovX^9i;y (not €^ov\ij- 
<raii.rjv) toished. These are c&Ued f>assive deponents; and the rest, in dis- 
tinction from them, are called middle deponents. 

Of passive deponentS|ithe most important are the following : those 
which in the future have a passive form as well as a middle, are marked 
with an * : thus *BiaK€yofiai to converse, Ao. buXix^rjv conversed, Fu. 
dcoXe^ofuu and dtaXf;^3^(ro/uii sTuill converse, 
SyayMi to admire (419, 1) *{}boiuu to le pleased 

*eud€Ofuu to feel shame (448, 1) *fi^vfi€Ofuu to consider 
akdofitu to wander npolSivfuo^i to be forward . 

d/iiXXao/xai to contend *diaK€yofiai to converse (424, 15) 

app€Ofuu to deny imfiiXofuu to care for (422, 11) 

*a;flofjuu to le grieved (422, 1) fierafiiXofuu to regret 

iSovXo/MK to wish (422, 3) dirovoiofiat to despair 

bfofuu to want (422, 4) ^dtavotoiuu to meditate 

dtpKonai to see (424 D. 31) iwoiofuu, to think on 

hvvafAai to he ame (404, 5) npovoioiuu to foresee, provide 

fpawTioofULi to Oppose *otofiai to think (^22, 15) 

iniorafiM to understand (404, 6) trt^pxu to revere 
nikafiiofMi to he cautious <l>iKoTifuofjLai to he ambitious 

Re5i. (a). Some of these verbs, beside the aorist passive, have an 
aorist of the middle form : thus ayapxn^ Ao. usually rjyd(fSi7)v, but also 

414. d. Several verbs have an aorist passive with middle meaning : 
tiKlipaivta to make glad, €v<l>pdp'iri» made myself glad, rejoiced; (rrpf<f)a> to 
turn, €trrpd<f>riv turned ^myself) ; <f>aLvio to show, e<t>dvrjy showed myself 
appeared, but f(f)dvZrjv was shown, 

415. e. Several deponent verbs have a passive aorist and future with 
passive meaning: IdofAai to heal, lafrdfjLrjv healed, Id^ijv was healed; d<yo- 
luu to receive, idt^dfifju rcceir.ei^ tbtx^n^ wa« received, ^In some, tne 

Digitized by 



middle fonns of the present or perfect systems may ha^e both an actiTe 
and a passive meaning : fUfjJoiuu to imitate, fK/ii/xi^/ioi Aao« imitated or 
hate heen imitated* 

B. Mixtwre of trcmsitive and intransitive senses. 

416. In some verbs, the forms of the active voice are divided between 
a transitive and an intransitive sense. The future and Jirst agriet are 
then transitive ; the second aorut and the perfect are intransitive. The 
most important cases are the following : 

1. lamjfu (ora) to iet, place, M. ccrra/icu to set one's self; 
Trans., Fu. arriaa shall set, 1 Ao. tarrja-a set ; 

Intrans^ 2 Ao. tarrfv (set myself) stood, Pf. earrfKa (have set myself) am 
standing, (<rn)K€tv vias standing, Fu. Pf. i(rni(<a shall stand. 
a. The same important distinction prevails in the numerous com- 
pounds of this verb : — d<t>i(n7ffii to set off, cause to revolt, dirfamjv stood 

off, revolted, cufkivrriKa am distant, am in revolt, (<l>l<mjfu to set over, 

wreomyv set myself over, dthiamjKa am set over, Ka'ii(mjfu to set down^ 

establish, Karearrfv establuhed myself, became established, KdiitnrjKa am 
established. The Aor. Mid. has a different meaning : mzrt (mjo-oro eHab^ 
lishedfor himself, 

2. fiaivta (fia) to go (in poetry also cause to go); 

CTrans., Fu. /3^o-a> shall cause to go, 1 Ao. tfiyjaa ; Ion. and poet.) 
Intrans., 2 Ao. tfirfu went, Pf. fii^riKa have gone, standfast. 

3. ^v-o) to bring forth, produce; so 0vo-a>, €<^t/o-a ; in trans., c^i7ir wu 
produced, came into being, irt<l>vKa am by nature. 

4. bv'o to pass under, take on ; Koradwo to submerge trans. ; so dv<r»^ 
tdva-a, but fdvv dived, set, ivibCvput on, i^ibvvput off. 

5. o-jSff-yyv/ii to put out, extinguish; 2 Ao. €(Tpi)v went out, Pf. tafiij- 
Ka am extinguished. 

6. (7iec>Aa> {tTMX) to dry trans. ; intrans., 2 Ao. taiekiiv became dry, 
Fu. (rJcX^iro/xai, Pf. cirxXi/Ka. 

7. frtVo) (n-t) to drink, 2 Ao. tmov drank; 1 Ao. tniaa (Pr. frtm<rK<») 
caused to drink. 

8. ytivofutt (y€if, cf. 449, 1) to be bom, poetic ; I Ao. iytivdfirjv begot, 
brought fortJi. 

417. In peveral verbs, the second perfect is the ordy active form 
which has an intransitive sense. 

Sywyn to break 2 Pf. taya am broken 

tyup» to wake trans. typt'iyopa am awake 

SXXvfu to destroy 2Xo>Xa am ruined (oXoXcica have ruined) 

fr€c3c0 to persuade ireiroida trust (irttSiofuu comply) 

irqywfu to fix irewfya amfxed 

prjywfit to break • tpoiaya am broken 

a-rjira to rot trans. atoTjjra am rotten 

rriKa to melt trans. rcn^xa am melted 

ffialvta to shoto ir(<t>fjva have shown myself, <W^^^^ 

(^tvo/icu to appear) 
For the difference between 

Mfipya and dv€<i^x€i, ntwpdya and ttc jr/^d^a, sei^ 387 b. 

Digitized by 




418. Note. The foUowing lists exhibit the Attic inflection (tenee- 
systems) of the verbs included in them. But other forms are introduced 
to some extent Those marked late (1.), or enclosed in [ ], belong to the 
period of the Common dialect (3 e) 5 for the most part, they are not met 
with before the conquest of Greece by the Romans (146 B. C). Other 
abbreyiations used to show the character of the forms are fr. (frequent) 
r. (rare), r. ^. (rare in Attic), n. A. (not found in Attic), ». A. pr. (not 
in Attic prose! ^ ^ 

Verbal Adjectives in rof, rcor. These are seldom noticed in the fol- 
lowing lists, when the verb has a first passive system, as they are easily 
inferred from. that. ^ — » ^ / 

FiKST Class {StenirClasSj 325). 

419. The stem appears without change in the present. This 
is much the most numerous of all the cmsses. We notice here 
only those verbs of it which have peculiarities of formation. 

L Verbs in fit of the first class, see 404r-6. 

n. Vowelrstems in which the fatal vowel remains short 
(contrary to 335). 

a. The following retain the short vowel in aU the forms : 

1. ayafutt (404^ 4) to admire^ Ao. P. ^a<r3i?v (Ao. M. riYavdiiriv r. A. 

pr.), V. ayatrroi. Pind. ayafofuu. 

2. ycXdctf to laugh, Fu. yeXdaofJuUj Ao. iyikntra^ Ao. P. cycXacrSfiyp. 

(Hm. also yeXouxa.) 

3. €pa» to love, ^Ao. P. npda^ijv as act. (Ao. M. ^paaafirjv Hm.): also 

Pr. tpafuu (404, 7) poetic 

4. 3Xa» to erusJL ^Fu. ^Xdaa, Ao. c^Xao-a (Pf. M. rf9Xa<r/iat, Ao. P. 

iiikair^ijp^ n. A.) : also (fiXda with same meaning and inflection. 

5. xXdctf to hreah, Fu. icXdo-tt, Ao. cxXao-o, Pf M. Kftckaa-fiai, Ao. P. 


6. cnrditf to d/raw^ ^Fu. aTrda», Ao. co7ra<ra, Pf. €(nr<iKa^ Pf. M. tairatr' 

fioi, Ao. P. €<nrda^rjy. 

7. xoXdtt to loosen, ^Fu. YoXdo-o), Ao. txdXava (Pf. xfxdXaKo, PC M. 

KcydXao-fiac, n. A.), Ao. P. tx"^^^!^- 

8. dxeofuu to heal, Fu. dxttrofuiL, Ao. r}K€adiirfv [Ao. P. riKt&ir]v\, 

9. aXc0 to grind, ^Fu. akiirvi (dX«, 374), Ao. iJXco-a, Pf. akjtUKa, Pf. 

M. dXijXccr/uif. 

419 D. a. For tcnse-aign <r doubled in Hm. after the thort rowel (/y«Aa<r(ra, 
a«r^<r«), see 344 D. 

1. Beside ftya/ioi to admire, Hm. has AyritoAUu and iiytdo/iai to envy, Fa. 
itydep/uUf Ao. ^^y&r^fnTF, Y. hrftfrSs. 

Digitized by 



10. dpK€(o to suffice, Fu. dpK€<rta, Ao. rjpKtaa [Ao. P. f)pitia^f)v\. 

Jll. cfico) to vomit, ^Fu. €fi€(rm (JfiSti c/iov/mu, 3/4), Ao. ^fitaii. 

12. few to boil, ^Fu. feVo), Ao. fCc<ra, V. Ctar6t, 

13. few ^ scrape, Fu. f «Va>, Ao. cfco-a, V. ((aT6t. 

14. rcXftt) to complete, see Paradigm 288. 

15. Tpioi to tremble, Fu. rpian, Ao. erptira, V. a-^p€<rros ; r. A. pr. 

16. dp6^ to plough, Fu. ap6(r», Ao. ^poaa, (Per£ M. dprfpofiai Hin.|) 

Ao. P. fjp6lirjv, 

17. dvwa to achieve, ^Fu. dviKrv, Ao. ififva'a, PC ijfyuica, Pf. M. ^pvfrfuu, 

Ao. P. ffpva-^nv, y. awordr, but dt^rfwrog, Alt. Pres. also dwirm 
or dviJrw (327). 

18. cipvtf to draw water, ^Fu* dpiKrv, Ao. ^pvaa, V. apvorcor. Ait. 

Pres. dpi^To) (327). 

19. eXicfi) to draw, Fu. eX(<o. Other tenses fW)m sti <Xin;, Aa cIXjoMra, PH 
ciXirvica, Pf. M. wiKicvapaiL, Ao. P. elXjtvcrSijv, V. IKxrios and IXjcvotios. 
The forms eXievai, €\KV(r<a, clXf a, ciX;t3i;y are late. 

20. irrJtf to «pit, ^Fu. irrwrwy Ao. thnvtra, V. frruorrff. 

420. b. The following retain the short vowel in dipart of the 
forms. The first three make it long before <r. 

1. dco) to hind, Fu. d^atf, Ao. cdijoro, Pf. dcdcKo, Pf. M. dc'de/iai, Ao. 

P. ed€3i7i^, Fu. Pf. dfdrjaonai. 

2. Suw to <>/f»r, Fu. 3uo-a>, Ao. ^Ha-a, Pf. t/SiJko, Pf. M. ri^vfuu, Ao. 

P. fViJSiyv (65 c), V. SoWor. 

3. Xv<o to tooM, see Paradi^ 270-5, and com^Mire 268 b. 

4. alifita to praise, Fu. alvftrw, Ao. ^yf<ra, Pf. flfvcxa, Ao. P. ^gyfyrjv; 

Tf only in P£ M. Svrjfiai : in Att. prose used mostly in comp. 

5. KoXtja to call, Fu. KoKiirta (leaXtt, 374), Ao. cVdXccra; but ly in Pf. 

KcxXt^KO, Pf. M. MKkrjfiai, Fu. Pf. K€icKri<rofuu, Ao. P. cicX^Sifv, all from 
syncopated stem jcXc. 

6. /iv<o to shut the mouth or eyes, Fu. p.vcr^, Ao. ^pHaa, but Pf. fiifxvKa 

' am shut 

17. Hm. Impf. 3 S. Ilytrro, as if from Pr. ftrv/u (Theoc.). Also poetic turn, 
only Pr. Impf. 

19. Hm. also I\kc« (331), Fa. IAjc^«, Ao. ^fAm^rtt, Ao. P. ^Ax^^diiir. 
21. Ion. and poet y9uc4» to quarrel^ vpbraid, Fu. wutiirm, Ao. ^irclicctfa. 

420 D. 8. Hm. 2 Ao. M. AiVijr, etc. (408 D, 29]. 

4. Hm. Fu. ali^0'»f Ao. ^nfo'a; Pr. also uhfi^opai (in Hes. tXrtfftt), 

5. Hm. also vpo-ffaAiC<'At<t<, poet. jcurA^ictf cl. 6. 

10. Hm. &i» (aa) to harm, mislead, Pr. M. 8 S. &3ra<, Ao. Uo'a, A^Uv^ifF, 
contracted Sdro, Airdfii^i^i Ao. P. iLdtrdri^. The first a may become a by aug- 
ment, y. iL-dirof. 

11. Hm. ffor^w (also KTiofiat) to be angry, Ao. ^ic^c^a, Pf. Par. kc«oti7^s 
(886 D) anyry, 

12. Ion. and poet ipvu (9) to draw, Fn. ^pjW« (Hm. also tpCw, 878 D), Ao. 
ft^iVo, Pf. ^pvfuu {KttTflawrfuu). Hes. Pr. Inf. (/*i-form) tlpvfAtvm (28 D). Hm. 
has ccpv only as result or augm. or redupL (812 D). Different are ipiopai^ p^ 
ttoi, to preserve (405 I) b). 

Digitized by 



7. dutt to pass under^ put on^ ^Ao. P. cdddi^v, V. d<FnJ£, rcor ; elsowbere 

V, see 423, 3. 
8, 9. 3ro3tfa> to miss, and novito to toil^ suffer, are inflected regularly with 
17, but have e occasionally in the future and first aorist systems. 

III. Vowel-stems with add^d <r. 

421. The forms m which o- is added to the stem (842) are 
the perfect middle and first passive systems, with the verbals. 
Here belong the stems under 419, so &r as they are used in these 
forms (onlj dipoo to plough has Ao. P. ^poSrjv). Further, the 
following m which the stem-vowel is either long, or, if short, is 
lengthened according to the rule in 335 : 

!• dpcu» to do, ^Fu. hpaiT9», Ao. I^pdcOj P£ dcdpfljca, P£ M. deBpdfJuu 

(r. dibpaa-fjuu), Ao. P. 4bpd(r^rjv, 

2. Kvcui to scratch (371 c), ^Fu« lanfa-m, Ao. ZKvrja-a, Pf. M. Ketanjo-fuu, 

Ao. P. iKvffoHrjv, 

3. xP^^ ^ ^**^ oracle, ^Fu. xPV^^i '^^* ^XP^^^ ^^ '^(XP*?*^ ^^ ^ 

Kixpflfrfuu, Ao. P. (ypijo^ip. 

4. yfraa to rub ^371 c), Fu. ^^arco, Ao. t^tra (P£ M. tyftriarfuu or 

o^tuuy both late, Att. Z^rjjfiai from Pr. y4x<*> ^^ V^f «*) • chiefly 

* used in composition. 

5. Wo to heap up, ^Fu. 1^0-0, Ao. tvrja-a, Pf. M. vtinjcfiai and vftnjfiai 

[Ao. P. finja^ifv and ei^3i;v], V. tnjrot, 

6. «vX/a> ^ roll^ Fu. KyXitra, Ao. (KvXlaa, Pf. M. KcucvXccrfiai, Ao. P. 

iKvXitr^riv, Pr. also Kvkivdta and irvXwdro). 

7. ir/)/» fo saw, F. irpicrc^, A. hrplaa, Pf. M. ir€irpta'fuu, A. P. iirpi&Srjv, 

8. xP^«* ^ anoint, Fu. xp^^^i Ao. expttra, Pf. M. K€xpi<rfjuii (and «- 

Xpf^t), Ao. P. cxPto^"- 

9. X<>« ^ AW|) «J?, ^FU. XttKTtf, Ao. ?p(^<''<^ P^ IfC^WKO, Pf. M. iC€X«" 

(T/iat, Ao. P. €x^o^fj»» Late Pr. x'^^^f* or y«wwo> cl. 6. 

10. f iifi» <<? ^oZwA, F. ^^(Tio, A. ^^Cffo, Pfl M? fgv<r/iai, A P. ^guoS^v. 

11. v« (v) to rain, Fu. vc®, Ao. 5o», Pf. M. iapm^ Ao. P. iJcrSiyv. 

12. KvaitA to SCratch,-—^ExL KPalo'ta, Ao. eiKvafcra, Pf. M. KtKvato'fiai, Ao. 
P. €KPala^Tfv, 

13. 9ratc» ^ strike, ^Fu. n-atV® (and irat^o-tf, 331), Ao. Jiraiaa, Pf. n-c- 

iratiea (Pf. M. ntiraiafuu late, Ao. P. cVaierSiyy poet. — USU. YrcVXi;yfiai, 
eirX^yijy, from frX^o-o-oi 428, 5). 

14. flraXatc0 ^ wrestle, ^Fu. na\aia», Ao. cirdXaiO'a, Ao. P. inakaicf^r}v 


15. icXci'o) td shut, Fu. jcXciVa), Ao. ciRcXcto-a, P£ JcexXeiKa, Pf. M. kc- 

jcXeuTfuu and KCfcXct/ioi, Ao. P. ticKtla^riv, 

16. ieX;/«> Att for xXc/ca, inflected in the same way, but in Perf. Mid. 
only iciKKfjfiai. 

421 D. 15. Ion. jcXi^tw, Ao. itc^lffu, Pf. M. K§K)4l{e)fuu, Ao. P. ^icXi}1(<r>^F> 
v. itXIirirr^s. Dor. also Fu. ic\a(wy Ao. lficXa(a. 

24. Poet fai» to ahatter, Fu. }ai<rw, Aa P. if^ir^y. 

Digitized by 



17. o-e/tt to BhakSj Fa« o-eio-«, Ao. co-cto-a, Pf. a-tatiKa^ Pf. M. trtaturfitUj 

Ao. P. €a'€iaZrjp, 

18. ^pavio to hreak^ ^Fu. 3/>avo-a>, Ao. tSipavira^ Pf. M. ri^pavfuu and 

Ti^pavaficu^ Ao. P. f^pavaiirjv. 

19. n-avo) ^(> fTUiiE:^ e«6W<;, Mid. to cease, ^Fu. frauo-a>, Ao. en-ovcra, Pfl 

vfnavKfi, Pf. M. frcYrav/iac, Ao. P. €7ravo-ai;v (Ion. and old Att. inavfSrjv), 
V. iravfrrios, 

20. KcXevo) t(^ order, Fu. lecXci/o-a), Ao. tKlKtvfra, Pf. icf jccXcvjco, Pf. M. 

K€Ktk€V(rfiai, Ao. P. cKcXfva-dijv. 

21. \€V(a to Stone, Fu. Xevam, Ao. cXevo-ii, Ao. P. eXevcr^iyv. 

22. axovo) to hear, see 423, 1, [Pf. M. iJficovcrfUK], Ao. P. rjKovar^rjv. 

23. ic/>ot^a> to 5ca^, Fu. Kpovato, Ao. fKpovaa, rL KtKpovKO, Pf. M. KtKpoV' 

ftai (but K€Kpov<rrai), Ao. P. €Kpov<riirjv, 

IV. /S^67?w which assume e in some of ths forma (331). 

Fature. Aorist Perfect Passire. 

422. 1. &xpofiai to he displeased. 
d)fi((rofiai (418) ffx^ia^rfv (418) 

2. /SoV/co) to /^ trans., Mid. intrans. 

a. The primitive fitem /So appears in Y. fioT6s (also fioffKnrios). 

3. /3ovXo/x(u to tris^ Augment, see 808 a. 

povkrjaofKU fiefiovXrjpai i^v\fj?irjp (418) 

4. dco) to 710^, Mid. to want, entreat, 

difjaoi €biri(rg. MiijKo, Merjfuu €btffii)v (418) 

a. Impersonal Sei it is necessary (only once in Hm.), Impf. ISci, Fu. Zt^t 
crcx, Ao. 4Z4iier€» 

5. cpofuu to aa£; see 424, 9 ; Fu. ipriaofjuii. 

6. €]pp« to go (to harm), 

ippffca ^PFl^o. ^/5i;ica 

7. ct/da to sleep, usually in comp. /cadcvdo). Augment, 814. 
Ka^tv^fr<» V. KoSitvlhjrtw 

8. c^o) to 5^t7; also ^^co cl. 7, rare. 

c^<ro> {jylnjaa rjyjnjfuu V'^^i^l^ 

V. i^Soc (for iyfr-TOs) and iyfn^fos, 

9. ^cXtt and 3cXa> to loisA.- Lnpf. iJf^eXoy (never edrXoy). 

(c)3cX^(rA» rj^slKijaa ^dcXi^xa [rcScXi^ica] 

a. The Attic poets in the iambic trimeter have d4Ku (not i^4\») ; but 
4d4\c» is the usual form in Attic prose, and the only one in Hm. and 

422 D. 8. Hm. Pr. In£ fi6?itedat, 2 F£ Tpo-fi40wXeu 
4. Hm. baa in Act. ^n and iM^t, each once; in Hid. always d€6ofMu 
vi. 89. 

Digitized by 



Find. The aiupneiited forms in Att always haye ii : thiu Ao. 4^Xi|0'a, 
but Sab. l&iXJflw or dcMov* etc. 

10. fiaxofitu to Jiff hL 

Itaxoviuu (874) (fiax«o-dfif]p fUfidxrjH^^ V. fiaxtriof^ rjTfot 

11. /icXtt to cart for, 

/uX^co) ^ €fi€\jf(ra fiffUXrjKo, rjfxai tfUkffiiffP 

a. The Att. prose has the Act. only as an impersonal yerb, /i^Aei ii cofi- 
cemtf Fu. ^eXVei, etc. ; and in the Mid. uses the comp. 4wi/i4Ko/uu 
(also iwifttXiofuu cL 7) passlye deponent (413). 

12. fUKKn to he cibimt. Augment 808 a. 

fMXX^o-tt ifuKKjjaa V, fitXKfjrios 

13. fUv» to remain: also fiifipa el. 8, poetic. 

iup» tfuiva fA€fiivrjKa • T. fX€PtT6ff riog 

14. yf/ia» to distribute, 

yf/M» cyccfia vtvtftriKa^ rjfjuu ivtiufiriv 

a. wt/xiiirm late; M/i^r rare and doubtfuL 

15. oiofuu (pifjuii) to think ; Impf. <p6fiijp ((ffujp)* 

otrjavfuu {.Vl^^M^^ ^pffiifp (418) 

16. oixofjuu to be gone; Impf. ^x^/*7^ ^^ ^^'^ ^' ^^'^^^ 
oixqaofuu (^fx^fidi JL A., used only in comp.) 

17. frcpdtf, see 424, 18 ; Fu. irap^a-ofuu, 

18. wirofiai to fly, see 424, 19 ; Fu. »r(e)n7<ro/«u. 

V. /Sfeww which form second tenses. , 

423. a. Stems ending in a yowel. 
1. oicovoD to hear, (Hm. also axovd^ofuu.) 
OKOva-Ofiai fJKova-a attriKoa (39, 821) f ieov9di;v (842) 

a. 2 Plup. ^Kiiic^ciy, less freq. huctiK6€Uf. Pf. M. ^icov<r/icu late. 

10. Hm. fidxofuu, also ftax^ofuu^ Par. lutx^Uiupos or iiax^liiwos (28 D), 
Fa. fUKX^fuu usu. ftaxfierofiatf Ao. ifMX*o'^'ny or i/uLxncdftiiPf Y. fiaxirrSf, 
Hd. Pr. Par. iMx^^iiwotj Fu. fMx^o'ofuu, 

11. Hm. 2 Pf. /i4/i7ikBtf Pf. M. 8 S. iiiiifiKtrai. (for /n-fiXfrtu, 889, 53 D), 
Plup. fi4fi$Xiro. 

15. Hm. Act, db or 5t«, Mid. almost always with diaeresis 5to;im, Ao. 
«Z^4^i}y, Ao. P. itiffdw* The i with diaeresis is long. 

16. Hm. also Pr. o^xv^^w cL 5, Pf. wcuh^X>I*>* Hd. ofx<Mc<i (^or oiX'f'X'O) ^^)- 

19. Hm. &Ado/uu to 6e A«a/«(( Fu. AAd^irofuu. 

20. Hm. ic^Sw to trouble, Fu. miS^orw, Ao. ^ic^^o, (2 Pf. Kitafioy not in Hm., 
intrans. =) Mid. ic^So/mi am troubUd^ irreg. Fu. Pf. jcoroSi^a'ofuu, different from 
Fu. Pf. of x^C» (428 D, 18). 

21. Hm. fi49oftM to aitend to, Fu. fi^^eofuu, Ct Hm. /tilSwr (rr), fuiUttp 
(rr) guardian, Cf« also /i^So/uu to tii<«nd^ MiUrtve, Ftt./i^i0«iMu, Ao. 4iAiicifiriP, 

Digitized by 



2. Pi6«i to line. Cf. ava-piaaKojiai cl. 6 (445, l). 
Pimaofiai ifiiap (408, 13) iSfjSiWa 

0c«(ro> L ifiitoaa rarer Pf^idfuu v. Ptw6s^ riot 

3. dvo) fo jpoM under, take <m (416, 4) : also hvvta cl. 5. 

duo-o) cdv(ra hihvKa €^d^tjv (420, 7) 

€8i7v (408, 16) d«dv/iat V. *Orrfr, reoff 

4. 0vtf <d produce (416, 8). 

(jj/vam (<l>v(ra iritfiVKa iifwri» 

t<l>vp (408, l"?) V. ffvr6s 

424. b« Stems ending in a consonant. 

1. 3ya to lead. 

af» ^yayop (884) 5x« (^*^' fX^'J" 

a|o/iai as pass. rj$a rare dyi^oxa), j^fuii d)fifia'OfJMi 

2. apx» to rule, legin, Mid. to begin. 

^£<» ?p|« ^PX« r., ?py/«M ^Px5i7>' 

3. /3Xcira> to 2a(?l^ «M. 

/3Xci/ro> ?j3X(^ jSeiSXe^ eiSXc^di/v 

4. Pp€x^ ^ ^^^' 

/Spc'l* ?|9p«fa ptpptyfiM €pp«)flriv,ippdxriyh 

5. iSp^tt to 5« Atfat^, rare in prose. 
/SpiVfio tfifiiaa ptfipitSa 

6. ypd<f}<D to write. 

ypdyjta typayj^a yeypa^o, ycy/Ki/i/iai rypaifnfP 

a. 1 Pf. yrfpi^Ka and 1 Ao. P. hfpiip^ are late. 

7. depo) to^^ ; Attic also ^aipoi d. 4 (Hd. b^lpfo), 

depa t^ipa dtdapixai (834 a) tbaprfv, Y. daprdff 

8. tiropAu to follow; Impf. ihroprjv (812). 

h^pai t<nr6prjv (fnr&fuu, (nroififjv, ottoC, cnrccrdcu, tnr6p.€vos) 

428 D. 2. Hm. Fu. jScfo/uu or /B^o/aoi (878 D). 

8. Hm. has Pr. Impf. Act. only Zvyia (yet 2^^ Z(wv late utiing\ Mid. only 
Zlopm, both with same meaning. For Mtrrro^ Si^co, Zv96ii.wos, eee 849 D. 

4. Hm. 2 Pf. 8 P. irc^t^ori, Par. vc^im^s, -a^oi (886 D, 860 D) ; Plup. 8 P* 
lie4^Kw Hes. (861 D). 

6. Hm. olniM to toound, Ao. 8 S. oCrricrt^ comm. 2 Ao. o^ra (408 D, 21), 
2 Ao. M. Par. oifTdueyos wounded^ Ao. P. Par. ohntl^is, Alfio Pr. ovrdE^w, Ao. 
otkava freq., Pf. IL 8 S. ol^aoTOi, Par. oinxurfUyos. 

424 D. 1. dm. also Ayiy^ or ityirm (829); Ao. Imy. t^ert (849 D). 

4. Hm. has also at. fip^x to raUU, only in 2 Ao. 8 S. t^x* • ^^^ ^ 

/9pox 'o noallow, only in 1 Ao. Opt. 8 S. &ra-(Kffra-)/9pd(cic and 2 Ao. P. Par. 

8. Ion. and poet. Act (only once as simple) hnt to 6e Muy, Fa. ^t^f 2 Aa 
loiTOF (lir-^<nroy), Par. mn^F, 2 Ao. M. as in Att. The forms tinrw/tm^ kcrolinvh 

Digitized by 



a. The orig. stem was «'ffv. 2 Ao. i<nr6finp is for •-tf(ff)v-o/ii}r (889) with 
irreg. breathing brought in from the Pr. iiro/uu (63). 

9. tpofttu to (uh Pr. Impf. not used in Att., supplied from ipwam. 

ip^avfuu (422, 5) rfp6iirjv 

10. ip^K» to hold loch; chiefly poetic. 
epv|o> ^pv^o (Hm. also ^/iv/coxov, 884 D) 

11. tx» to hoM, hold; Impf. tlxop (812) : also X<rxi» d. 8. 

1^1 trxfi<r» tl(rxo¥ tfaxjIKO^ ttrxijiuii i<rxt^''l^ Q* -^ 

a. y. Irr^ff, riof, and vxtrisy riot. The modes of the 2 Ao. are Haxoy^ 
axS^ (=(rxff^, yet in comp. irap4frx»t etc.), 0^o(9}if (in comp. wapdaxoifih 
etc.X ox*' (^8> 11)« opC^M"* 'X'^*'- In the Pr., Ix<» i> for 'x« (^^ <^)i 
and that for ^cx-« (68). The stem ^tx is syncopated in fox^^ (889)» 
beside which it assumes c in trxh<f»$ etc. (381). 

12. ^iipofuu to heeome vxvrm; in prose onlj Pr. Impf. 

13. 3X//3a> topreu. 

14. Xa/iir« to BhifMy Mid. Xafinofuii id. 
Xafiyjrm cXa/A^a XcXa/Aira 

15. Xry<tt f<? gather. 

\i$a tlktia €tKoxa (819 e, 884 a) cXcyi/y 

etXcyfuit <Xc;(3i;y r. A. 

a. The Attic writers use this verb only in comp., and sometimes have Pf« 
M. X^fXryyioi. On the other hand, X^ to apeak has no Ff. Act. (for 
the late MKrx^ earlier writers use ffjpiyica, 460, 8) ; its Pf. M. is \4Kty 
fuuj Ao. P. ^X^x*^*"; 7®^ Zta-XiyofiM (418) makes Zi-tikayfuu (819 e). 

16. dy-oty» to open; Impf. oitttgyov (812): also difotywfu cl. 5. 
apoi(» dvi^^a dvitaxa^ dvitj^a dvtax'^Tjv 

dvitpyfuu V. dpoiKT€OS 

a. For iu4^x'* ^°<^ ^^4»T"f soe 887 b. The ktter was avoided by Attic 
writers, and M^fuu used instead. Rare forms are liyotyoy, ijyoi^a, 
A comp. h-oiyof is also used, and in poetry the simple verb is found, 
but without the syllabic augment. 

etc., in Hm. should prob. be changed to tnr&fim, tnroifaiv^ etc., the preceding 
word being read without eUsion : S/ta <nr4ff^», not IL/i* kcritr^w, Hm. Imv. 
09w> for ct4o. Hd. Ao. P. wtpt^^^r. 

9. Ion. Pr. apofuu (24 D c), Fu. mI^cto/uu. Hm. also Pr. fy4ofuu cl. 1 (less 
freq. Act. ip4ot) and ipttiytt. He has irreg. accent in Pr. Imv. tptto (for ^/>cio, 
from «ptco, 870 D b) and 2 Ao. Inf. iMO^tu (867 D aV 

10. Hm. has also ipuicdim (829 b), ipvKuAn (331). 

11. Hm. 2 Pf. txwta (for oxwxa), Plup. M. 8 P. ht-^x^^ ii^?- Hd. 2 
Ao. H. 8 S. V^«TO (814) for ioftax""**' ^^^ P^^^ Hffr^^w, see 411. 

12. Hm. Fu. diperofuu (846 D), 2 Ao. P. Sub. d«pt/« (848 D). 

16. Hm. and Hd. have no Pf. Act., in Pf. Mid. only \4\ryfuu, in Ao. P. 
ikix^ (Hd. also 4K4yny). Fo» Ao. M. Myjapf^ iKnnro^ see 408 D, 87. 
16. Hd. 1 Ao. d^l{a. Hm. Impf. M. 8 P. iOymmv, 

Digitized by 





17. irifiTm to send, 

frefi^tt cWffi^ niirofi<l>a, irinefifuu arififpHiiv 

18. ircpdtt, oomm. iripHofiai^ Lat. pedo (422, 17). 
irapbrjaofiai hrapbov niiropda (884 a) 

19. nirofjuu to fly; st iKO^i w^W^'i *"""• See 422, 18. 

ntrriaviuu tirraiifiv^ hmjv (408, 6) 

a. w€T^iero/jMi and Hrny are poetic. Thu is the case too with ftnrcyia« and 
Wnvioi, Ao. P. Ivcrc(^3ijr (831). Poetic are also mrdofuUf mr^o/uu^ 

WvHlffOfAMj WtW&nifUUf IVOTQJ^F. 

20. 9rXcxc» to twUt, 

frki$a €vr\t$a frfsrXej^a (7rcirXo;(a) cirXcuEi^y (884 a) 

YTcVXcy/MU iirXi^fiv r. A. 

a. IvX^myy often appears aa a varioxia reading for iwkitniv, 

21. mdytt to ehohe. 

irWjfio tnvi^a 



22. fTTtpy^ to love. 

OTtp^a t[<rr^p$a 

tiTTopya (884 a) 

V. OTCpjCn^ff, TCOff 

23. arpitfxo to turn. 

<rTpi^^a» ZfTTpr^ 

rarpo<^ (884 a) 



«irrp€<^3i7» r. A* 

24. rcpn-o) to delight. 

Wp^tt tfrtpyfra 


26. rperr© to twm. 

Tp€^» crpc^a 

rirpoffxij r^rpaffta 



rrpifplSiTfP T, A* 

26. rpe<^ to nourish (66 c). 

3p^® ftjp€>|ra 

T€Tpo<t>a (884 a) 



fSpe^Siyy r. A. 

27. rp^Sfli to rw5. 

rpi^w crpl^a 




€Tpi<farjp less fr. 

23. Hd. 1 Ao. P. ierpdiftdriP* 

24. Hm. 2 Ao. M. iTapw6tAiiP, and with redupL (884 D) r^upm6iL'np^ Ao. 
P. irdpipdrip and Mp^fdrjp, also 2 Ao. Ird/nrifyy Sub. 1 P. rpcanio/up (897 D). 

2fi. Hd. has Pr. rpc(iro», Ao. P. irpd^p (also in Hm.), but rp^, Ihpti^ 
Hm. has also rpcnr^w, rpoir4». For rcrpdC^arcu, see 892 D. 

26. Dor. rpApm, Hm. has an intrans. 2 Ao. irpa^ wu nourishedf grew^ 
2 Pf. rSrpo^, 

30. roet. Bt. 7WF. Hm. has 2 Pf. y4ympa shoni, Plup. 8 S. fyryt&rcc (and 
iy^yvptf also 1 S. iyrf^Pfvp, 351 H), Inf. yrywpefitv, irreg. y^ympup^ Par. 7c- 
7m(f (not in Hm, are Sub. ytyApm. Imv. 7^^ ; Fu. ^rywH^ow, Ao. iyrf^ 
mjtftt ; also Pr. ytywUrxv or yrpmrn^ found eren in Att. pro6e)i 

Digitized by 



28. t64>» to raise imoJse (66 c). 

29. yjnx^ to cool. 

^i» h^$a Z^^vyyucu §y^vx^riv, also 

Secx>nd Class {Protracted ClasSj 826). 

425. A short a, £, v of the stem is lengthened in the present 
to 17, c^ cv respectively. The following verbs belong to tins class. 

a. Mute Stems. 

1. X]}3tt-(Xd3) rare in prose, = Xav9dy«» cl. 5, to lie hid. 

2. (h7ir«» (o-dir) to rotj trans. 

(nj^ ?<n7^a a-toTjira (41*7) iadtniv 

3. rriK» (r&c) to melt^ trans. 

rii^ hrj^ rirrjKa (417) trdiofv 

[renyrroi] irff^rjv rare 

4. rpttytt (for rpfjy^y St. Tpdy) to gnaw. 

Tpwiofjuu h-pdyov rcrparyfuii V. rpaicrdt 

a. The 1 Ao. Ir/M»{a is also found In comp. : Kter^pmia. 

5. dX€t<^ (dXi^) to anoint. 

aktb^» ([Xtiylra dX^Xi^ (821) ^\ti<farjv 

akTJKififjLai Iffkfififuu} ijKii^ nn 

6. epetn-co (fplw) to overtTirow ; chieflj Ion. and poet. 
ip§i^» ^p€iyp'a ipnptva am fallen rfpttfpiiijy 

ffpXitopfeU iprjpifipai ~ ffpimiv 

7. XciVtt (XTfr) to lea/oe^ see Paradigm 292 : also \ifiirdy<o d. 5, rare. 

81. Poet. ZipKopM to tee, 2 Ao. tipaxov (888 J>\ 2 Pi ZiZopxa see, Aa P. 
i94px^ 9^^ (2 -^o* i^pdmtP Hnd.). 

32. Hm. I\«w to eaute to hope, fXwo/uu or UKwo/uu (28 D a) to hope 
(= Att. ^Xv(C« cl. 4), 2 Pfl foXra A^, Plup. 4^Kw€» (822 D), Y. A'tXvros. 

83. Poet. /(£x«» and tax^» cl. 7, ^o «aumi; Hm. 2 Pf. Par. Pern. A/k^-mximcu 

84. Poet. KiXopai to command, Fu. jrcX^ofuu (881), Ao. imK/tad/inw rare, 
usa. 2 Ao. ik9K\6fiify (884 D). 

85. Poet. rdXofuu (to more) to ft«, 2 Ao. HKi/inp (884 D) often osed aa 
pres. Less freq. Act. Wx«, 2 Ao. 8 S. frXe. 

86. Poet. v4p^ to deetrcy (in prose fop^4»\ Fu. Wpow, Ao. Hepffo. Hm. 
2 Ao. #r/iadoy (883 D), 2 Ao. H. Inf. xip^tu (408 D, 48). 

87. Poet. St. vop, 2 Ao. hropoy imparted, Pf. M. 8 S. thtptnai (840) t< if 
oUotttdy deetinedj Par. werpup^pos. 

88. Ion. and poet, rdpffofuu to h€9ome dry, 2 Ao. P. Mptnpf, Hence Act, 
rcpra/jw, Ao. Mpmfpa (late frcpov) fiuuis dry. 

426 D. 6. Hm. Flap. IL 8 S. ip4parro for ^p^iparra. 

Digitized^by VjOOQIC 


8. frct3« (iria) topirsuadey see Paradigm 296. 

9. (TTtifiJ ((rri0) to tread^ chiefly used in Pr. Impf. ; rare in prose. 
OTCt^flo ?crrei^ tarriptjfuu (881) V. arftnrds 

10. crrcixo (<rrXx) to march^ go^ chieflj in Pr. Impf. ; Ion. and poet. 
oTci^tt Zarti^ and idmxop 

11. <^ido/ici( (0zd) to spare. 

12. iptuyofiai (tpvy) to apow^ chiefly Ion. and poet. Pres. also cpvy- 
ydv» cL 5. 

tp€v$ofim rfpijyov Qn Hm. roared) 

13. KcvSo) (jcvJi) to hide, poetic. 

KMvo'o tK€v<ra Kc jcrvSa as pres. 

14. frrv3o/xat (ttj^) poetic for ni;v3avo/iai d. 5, to ir^uire^ learn, 

15. T(vx» (tvxi tCk) to make ready, make, poetic 
revjo) trtv^a rcrvyfuu crvxSi^y 

16. 0cvya> (^1^) to flee; also ^vyyay» cl. 5. 

ff)€v(ofuu or t[<t>Vyov v€<f)tvya v. ^cvicri^ri Woff 

9€v|oi;/iiii (377) 

426. b. Stems in v. 

1. dco) (dv) to run. Fu. dcvo-o/im. 

2. yco) (w) to swim. 

V€vaovfuu (377) Zptvaa vivtvKa V. ptvartos 

8. Hm. 2 Ac. w4vt^v (884 D) persuaded^ whence Fu. vciri;^or« shall per^ 
suade; but vi;M^0^fi» (881) <A<i// obey, Aor. Par. Ti;M^<rar trusHnff, 2 Plup. 1 P. 
iw4vi^fitr trusted (409 D, 16). Acsch. 2 Pf. Imr. w^wtur^u 

11. Hm. 2 Ac. vc^iS^/tiyif (884 D), Fu. ire^i84«v/uai. 

18. Hm. alfio Kcvdtbw cl. 6; 2 Ac. 8 a Kt^^t, Sub. 8 P. jccK^^tMrt (884 D). 
In Trag. jcc^^, ic^xcvda, may mean am hidden, 

16. Hm. 2 Pf. Par. rerwx^s, Fu. Pf. rcrc^^o/icu, 2 Ao. rirvKoVy rcrvK^/ii|ir 
(884 D) prepared. Also pr. rtr^icw cl. 6 (for rt-rvx-o'icM) to prepare, akn. JFor 
rers^arai, -aro, see 892 D. The forms rirtvyfuUf irt^x^f^ *re late. 

16. Hm. 2 Pf. Par. rc^frfrcf (cf. Hm. p^(a=:^vy^ Jtighi), TL M. Par. 
m^vyfUrot, V. ^vkt6s, 

17. Ion. and poet st. ra^ or dor (cf. 66), 2 Pf. ribrffra wonder, 2 Ao.Par. 

18. Hm. Tfiiiyw (rfiSy) to cut = riium cl. 6 (486, 9), Ao. fr^ijlo, 2 Ao. 
frftayoy, 2 Ao. P. irfjuiyriy, 

19. Ion. and poet. ^^cUm (epiic) to rend, Ao. f^pei^a, 2 Ao. IjpUcoy intrans. 
shivered, Pf. M. ifr^piyfiat. 

20. Hm. ips^Sw {^fwd) to make red, Ao. Inf. iptwrau Also pr. ipv^aipofuu 
cl. 6y <o ^row r«(il 

426 D. 2. Hm. has also rhx^t f^X^fuU) Fu. Hilo/uu, (freq. in late prose.) 
Dor. r<lx*» rdx^/uu. Hm. Imor (808 D). 

Digitized by 


4872 TOWEirfinxMs. thibo clascu 159 

3. irXcM (frXv) to Bail 

vkwvtrofiiu or IfrXeva-a ircVXcvjca [cVX€V<r3}}y] 

vXcvoov/xac [irXcvo-tt] ' ircVXeva-fuit (842) Y. irXrvoTCO£ 

4. irw tt (nn;) to breathe, blow. 

nvtwrofuu or eiryrvo-a frciriwKa [cWevo'Sijy] 

ffvevirovfiai [frcirvcvcrfiat] V. irpt vori^r 

5. pf'w (pu) to flow, 

pivao/iai Uppivaa §ppvijKa (331) tppvrjv, Y. pvros 

a. Instead of ff^w^a and ^€6<rofuu^ the Attic writers generally use the Ao. 
and Fu. Pass, ifp^t pv^irofuu. 

6. x'« (xy) to pour. 

X€« (8*78) ?x<a (381) KtxSucL, Mxppai ^X^V^ 

TmBD Class {TavrClass^ 327). 

427. The stem assnmes r in the present. Verbs of this class 
have stems ending in a labial mute. 

!• &nr» (d^) tofoiteny hindle, Mid. to touch. 

2. /3airr» (fiafj)) to dip^ dye, 

fia^ tiPa^ fiw^apfuu ifia^niv^ Y. fianrSs 

3. PKaiTTM 03Xa/9) to Aw^. 

/3Xcr/^» S)3Xa^ /3(/3Xa<^ c^Xa^Si^v KDd 

fiipkapfjuu tfiXafitfp 

8. Ion. and poet. vXi^m, Fn. vXciiro/iai, Ao. IrXtf^Oy also 2 Ao. HwXmy (408 
B, 25), Pf. thtXmKo^ Y. vAmt^i. 

4. Hm. 2 Ao. Imr. tf^-«yvf, 2 Ao. M. 8 S. ifi-wwro (408 D, 80), Ao. P. 
hprwM^ (896 D), Ff. M. vhrwvfuu am animated, intelligent : connectied with 
this is Fr. imr^xw (trum) Aesch. to make wiee^ Hm. Ao. Minima, For intensiYe 
woatvim topuffvith exertion^ see 472 k. 

6. Hm. also xe^» (370 D b), Ao. usn. Hxwva (881 D), 2 Ao. M. 8 S. xvro 
(408 D, 32> 

7. Hm. kkiopM and AXc^o/uu (a\v) to avoi^ (Act. AXcvw to aver^, Aesch.), 
Ao. ^Acdl^iiy and ^AcM(/iiiif. Pr. also AXcc/w». 

8. Poet. kXc« (icXv) to celebrate (L e. fTtoJttf men A«ar of), Hm. icAc(w, but 
in Mid. K\4ofuu. 2 Aa ficXjuoy heard, Imv. kASJ^i or k4kKvS^ icAvrc or ic^icAvrff 
(408 D, 28)| also icA^f, jrA^crt, Par. M. cA^/ifyot = Y. xAvr^i A«ai^ o/; icAcir^f 

9. Poet. tf«^ ((Tv) to (friM (also in late prose), Ao. ftrorcva (308 D), Pf. M. 
fffffii/iai hasten (319 D, 867 D), Ao. P. i{<r)<r^, 2 Ao. M. 8 S. irhro (408 D, 81). 
The Att. drama has irreg. forms of a Pr. Mid., 8 S. orcvroi or crovraif 8 P. itovf* 
TOi, Imy. ffOVf 0-o^dw, ffov<r^e. From st. <rv comes also trc/w to ehake (= o-fv-i- 
«, 828 e. 89) inflected as a verb of cL 1 (421, 17). 

427 D. 1. Hm. Ao. P. 8 S. iiLpdv (?). 
8. Hm. Pr. M. 8 S. fi?Jfirrai. 

Digitized by 


160 SFBCUL F0B1CA.TI0N. THIRD CLA88. [427 

4. yya/iirro (yvafin) to hend, 

5. Sdirrw (ra^ 66 c) to bury. 

Sa^oD l^a^ rcdofi/iot traf^v^ T. SoirWoff 

6. SpvTrro (rpv^, 66 c) to i^eaib <2(Mm) weaken. 

7. KoXvnrw (koXvP) to cover, 

jcoXv^o) cKoXv^ VcfcaXvfifiai cxoXv^Si^y 

8. fcafiirro (/ca/in*) to 50ndf. 

icdfi^a tKiifiylta Kixafifuii (391 b) ixaiitfilSifiv 

9. xXcWtt (kXcit) to tft^Zi 

jcXf ^ cieXr^ kIkKo^ (SS4 a) cicXainjv 

KiicktfiiiM iicktfpSiriv n. A. pr. 

10. JKcWo) (icoir) to Ol^t. 

11. jcpvirro) (icpv/3 or «cpv^) to AieZa* 

KpV^ tlKpV^a KtKpVflfUU €KpV<l>^fJP 

a. 2 Ao. P. iicp^finy, ixpi^nw are hardly used In Attic: txpofov^ fjcpv/Sor 
iKpv^fAtpf occur only in late writers. 

12. Kvirra) (icvir) to stoop, 

KV^» €Kvylta K(Kv<j>a 

13. pdimo (pa<f)) to setD. 

pa^ tppct^a tppappat ippa<fn)v^ T. pamit 

14. ptWtt (pt^) to throw, see Paradigm 293. 

15. aKdiTTo (crKoxj}) to dig. 

a-Ko^m co-fco^ co'ica^ KaKapfuu €<ncdffn\p 

16. a-MfTToiuu (o-jK«r) to vitftA. 

<rK€yltopat €a'K€^dp,rj» ttaKffifuu ivMfft^ijv 

a. Instead of cniwrofuu^ the Attic writers almost always use the kindred 
ffKow4tt in the Pr. Impt ; bat the other tenses of ffKvwiw are found on* 
ly in late writers. 

17. (TK^iirtt (cw/ir) to prop, 

aKTfyjrw taiaplta [co-n;^] ZaiajfAfuu €a'Kq<f>'S5rj¥ 

18. cncMirroiy (o'Konr) to jeer, 

6. Hm. Pf. M. 3 P. rtdi^crroi (892 D), Ao. P. i»d^r and M^r. 
10. Hm. 2 Pf. Par. xtxaw^s. 6. Hm. 2 Ao. P. irp^v. 

20. Hm. Mirr» (cyir) to cAufe, also Mtftm cL 4 (429 D, 8), 2 Ao. ^»<s«irop 
and ir4ptToy (884 D). 

21. Poet. pdpfwrtB (ptapr) to 9eiu, Fu. judlp^w, Ao. l/««^a. In Hes. 2 Ao. 
pipofiww (384 D), Oot. /i^MhrMffr, Inf. fugrUv, 2 P£ inip/^pwtu 

Digitized by 


428] FOXntTH CLAB8. T2B88 IN oxna AND {ci). 161 

19. Timra (rvrr^ also rvirrr, 381) to strike, 
TVfrri70'4} (Jnn^ trwov rirvfiftat trvwrji^) 

a. ir^imia'a is found in Aristotle ; rer^wniKet, rtr^wrnfttu, hvwridri^ aro 
late. The aorist, perfect, and passiye systems arc unknown to Attio 
prose, the aorist system being supplied from weerdffff^ (irorcpx), ^^® P®^ 
feet and passive systems from trkfi^ffw (428, 6). 

Fourth Class {Iota-Class^ 328). 

The stem assnines i in the present, always with eaphonio 
changes. The verbs of this class are very numerous. We notice 
only those which have peculiarities of formation, especially all 
those which £brm second tenses. 

L Verbs in aato and 5» which form second tenses. 

428. 1. oXXao-o-tt (oXXoy) to exchange^ see Paradigm ^94. 

2. Ki]pvir<rt» iiofpCK) to proclaim, 

iafpv(» tKjjpv^ KMKf)pvxa^-yfiai ixrjpv^flfjp 

3. lidatrw (jury) to hnead, 

l»a^ tpM^a u*pA\a^ fitpayfuu ^1*^^^ ^l*^)fi'l^ 

4. Spxnram (ppvx) to dig. 

6pv(» &pv(a 6p»pvxit^ -yfuu wpv^tfy 

a. Pfl H. Hfvypm (for 6p^pvyfuu) late, 2 Ao. P. mpuxn^ doubtfoL 

5. irX^(r(r» (nkriy) to strike. dtxnXriytnfa^iai cL 5, Thuc.) 
vXi}{» ttn\rj(a iriirkrjya cirXnyijy 

nffrkrjypai inXrix^V'^ less fipeq. 

a. ^mrX^tfVWy icar«nrX4^0tt make -«rAiyi|y (897). Attic writers use the 

ample yerb only in the perfect and passive systems, the other activo 

tenses being supplied from wardairm {wwroy), which in Att is confined 

to the active. 

6. irpao'O'a) (vpay) to do. 

wpd(» tlnpa$a ir^irpSxcu, iriirpQya (887 b) 

iriirpaypai €irpa)firjv 

7. irr^o-cro) (fmjK) to eower: also irr»(r(rfl» Ion. and poet, 
vmjgtf timjga €imypi^a 

8. TopafTtro (Tdpdx) to dietwrb: also ^pa(rtr» (rpax) mostly poet. 
rapa^ irdpa^ rrrapaypai (rapa)fir;¥ 

tsspa^(p6 c) rirprjxa am troubled (ji^pdx^fjy r.) 

9. raco'oD (vdy) to arrange, 

ra|« Zra^a riraxa^ rtrayfjuu ira^fiijy (r. cVdyi/y) 

428 D. 5. Hm. 2 Ao. (i)wirK7iyw (884 J>% 2 Ao. P. iicxX'kyipf, Kar-MWK'IrYnp. 
7. Hm. has from kindred St. vra^ 2 Ao. 8 D. jcanMrr^niy (408 D, 23) and 
Ff. Far. rcrnfiftt, -<rrof (886 D, 860 D). 

Digitized by 



10. <f)pi<rin» (0piic) to be rough, 

^i(» €ff)piia viififiUa am rough 

11. ^Xdo-cTtt (^Xdx) to guard, Mi<L to guard (one's self) agairuL 
ifnikd^M i<f}vka(a ire^vXaxo, -y/uu t<f>v'kd^Jiy 

12. xXa^tt (fcXoyy, 828 b) to fnalv a loud noiso. 

Kkay$€» ttckay^a wicXayyo as pres., Fu. Pf. xeicXay^/wu 

13. KfidC» (fcpoy) to cry ; Pr. Impf. rare. 

CKpdyoy K€Kp^a as pres., Fa. Pf. KtKpd^fuu 

a. «/Mt^i» fxpa^oy late. Pf. Imv. nixpax^h see 409, 8. 

14. pcfw (^y) to <fo, Ion. and poet : also €pb» (for €/)f«, at €/>y). 

Ipf« cp{a ^opyo^ €<0py€cy (322 D) 

a. Hd. has a Fr. Impf. cp8« Instead of Ip8». 

15. (T^^tt) (o-i^y) to «2a^, in Attic prose usa. <r^dTT». 

16. rpifw (rpiy) to f^tieal:^ Ion. and poet 2 Pf. rcrpiya as pros. 

17. ^pd^o) (^pod) to declare. 

<l)pda'» €<t>p^<ra irit^poKo^ ir€<f}paa'iiai €<f}paa^rfp 

18. xaf« (x«^) ^ *»<»^ retire, Mid. to r»ttrtf ; chiefly poetic. 
xdaofjuu ixao-afitjv 

19. x<i<» (x^S) alvum exonero. 

Xfcov/im (877) lx*<^a («X'<»^o»') «<Xo^a (pass. icfx<V3fli, jccxccr/it wf) 

n. FerJ* iw. <r<rfi) ane? fea with otJier peculiarities. 
429. a. Labial stems (328 a, b). 
1. YrcV(ra> (trcir) to cooib .* also Yrcirra) later. 

a wf« (w^) to wmA Aa7u2« or feet: also wjrrw not Att 

10. Find. Pf. Far. rt^Uorras^ see 860 D. 

12. Poet. 2 Ao. rieXayoK. Hm. 2 Pf. Par. icf#c\in^j, G. -orrof (860 Dl 

17. Hm. 2 Ao. M<ppa9oy (884 D). Hes. Pf. M. Par. ir€tl>paiuJpos 

18. Hm. a Ao. M. irrog. KtKMfinv (884 D) retired, but Act. WkoSot cfe- 
prived, Fu. iccicaS^irtf «Aa// deprive, Cf. 422 D, 20. 

20. Poet. jc/>/f» to crcoA; 2 Ao. 8 S. icpUt (or Kpiyt) Hm., 2 Pf. x^icpi'va 
Ariatoph. ^ ' 

21. Poet. »f\i£f« (ireXoJ, ireAo, »Xa) to ftrtn^ near, Mid. to come war, Fa. 

T*^"' ''^ (*?r^)» o®' ^J^^^^Ih ^' »'»^'»^. -A.0. P. ix^xdff^p and Trag. 
4ir\d^y, 2 Ao. M. 8 S. irA^TO, 8 P. l»;ii|rro (408 D, 22). Pr. also ir«Ad«. En. 
r(Ajoj/a or irtAytiw cl. 6 (443 D, 6), Trag. w^Kti^, vXd^tt (411). 

429 D. 8. Hm. ^Wiraw («wir)=: ^W«t« cL 8, to cAiefe (427 D, 20). 
4. Hm, 6erffo/tM (o») toforuee, only Fr. Ijnpf. ; ct 460, 4. 

Digitized by 


4Si] YBSBS IN axrta AND {id. 168 

430. b. liingaal stems which make croro) (rrai), 328 a. 

1. Apiwrra to Jit together: also dpfi6C<o not Att 
6pfi6<r» fjpixoo'a rjpp.oa-fiai ^pfioaHifP 

2. ffkirra to take the honey (/xcXi, plkivos^ 63 D). Ao. ciSXio-a. 

3. fipd<r<r» to hoil [Ao. tfipatra^ Pf. M. p€ppa<rfuii\. 

4. lp€<nroi to TOW, Ao. TJpiaa. 

5. 7rd(r<ra> to ipHnlle, ^ 

irdo-tt €ird(ra 



6. irXd(r(ra) tojorm. 

nXitra tiikdira 



7. wTiVo-w to pound. 

wrto'ti tnrtaa 



431. c. Stems of variable form. 

1. ApiraCa (<ipirad, also dpiray not Att.) to m£2^. 
dpirdtrtt (-oftoi) ijpiraa-a TJpiroKa, jjpiraa-fuu ^pirdcrdijy 
(dptrd^io rjptra^a ^pirayjAai ^pirdxpijv) 

a. 2 Ao. P. ^pwdyTiy late. Verbal hpwaordt (kpwtuPT6s n. A). 

2. /Sacn-d^o) (/Sacrrad, late /Sacrroy) to eorr^, poet, (late in prose). 
Paardan «j3d<rTa(ra [-{a] [jSc/Sdirray/wit] [f/Saordx^';!'] 

3. ydo'o'tt (ray and rad) to j^eM close, 
tfa(ci tva^a vtvaa-fuu 

4. vQii^» (iroid and n-oty) to aport, 

vai^ovpai (377) tiraia-a vivaurpm T. froiorroff 

a. #rai(a, v^aix^ •w^aeyfuu^ heoix^rpf are late : 80 also Fn. walfytpM and 

5. CTtt^tt (o*^) (Tttd) to BOM. 

a'€a'wiuu T. tr^ariot 

5. Hm. \d{b/iai (Ao^) = \afifidy» cl. 5, to toAr^ (437, 4). AtUc poets have 

430 D. 8. Hd. 6/pdtnrm = &^ to/eeZ, Ao. ff^«^a. 

9. Hm. Ipdffctf to Uuhy Fu. liuurtt^ Ao. 11ua<ra; cf. //idf /(uA, G. tfidrr-os. 

10. Poet. Kop^v» (nopifdi) to equipj Ao. M. Kopwrffdfuwos, Ff. M. jccjcopu^ 
Ai/i^i (46 D). 

11. Poet, (rare in prose) Xi^vo/uu (Air) to pray, also Airo/uu cL 1. Hm. 
Aa iXXuriiiiiv (808 D^ ^ '^o- ^Q^- AiT^<rdai. 

12. Poet, yiffffofuu to go, Fu. yt^o/tat, AUo Pr. yioptu, nsu. with future 
meaning. The orig. stem was perhaps k, whence ret (326) or rtr (327); Wo/tai 
for rciofuu (39 a). 

431 D. 5. Hm. Pr. tr^(i» and tn^ (shortened in Sub. (r^s, or^, o'Sucrt), Fu. 
tftM^tfw, Ao. iffdwira, Ao. P. iffoAdriy. The orig. stem was vho (cf. 210)» firom 
whioh comes also a 2 Ao. (ju-form) vim he eenii and ecm thou. 

Digitized by 



6. iC» (tA, lC€y 881) tc Htj seatj Mid. iCofuuy also cfo/iot (cd), <o ntj 
found chieflj in comp. with Kara, Hence 

jKa3/^<0, Impf.. cKc^i^ov (314) : also {^omo, xaSt^oyo), cL 5. 
jKoStci) (876) cfcddto-a and #ea3l(ra 
Jca3i^>7(ro;iat €Ka'Sii<rdfajv 

KoSeiofixu^ Impf. fKa^€(6firiP and KaSi€(6fi7fif, 
JcaSedoO/iac (for leaSfdco-ofuu, 831, 374) [ffcadcVdi/v] 

a. Pr. lad. cComa, Ka^4{ofAat^ is rare in dasaic Greek. The Pr. Inf. and 
Par. and the Impf. hare usually an aorist meaning, and seem to haye 
been originally aorists from the stem ^cd (Lat. sed-eo) with Epic re- 
duplication (884 D) : ^C^/triy for i<r9ofiiiy (56) for <re-ir(c)S-o/ti7ir (68, 88), 
cf. K€icxA/iriy{424i D, 84) from it^-o/uu. From the same stem waa form- 
ed 7Cw = leriw = <rt-tf<c)8-« (882, 830), cf. wlvrm (449, 4) = vi-«(e)r-«. 

7. fivC» {fivy^ Mv^e) to tuck: later /iv^€a>, /iv^a«. 

8. of(D» (od, o^c) to «meZ2. 

SCwf^ 6^Cw^ (5dtt>da as pres., Hm.) 

m. Liquid sterna which form second tenses. 

432. 1. oyeipo) (oycp) t<7 gather, 
aytpa fv^^P^ ay^yepiea, -/xat fjytp'^ijp 

2. aipM (ap) to taXv vp, 50ar away ; contracted from decptt {oMp). 
dpa (S) Ijpa (882 a) ^pKO, ^Pt*'^ ^P^V^ 

3. ^XXo/ioi (dX) to ^tfop. 

dXoOfuu ^Xdfirip (882 a. 2 Ao. rjXoprjp doubtfol m Att., c£ 408 D, 88) 

4 /3aXXc» (/3aX, /SXo, 840) to t^rotr. 
/3aX» €pakov /Sc/SXijko, PiPkrffuu tPkijirjv 

- *■ 

6. Hm. Ao. tT<m (= c-o'tS-ira, c4-<ra) aeo/^d^ Imy. efiror (better lovoA Inf. 
lir^iBu, Par. tvas {hMiffas\ Hd. ctiray; Mid. trans. 8 S. i4cwro {tl&wro Eur., 
icrirsarro Pind.), Par. i<reraftnfoSf Hd. tlirdfuwof\ Fu. tcr(nfuu (= (re8-<rofiflu). In 
comp. Ao. Kodviira and id^ura, ICo/tai aa Pr. is unknown to Hm. : for ZCtai 
Od. «, 878, read c^co 2 Ao. 

9. Hm. A^^trw (o^vy, o^uS) to draw out, Fu. &^^^w, Ao. lipvtnu Also 
once Pr. &^^. 

482 D. 1. Hm. Pr. Impf. 8 P. ^pfywrai, -wro (411), 2 Ao. 8 P. kyiporro^ 
Inf. ity^pw^tu (867 D), Par. ieyp6fuyos (884 D). 

2. Hm. has only Ao. H. iipd/i'nPf 2 Ao. iip6faiv (a), h^ifutpp^ h^chtu, Ao. 
P. Par. hp^nls. He comm. uses Ion. and poet, ktlpt^ (atp), Ao. littpa, Ao. P. 
^ip^Vy Plup. 8 S. lUpro (for nopro): Pr. Impf. 3 P. ^cp^vrcu, -ovro (411). — 
The stem acp has the sense of cp (rep, Pr. fffp«» to jwn, 812 D) in Ao. ovHIfcipff 
IL K, 499, Ao. M. Sub. ffvmulprrfu it o, 680. 

4. Hm. Pf. 2 S. fiifiKnoi (868 D), 8 P. ^Mvrm, -vro (856 D e), also /SeiBo- 
X^o, Par. fi9fioKnn4yQ$\ 2 Ao. M. 8 S. HfiKnrot etc. (408 B, 20); Fu. once ov/t^ 

Digitized by 



5. ry«t/M» (rytp) to iwue, Vfale trans., Mid. to wake intrans. 
iytp» Ijrynpa iy pfiyopa (Z2l, U1) rryipZflP . 

in^/wJ/iiyv (889) tyqyfpfxai 
a. The Inf. 2 Ao. M. haa the accent of a present : typwbtu, A poetic 
Pr. Ifyp^f flypofuu ia also foond. 

6. ^aXXa (3aX) toJUmrith. 2 P£ reSi/Xa. 

7. »UM» (icay) to HZ/. 2 Ac. ticavov: Other tenses doabtfol. In 
prose only as componnd, xaraiouVtt. 

8. Ktip» (K€p) to shear. 

K€p€» ZKttpa [xcjcapjica] KtKoppm ^KdprjVy T. xapros 

9. icXtytt {lOa^) to make incline, see 488, 1. 

10. jcrt (M» (icrcv) to kiU, see 488, 4. 

11. yMivopjai (fjuip) to he mad: poet /ioivm to madden, Ao. l/ii/Mz. 
Itayovfuu p4fArjva am mad ipamjif 

12. o^iXtt to 5tf obliged, 2 Ao. cS<^Xoy. From oi^iXf (881) come 
^^(X^aw fld^ctXijo'a c^^etXi/iea ^^rtX^Sijy 

13. ire*p<» (ircp) to pierce. 

vtp» twtipa irivapfuu (834 a) iitaptiv 

14. om/M» (o"ap) to etoeep. 

aapA €(nipa a-€<njpa grin 

16. iriceXXtt) ((TiccX, cTKXf, 840) to dJry (416, 6). 
crxXiTcro/iat ?cricXi7i» (408, 10) ZaickriKa 

16. <nr€lp» (ffircp) to WW. V. (nraprds 
airtpv ttmtipa tajrappai (884 a) tandpiip 

17. (rreXXM (crrcX) to ««nc^ see Paradigm 290. 

18. oftiakka ((r<^) to make fall, 

aifnOsM ta^ijKa [eo-^oXica] iatftoKpai €aff>aKifp 

19. ^Vtf (^v) to «A<ni), see Paradigm 291. 

20. ^3«p« (<^9€p) to corrupt, destroy. 

^Scptf €<l)Si€ipa tdliapK€Li €<piapfim i<li?idprjp 

(iffaopa poet.) y. (jaaprds 

6. Hm. Pf. Par. Fem. rtl^oXvIa (388 D), 2 Ao. 8 S. ^dkt. Hm. Pr. 3i}^/(W, 
Pa. 3i|X4cr», Pr. Par. daX^^^y (411), rfi\€dd»y. 
8. Hm. Ao. Iiccpcra (846 D). 

11. Hm. Ao. i/tiiAttiiy, Theoc. Pf. M. iitpAanipM (831). 

12. Hm. in Pr. Impf. almost always h^ixxm (different from l^ix^xi to in- 
create^ Ao. Opt. ^^^AXcie, 845 D). 

16. Hm. 1 Ao. irreg. icienXa made dry. 

19. Hm. 2 Ao. Act iter. ^dtwrKt appeared. From older at. Aa he haa 
Impf. 4m(c (mom) appeared, Fu. Pf. «-e^<rerau foUl appear. For ^cin», Ao. P. 
^adr^^, sec 896 D. For intensive xofi^iwy, iroft^aydrnp, aee 472 k. 

20. Hm. Fa. BuL'f»4pff» (846 D), 2 Pf. Bt-d^pa mn ruined (m Att. poets 
tnuv. and intr.). Hd. Fa. M. Ztor^dapio/uu intr. 

Digitized by 



X(upn{r» {jixDuptfo-a] JKr;(dp9ica, M. Mxap^ ^X^P^^ ^ *'^ 

^apfjaoftai] tffuu or Kixtip/uu Y. x^P^ 

IV. Liquid stems which reject v, 

433. A few liquid verbs reject their final v in the perfect and 
passive systems. They are 

1. Kkivw (fcXrv) to make incline, 

kXXv& cxXlva [iccieXr/ca] €K\itrj» and 

KitcKlfUll KOT^MptfP 

2. Kpiiw (xprv) to judge. 

KplV& €Kf>lva K€KpltKa^ K€Kptfiai €KpiiffP 

3. irXvvta (n\vv) to wuh clothee, 

ytXCvm Zffkvva ir€n\iffuu (cirXv^^v n. A.) 

4. KTftytt ('ET'cv) to 2;iZZ; also airffttrimfviu^ -6o>, cL 5. 
icTwSi fKTtiva air-crrowi (later (<iera3i;y Ha.) 

€KTdVOV poet. tKTOyKtLt ^KTdKo) 

a. For 2 Ao. poet, frray, see 408, 4. Av-crr^dof and ftro-rroinl^Mu Iiifl 
Ff. and 1 Ao. Fass. are late. For these tenses the Attic uses r^i^ca 
and Idayoy from drfiCKot (444, 4)l 

5. rf tVtf (r€v) to extend, 

T€V& trtiva TtrdKO, Ttrdiuu cVdSi/y ^ 

Note. The steins of these verbs ended originally with a vowel, to which 
V was afterwards added: xpi^ 'cpr^; nXvy irXov; m-d, jcrdv, xrcv (334 a) ; 

21. Hm. Ao. M. ixnpdfniy^ 2 Ao. K^x^^P^y (384 D), Fu. jctx«^<r», -o/im, 
Ff. Par. Kcxapiji^ff (386 D). 

22. Hm. ^tK» (cA, FcA) to press, Ao. (f)(\o'a,Ff. M. rcA/iox, 2 Ao. P. ^(£\i}ir. 
Inf. Axi)Mu. Find, has 2 Flup. 3 S. i6Ku. In Fr. Impf. Act., Hm. has only 
e[\^ (331). Even Attic writers have Fr. Impf. ttKiw or c2\^, also ^tkXmi 
{XAc» is old and poetic. 

23. Foet 49oip» (fvap) to slay^ 2 Ao. ifwapoy, Ao. M. 3 S. ^v^paro. 

24. Foet. d€{y9t (ptv) to smite, Fu. ^vA, Ao. I^ciwi, 2 Ao. (Ind. not used) 

25. Hm. pttpofuu (jitp) to receive as otters part, 2 Ff. 8 S. fftpopt (319 D),' 
Ffl M. 8 S. ttpjoprai (319 e) *< is fated Viscd even in Att. prose. Far. tlptifpipos. 
In later poets, pMiUpUM, ptp^pvirai, ptpopijpdyos, 

26. Foet. irdxkv (iraA) to shake, Ao. lin)Xa; Hm. 2 Ao. Par. V*^**"^ 
(884 D), 2 Ao. M. 8 S. viUvo (408 D, 42). 

488 D. 1. Hm. Ao. P. ixXly^r (396 D) and ixXl^y, Pf. M. 3 P. jccKX/oreu 
(892 D). 2. Hm. Ao. P. iKplydnv (so Hd.) and ixpl^y, 

4. Hm. Fu. KTwiw and israyiw. 

5. From st. ra, Hm. makes also Pr . ray^ (once with /a-form, Fr. H. 8 S. 
nd^urcu), Fu. rtufvtrm, Ao. inLyuffOf Ff. M. rerdywrpat, Ao. P. iray^ird^y. Also 
Pr. rcraliw, Ao. ^/niya. The form r^ in Hm. is perhaps an Imv. of St. ra 
(r^ = ra-ff), reacA, take thoiu 

Digitized by 



rd, rdv, Ttv. They might therefoxe be referred to the fifth dass. But 
fts the added p has extended beyond the present to the future and aorist 
systems, the^ are here included in the fourth class. 

In imitation of these yerbs, the p of other liquid stems is sometimes 
dropped by late writers before k of the 1 Pf. : Tt^ipiuuca for rt^pfurvKa from 
^€pfuupa to warm. But one yerb belongs more properly to this series, yiz. : 

6. KMpbiupn (xtpl^, Ktpda) to gain, 
Ktp^dp^ •€Kfphapa (S82) MMpirjica 

V. Vowelrstems of the fourth class. 

434. 1. Koitu (kov) to hum; Att Ki<o unoontracted. 
Kav(r» €Kav<ra xeKavKa €Kav^Tjp 

y. teav<rr6s^ Kovrds Ktrnvfuu (tKdrjp Hm.) 

2. xXaia {kKov) to weep; Att. icKda unoontracted. 
Kkawroiuu ttckavtra Ktiekavfuu y. KkaxrrSs and 
Kkavtrovfuu (377), also fcXcu^o-M, icXa^<rM (831) . k\avar6s 

a« KfJcAoMr/uu, iKka^ffdnp (342) are late. 

Fifth Class (JV^asal Class^ 329). 
The stem assumes v in the prei^ent, or a syllable containing v. 
L Sterna which assume v. 

435. 1. iSoiW (fia) to go. (for fiavL-Wy d. 828 d.) 

jSij<ro/iai Zffrjv (408, 1) Ptffr)Ka (409, 2) (Paarjv in COmp. 

pfja-m (416, 2) ?/3i7<ro )3</3a/xai in COmp. y. ^ordf, rios 

6. Hd. Fa. MpfUffoficu, Ac. MpSricn, 

7. Hm. St. ^, orig. ^ 2 Ao. Iirc^wy, ir^^yov (384 D) Jtt//c(i, Pf. M. 
T4^afieUf Fa. Pf. ir§^<ro/uus 

484 D. 1. Hm. Ao. I«n^ (also Imm probably incorrect), of. 89. Attic 
poets have Par. ic^as (shortened from jc^os). 

3. Poet. 9ed» (8a) to bum trans.. Mid. intr., 2 Pf. ZtZjia intr., 2 Ao. M. 
Sab. 8 S. ScCirreu. 

4. Poet, talofuu (8a) to divide^ Fu. 8i(ro/Aai, Ao. iSao'd/ifiw (used even in 
Att prose), Pf. 3 S. S^Saorai, 3 P. (irreg.) ScSa/araj. Also Pr. Zwriopm (Hes. 
Ao. Inf. irreg. Iwiw^ok^ 381 D). 

5. Poet, fudofjuu (/la, fici^) to reocA afler, 8eek for^ Fu. luiaopsu^ Ao. ^fta- 
«r4fAi|y, 2 Pf. fktpopa pTEM on^ deHre eagerly , P. inipapMp etc. (409 D, 9), V. futr- 
r6s. In the sense of the Pf., Hm. has intensive ftat/idt» (472 k), Ao. palftfi^€. 
In Att. Trag. we find Pr. Par. ijl&iampos (= /la-oficyos). 

6. Poet, vclttt (ra) to inhabit^ Ao. IfwKTo'a eatued to inhabit^ M. ipa/crtrdfaip 
became settled in, = Ao. P. ^ydUri^y. Pfl M. p4pac/iM late. Hm. has also Pr. 
rotcrdtf, Par. Fern, pauerdt^ira (370 D a). 

7. Hm. oTvlv (owv) to take to wi/ey Fu. M>ir» Aristoph. 

435 D. 1. Hm. Ao. M. 8 S. ifiitrero (849 D). Pr. also fidtrxm cL 6 (444 D, 
11). Pr. Par. fiifidi (408 D, KT), also fiifi»p (as if from i3</9a«). 

Digitized by 



2. Aavvfii (jfka) to drive: also cXat* poetic. 
rX« (cXacrio, S76) fkatra , iXriKcuca, cX^Xafuu ^XoSiyy 

a. ^Aa^yw is prob. for cAa-yv-«, cf. 829 d. ^A^Xoayioi, ^Xiff-diir are late. 

(la^aofuu, €<faTfv (408, 1) lf<l>1idKa [c^trdfyy] 

0da(ra» c^dacra 

4. frfvtt (vTi, also fro) to drink, 

nlofJMi (878) cirtov (408, 15) frcvrttxa, mirofuu cvrodfyv 

a. Fu. also yiovfuu, perhaps not Attio. The Attic makes i usually long in 
the FiL, short in the Ao. 

5. Tty» (rt) to pay lack, Mid. to obtain payment : also riw/u poet 
rta-a trtaa rhtiuL, rirurfuu Ma^rjp (842) 

6. <fat»<o (<^3t) to perish, chiefly Ion. and poet 

^3t<r» trans. c<^3i(ra trans, .^'^ifxai c^3(ai;ir 

a. Late iip^lmiffaf i^ltn/iKa (381). 

7. doKvu (toic) to bite. 

d^fofioi (412) UddKOP didriyfuu ibtj^^HrfV 

8. Ko/iiw (jKd/i, ir/Mi, 840) t0 50 toearffj neh 

KafiovfJMi tKdfiov KfKfiriKa Y, dwo^Kfufrioif 

9. rcfiytf (rc/i, rfir, 840) to out, 

rv/M) €Ttfi.ov (JhdfAov) rivfuiKa, Ttrfirifuu wTfiifiiffP 

U. Stems which assume av, 

436. 1. alaZdvofuu (aitrS) to perceive: also aicrdofuu rare. 

2. AfULfrrdpn (Afiopr) to err, 

dfUIpTTIirOfJMl rlfULpTOV TffJidpTTJKO, -TffUll fUMplTrfiflV 

3. av^dvn (av|) to increase: also afffiu (Hm. dcfiu). 
avfijo'tf (881) ijij^aa ijH^rjKo, rjv^rjfjuu rfv^rfiijy 

2. Hm. Fu. i\6vy ikd^s, etc. (875 D); Plup. M. 8 S. ^A^Aoro^ once ^A^ 
A(rro» 8 P. i\v^49aro (302 D). 

5. Hm. rtiw. Hm. and Hd. have also Pr. rtyvfUj riyvfioL Different from 
rbm is Poet rlu cl. l, to honor ^ Fu. r^w, Ao. Urura, Pf. M.Par. rmfjuiwosy V. 

6. Hm. ^yw, 2 Ao. tip^tov^ M. i^/ifi^ etc. (408 D, 27). Pr. also ^t- 
yi^ (411). 

8. Hm. Pf. Par. iccff/iifc^f, -droi (886 D. 860 D). 

9. Ion. rdfuw^ 2 Ao. frafxor, Hm. has Pr. r^uw once, W/i« once ; also 
rt4yw {rfuiy) el. 2 (425 D, 18). 

10. Hm. 3^yw (Hes. ;^y/tf) = d^w to ruth, 

486 D. 2. Hm. 2 Ao. Ij/ififoroy {{or fi/iparoy, ij/i^wror, 888 D. 25. 68 D). 

Digitized by 


437] STEMS wmcH assume av. 169 

4. PKaardwo (/3Xa<rr) to sprout : also ^Xaar*© cl. 7, rare. 
3Xa<rr^artt> Z^Katrrov (/d^c^Xdon/Ka (319 c) 

a. Later 1 Ao. ifixdtmiira, 

5. dap3difa> (dapd) to «2£^. 

€dap?iov deddpSi^Ka (831) [cddpSli^v] 

a. The simple verb is used only in the 2 Ao. ; elsewhere KCGroSapdiytf. 
6« dir'€x^ayofjLat (cx^) to he hated, 
mr€)firivofuu dnrfx^dfJi^v dirri)firjfi(u 

a. The forms 1%^^ to hate, ix^ofuUf htrix^otim^ are poetic or late. 

7. taxivio (jux) to come up to^ Ion. and poet 
idfx^aro/iai €kIxov V. d-ictxiyTOff 

8. otddvo) (oid) and ocd/o) cL 7, to dwell, (otddo), oldaiw, late.) 
otd^cTM ^drfo-a ^di^/ca 

9. oXAcrSdvu (oXicrd) to s2ip. (oXioSaivo) late.) 
oKia^rjO'o £Ki&iov (wXto-Sijiea and oX<(r3i7<ra n. A.) 

10. S<r<f>p€dvoiiai (oa<f>p) to smell, (for 0(r<f>pavi-^fuuj cf. 828 d.) 
dait>prf<rofiai cl)(r<l>p6fiifv dxMiPpdiiiSSriv 

a. bff^pdofuu cL 7, h^^paiim are late ; so also 1 Ao. oMrippriffdfifiv, 

11. o<^((rjc(]i'4k> (o^X, o<^Xi(rjc, 380) to incur judgment 
o0Xi7<r0 <^Xov &<f>\fjKa^ cd<f>KrjfjLai 

a. 1 Ao. ^^Xr^fra rare. 2 Ao. Inf. and Par. are sometimes accented as 
present: 6ip\€u^f 6^\»y, This verb is connected with d^(\«(o^X), 
482, 12. 

437. The following have an inserted nasaL 

1. dpbdva (AS) topleasey Ion. and poet, 
dd^ao) Hd« tadov Hd« ci&da 

2. acyydyo) (STy) to totfcA. 

Si^/icu c^Tyov Y. ti'^tiCTOS 

5. Hm. 2 Ao. (Spa^y (383 D). 

7. Hm. irlx^bw, Ao. once jetx^^roro. For ^-forms from st. icixe (881 X 
flee 404 D d. 

10. Hm. Ao. 8 P. tc^pavro, 

12. Hm. iiMdyu (aA8) to make large (Aesch. &X8a/y»); also AxS^cricw (oXSe, 
831) cl. 6| to grow large. 

18. Hes. &X(Ta/n0 (oAIr) to o^im<iL Hm. 2 Ao. ffXZroy, M. ^7ar6p.i\Vj Pf. 
Par. irreg. AxiT^i^fvof (831, 867 Db). 

14. Ear. kK^dtm (aX^) to procure, Hm. 2 Ao. -^X^or. 

15. Hm. iptlaiyw (epb) to contend ( = ^p(C<v cL 4), Ao. M. Inf. ipOitiraar^ai 
(881). Pr. also ipidfuduv to provoke. 

487 D. 1. Hm. Impf. l|K8ayoy, l^f^w^f' (Hd. idvdaj»>y?), see 312 D ; 2 Ao. 
taoy or fi^aSdi' (=cna8oy, cf. 808 D), 2 Pf. c£$a. For UtrfuyoSf see 406 D, 44. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


3. Xayxava (Xd^) to obtain hy lot, 

Xlf^ofuu (326) cXd^ov €'i\fjxa^ €ikijyfiai cX^^^?'' 

a. 2 Pf. x4Koyx«i is chiefly Ion. and poet. 

4. Xafifidva (XdjS) to take. 

Xfj^OfJMi IfKafiov ciXi^o, ttkrififiai iXrjtp'Sirfp 

a. For ^Kiififuu there is a rare form x4\iififuu, 

5. Xtu^dva (Xd3) to lie hid, Mid. to forget: also Xi73a> c1. 2 (425, l\ 

X^(ro» cXdSov XcXi^^o, XcXi^o-fuzi 

a. The simple Mid. is rare in prose, /riXaydiro/uu (more rarely ^ic-Xar- 
S^ofuu) being used instead. 

6. /ioydavM (f^S) ^<> learn. 

fu&rjO'Ofxai t^fiov fitfiaSrjKa Y. /ia3i;rdr, rcor 

7. rrvi^uyo/iat (fii73) to inquire, learn: also irev3o/iaf cl. 2, poet. 
fF€va'OfJLai cVi^o/xi/v niirvtrftai Y. frevorcor 

8. Tvyxavo) (tvx) ^ ^*^j happen, 
rcvfo/tioi trUxov rrrvxflKa (881) 

a. 2 Pf. r^cvxa occurs first in Demosth. : r^cvy/uu, Irc^x^*'* 1*^- 

Note on 435-7. Mute stems, which assume y or av in the present, 
haYe their proper form only in the 2 Ao. ; elsewhere they either lengthen 
the short Yowel Gi^e Yerbs of the second class, 326), or assume # ^31). 

III. Stems which asauine ve. 
438. 1. Pw€<o (iSv) to stop up, 
fiv<r» fhocra i9<i3v<rfuu (842) [ifiiJ&Sirfy] 

2. cfcvco/xai (ifc) to come. 

a. The simple verb is rare in prose : ii^ucyiofuu is commonly used instead. 
The I of the 2 Ao. is short, but made long in the Ind. by the augment. 

8. Hd. Fu. Xd^onat (24 J) a). Hm. 2 Ao. f\axoy obtained by lot^ but X^ 
\axov (884 D) made partaker, 

4. Hd. Fu. \dfjalfOfuu, Pf. XtXd^Ko, Pf. M. UjiOfi/iM (891 b), Ao. P. 
ixdfjL^)^, y, TiaturrSs, -rios, Hm. 2 Ao. M. Inf. \9\a$4(r^ai (884 D). 

5. Hm. 2 Ao. ilXa^r lay hid, but KtXa^or (884 D) cawed to forget^ M. 
XMLkaS^iffhai to forget, Pf. M. X^Acur/tat have forgotten. The meaning came to 
forget is found also in rare Pr. Xtii^dim, Ao. tKiifra^ and sometinles In Pr. Act. 
A^dctf. Dor. Ao. P. iKirb^y* Late Ao. M. iXif^dfAiiv, 

n. Hm. 2 Ao. M. Opt. irctr^otro.(884 D). 

8. Hm. has also 1 Ao. Mxiiiray.Kiiii. often uses rirvyfuUf ir^briw (from 
rc^tf cl. 2, 425, 16) in the sense of rvr^iro, fhvxov, Hd. has 2 Pf. rfrevxa. 

9. Hm. xM^Sivw (xa5, X*''? X«''') ^o contetn, Fu. x'^ofuu {^x*^'^^^f^\ 
2 Ao. IxaSm"} 2 Pf. K^x«>^<>« 

488 B. 2. Hm. has Pr. Impf. Ikw^o/juu only twice, often Udy^t (also kdEr»' 
ficu) and Uw {i\ 1 Ao. lijc, IJoy (349 D). For 2 Ao. Par. Xxfuyof^ see 408 D, 46. 
Hd. Pf. M. 8 P. Mkotoi, kwUaro (892 D). 

Digitized by 


440] STEMS WmCH ASSUME V€. 171 

3. Kvv€a (kv) to hiss. Ao. tficv<ra. 

a. The' ■imple verb is rare in prose ; but vpofKw4^ to do homage is fre« 
queDt ; it makes wposKvrfi<rwy irfMf cic^<ra {wpos4Kv^a poet.). 

4. mrvia (irrr, 8S4 c) to fall, poet. 2 Ao. titirvov. Cf. mwra, 449, 4. 
a. Many grammarians recognize a Pr. trfriw, and regard twiryoif as Imp£ 

5. dfmi<rxv4ofuu (a/tiir-cx) ^^ a/AircxoM^f ^ Aa90 on .* active d/ifrc;(fii>, 
dfimaxtOj to put on, 

dfxfl)f^a rjjmifrxovy Inf. dfi7ri(rx*iv 

dit<p€(ofiai rjfiirtaxofif)^ 

a. iifixurxifdofAai is for afjup{iyurx'f^^^fuu. For change of ^ to tr, cf. 65 d. 
itfX is for ^<rX9 ^^^^ ^^0^^ ^<>r ^''<K0X9 & reduplicated stem of Ix^ (o'cx) 
to Amw (882. 424, 11). The 2 Ao. must be dirided llfiinirxov; « here 
belongs to the preposition. 

6. imiaxi^ofuu (vtt-cx) to promise. See 5 a aboye and 424, 11. 
V]ro<rx4<ro;AO( vfrro'x^M'?' virco-xi/Mai 

IV. Stems which assume w {after a vowel vw). See 40T. 

439. Stems in a. 

1. Kfpdvinffii (ictpa^ Kpa^ 839) to mix, 

xtpatra iK^pda-a KtKpdKa^ K€KpafUU tKpdirfv or 

y. Kparios [K€K€pa<rfxai] €Kfpda'^Tfv 

2. Kpfftdwvfit (jc/)€/ui) to hang trans. : (also Kptpdm late.) 
Kpffi^^-dormZ^Id) €Kpiiidaa [KiKpipLaaiiail ^Kpe/ia<r3i7v (842) 

a. For Mid, Kp4fiaftai to hang intrans., Fu. Kp9p4ieoftat^ see 404, 8. 

3. ittrdvyvpt (ircra) to expand: (also 7reraa> late.) 

mrm (-atria 876) iirir&aa iriirrdpai (339) iirrrda^rjv (843) 

a. vcx^wca hite, frtw^rafffuu not Att. 

4. (riccdavw^ii (criccda) to scatter : also aKtdmjpi rare in prose, 
criecdtf (-a<r« 375) (aKtddaa ta-Kidaapai (342) ccnccdacdiji' 

440. Stems in e. 

1. €vin/fu (c, orig. Fcr, Lat. ves-tio) to clothe: simple yerb poetic. 
afi<l>u» ('t<rco 874) fjptpUtra (814) fiptpUtrpqi 
dp<l>ti<Topai {inUtraa^ai Inf.) 

439 B. 1. Hm. also Fr. irep^, iccpa/w, Ao. Inf. Hittp^irai : Pr. Sub. 8 P. 
KipwnoA is accented like the /u-forms in 401 k. For Klprnt^ see 448 D, 2. 

4. Hm. Ao. also without o*, iKtdatrira, ixtidnrdfif ; cf. Ki9p7i/u 448 B, 8. 

5. Hm. Toio^fMu (7a) to be glad, Fu. yay^ffofuu, late P£ yeydtnipau *Cfl 
To/tf cL 4, only in Pr. Far. yalw, 

440 D. 1. Hm. Impf. KaTareiyvop(= Vtir'Wov\ cf. Hd. hr-fivwr^cu^ Fu. liro'w, 
Ao. «0V^ Ao. M. 8 S. f(<r)0«ro or UowtrOf Pf. M. cffuu (= rwfuu), wo'at, Marai 
(ePraif\ Flap. 2, 8 8. ((Tffo, ?0tq or Ifirro, 8 B. ccrd^y, 8 P. tfaro (=r YfOHtro), 
Far. apiwot. 

Digitized by 



2. Kopivfrvfu (xopf ) to satiate. 

K»p€a'» €K6p€a-a KtKopta-fJuu (342) tKopitr^v 

3. afiivwiu (<r^f) to extinguish (416, 6). 
afita-w t<rfi€<ra t&firfKa 

afiriaofiai Hafirfv (408, 9) tafiio-fuu (842) cV^cV3i;y 

4. (TTopivvvfii (oTopc) to Spread out : also orpt^wvfu (oT($/>yu/u). 
oTopSi (-<V« 8*74) iirr6p€<ra [coropco-fuii] [c0TO/>c(r3i;v] 

441. Stems in o). 

1. Ccivvvfu (fw) to ^trtZ. 

2. pwvyvfit (p<a) to strengthen. . 

p<»<ra> tppaaa €ppafiai am Strong ipp&ir^rfv (842) 

3. arponvyvfii (orptt) to spread out := aroptvyvfu (and (rr<$pirv^). 
OTpioa'a corpAxra corpwfuu farp^Bl^jjv 

4. xpmvwfii (xP«) '<^ co2or = XP^C^ ^^* ^* 

Xp^^^ cXpttcra MXP^a-pMi txpwr^rfp 

442. Stems ending in a consonant. 

1. aywfu (ay, orig. Fay) to &r^Jk. 

<?f» «afa (312) cdyo (417) [?ay/Aai] cayiji^ (^ 

2. iipinjfiat (op) to win^ chiefly poet. ; only Pr. Impf. For 2 Ac. 
fip6firjv^ see o7po> (432, 2). 

3. dfiKvvfii (dcc«c) to aA^io. 

4. flpywfu (cfpy) to «^uf tn ; (also f <pya> late.) 

etp^co <^p(a, P.€p(as tlpypai c(p;(3i;y 

2. Hm. Fu. icop^« (374), Pf. Par. K^Kopn^s (386 D), Pf. H . KtK6prituu (also 
Hd.), V. iL-K6orrros. 

Add the lollowing with stems In i : 

5. Poet. Klvvfjuu (ki) to move in trans., 2 Ao. Ifxloy uenf, Par. kiAp (Trag. 
Kic/s rare). For iKla^Vy ace 41 1. From ki is derived also jriycw to move trans., 
inflected regularly. 

6. Hm. aXtnifiat (cu) to take avpay^ in comp. kwoalyvfieu and inrtdyvfuu, 

7. Ion. and poet, iaivvfu (Scu) to feast trans., Mid. intr.. Opt. 3 S. Saii^o 
(401 D 1), B P. Saty^oTo: Fu. 8a/<r<v, Ao. I8ai<ra. 

442 D. 1. Hm. Ao. fofa, rare j}|a (Hcs. Opt. 2 S. jravd(|a(f, = <taFFa|aif = 
vara-ra(ai^ 73 D). Hd. Pf. iTfya. 

3. Hd. has st. Uk in 8«{», I8c{a, S^Sr/jum, i^x^^' ^°^' P^- ^- 8c/8cy- 
juci ^ee< (for ScSeiyfiai), 8 P. SeiS^x^'^'M* ^"to (392 D). In the same sense of 
greeting^ he has Pr. Par. Scim^ficroT, as also Pr. Ztuceofdopm, and SciSlo-icoftai 
(= Z^ZttK-fTKOfuuy cf. 447, 9). 

4. Hm. has only forms with smooth breathing, even in the sense of ehut- 
ting in. As stem, he has epy or «cpy Instead of cipy. For Jipx"^*'^ (O^ato, 
see 318 D. For poet. cTpyoi^oy, Hm. {i)4pyei^orf see 411. 

Digitized by 



B. The forms of djpTw to shut out are distiDguished from these bj their 
smooth breathing. 

5. ievywfii (fvy, fivy, 826) to join, • 
(tv^o « f«vf q c frvy/iiai <f ^V?"* fC^vxpriV T, A, 

6. diro-KTivwfii (kt(v^ 884 c) <0 ifciW, = icTctw* (433, 4). 

7. fiiyvvfii (fity) to mix: also fiicryco cl. 6, less freq. in Ait. 

fiifityfiai ifiiyrjv 

8. oXXv/xi (for oXw/ii, St. oX, oXe, 331) ^ destrot/, lose (417). 
oX« (-cV« 874) e5Xfo-a oXatXcxa (821) 

dXoD/ia< b)\6fit)y oXa)Xa 

9. oftw^i (ofi, o^o, 831) ^ swear. 

ofJLOVftai cdfioaa ofi^fioKa (321) d>fi6irfP and 

(^ ofi-cofiai) ofi^fjurrai and (u/xoo-d^v 

[o/AOo-tt, -ofuu] ofJMfJioarM (842) Y. dir-£Ofioro( 

10. oiJLOpywiu (pixopy) to wipe off* 

dfJi6p(ofiat &fiop^a a»p6p)fif}V 

11. c^pt'v/xi (o^) poetic, ^<7 r<?u«e, Mid. ^<? rt?tM£ one's self^ rise^ 
opfTtit i>ptTay apopoy opotpa Intrans. 

opovftat (apopriv 6pa>pefJMi (831) 

12. nriywpt. [n&y^ »n;y, 326) to fix^ fasten: (also Tri^o-crca cl. 4, late.) 
tr^^oi €7rrj(a irtirrfya (417) indyrjv^ v. id/ktof 

a. Pf. M. frdmr/fJMi late ; 1 Ao. P. Mix^^ °* A. pr. 

13. irrdpwpaL (nrap) to sneeze^ 2 Ao. ttrrapovl (also Trraipa d. 4, 
Ao. cmrSpa^ 2 Ao. P. irrrdprfVj n. A.) 

14. prjywpi (pay^ prjy 826, |io>y 834 d) tO break, 

pri^» fpp^ia fpp<aya (417) ippayrfp 

a. Pf. M. dfi^nypcu Hm., 1 Ao. P. ifUx^v n. A. 

7. Hm. and lid. have only iiiayia in Pr. Impf, : Hm. once fxtyd^opM, — 

2 Ao. M. 3 S. HfwcTo, fuKTo (408 D, 39). 2 Fu. P. fuyfiirofMu (395 D). 

8. Hm. also Pr. i\4K» (formed from 1 Pf.) ; 2 Ao. M. Par. ovAi^ucyas 
(28 D). 

11. Ao. ifura (845 D), less often &popoy (384 D), 2 Pf. Spvpa (321 B), Plup. 

3 S. ^pti and wp^pci (311 B), Pf. M. Sub. 8 S. 6p<&priTat, Ao. M. Zpro (oftener 
than &pero\ 6p<roy Sp^ai, ipptyos (408 D, 40). For ipfffo, sec 849 D. Con- 
nected with 6pyvfit are 6ply» to rouse^ Ao. £piya, Ao. P. apiy^v ; and 6po^t9 to 
mshf Ao. &pcwra, 

12. Hm. 2 Ao. M. 8 S. Kar-irriKTo (408 D, 41). 

16. Hm. Hx^vt'^cu (ax) to be pained (rare txopM^ hKaxK'op^^)\ 2 Ao. ^ira- 
X<J/ii7y (384 D), Pf. hKixnPMi (321 D, 331), 3 P. iicijx^aoTai (392 IJ), Plup. 8 P. 
ixaxe^aro (for wcax^aro), Inf. &irix^^<^^i I'&i'- iucax'hp^^osy imixfufyos (867 D 

b). Act* iucaxiC» to pain, Ao. IJKaxoy and Axc^x^^'*^ ^^' i**r« intrans. 

&X^^>') ^X'^^'^* 

17. Poet. icotKi/^uai (for xoS-yvfiai) to swrpass, Pf. tciKaffpaty Par. KtKaffp4yos 
(Pind. KtKciSft4yos). 

Digitized by 



15. (ppayvvfn (<l>pay^ rare form of <l>pda'<r6i cl. 4, to enclose, 
<l>pd(» €<f>pa(a 7r€<l>paypxii f(f>pa)flrjv [c^poyi/y] 

Sixth Class {Inceptive ClasSj 330). 

444. The stem assumes o-k in the present, sometimes with 
a connecting i. Several verbs which belong here, prefix a redu- 
plication. Only a few show an inceptive meaning. 

Stems in a and c. 

1. yrjpdaKui = yrjpd-a> to grow old, 2 Ao. Inf. yrfpavat (408, 2). 
yripdau>y -ofiai iyr)pa(ra yeyripoKa 

2. Mpd<rKu> {dpa) to run, used only in composition. 
dpd<rofuii €Bpav (408, 8) BtbpaKa 

3. Tjpda-KO) if)^a) to come to puberty : rj^dta to he at puberty, 
fi^riaci rj^rjaa ij^rjKa 

4. ai/^o-ica) (3ui^, 3i/a, 340) to die / used also as pass, of icrrtVo) to hilL 
^avovpat cSaroi' ri^yrfKa am dead (409, 4) 

a. Fu. Pf. rt^^u (rtMi^ofuu late), see 894 a. For Fu. ^wov/uu, 2 Ao. 
^i^avoy, the Alt. prose always uses kvo^ayovfuu, i.v4^woy (aever found 
ill Trag.), but in the Ff. r4dwfiKa^ not kw<hr4^yriKa. 

18. Hm. ip^ypvpi {opry\ = 6p^ya0 cl. 1, to reMh, Pf. M. 8 P. ^pM^oroi 
(321 D, 892 D). 

443 B. In the Epic language, several stems, which for the most part show 
a final a in other forms, assume ifa instead of it in the present. This is ac- 
companied in most instances by a change of vowel, and by inflection according 
to the ^i;form. 

1. Zdpyfipi or ZofU'dM (Sa/i, 9apUf 331) to overcome^ Fu. ZapAm (cf. 875), 
Ao. iidpaura, Pf. Mpriica (340), Pf. M. Mpripai, Fu. Pf. ScS^^cro/iai, Ao. P. 
iHapdff^y (842) or idpidriy, more freq. 2 Ao. Mppp, Pr. also Zapji(9», The 

forms iZapaffipriy and itapjiff^y are even found in Att. prose. ^The same 

Perf. Mid. Mpripat belongs also to the Ion. and poet. S^fu» (Att. ohcoSopiitf) to 
buildj Ao. I5ci/ia. 

2. Klpyripi or Kipydm (tc/Ni), = Kfpdyyvpi to mix (439, 1). 

8. Kp^pyapm (icp€pa), = Kpipapai to hang (404, 8 ; ofl 489, 2). Actire 
Kp^pynp^ very rare. 

4. pdpyapai {papa) tofght, Opt. 1 P. papyolptba (401 D h). 

5. w€oyiipi (wtpa), = wnepaffKm to tell (444, 7), Fu. vc/mCw (cf. 875), Ao. 
MpaffOt Pf. M. Par. irwwtpnpiyos. 

6. irlkyripi or wiXyiw (ircAa), = veXdCu to bring near. Hid. to come near 
(428 D, 21). 

.7. iriTyripi or viryd^ («'«Ta), = Trtrdyyupi to expand (489, 8). 
8. (TKliyTipi ((nrc8a), = aiciJidyyvpj. to ecaiter (489, 4) : also without c, Jrift- 
mpt (jctZa), 

444 D. 2. Hd. Mp4i<nt», Zptaopatf tZpitP (24 D a). 

Digitized by 


445] VOWEI^TEMS. 176 

5. IkavKOfiai {iXa) to propitiate, 

iXdcro/AOi iXdo-a/ii^v Xkaa^riv (842) 

6. fUfiyfi<rK<o O^va) to remind^ Mid. to remember^ mention. 

fivfiaa tfivrj<ra fi«fivi7;iai(319b, 893 a) ffxvria^Tjv (Z4c2) 

a. The Fu. and Ao. Mid. are poetic ; the Fu. and Ao. Pass, take their 
place. The Pf. M. fidfurnfiot is present in meaning, = Lat. memini. 
Fu. Pf. fi9fu^4rofMi unll htar in mind, 

7. innpdaKu (npa) to sell; wanting in Fu. and Ao. Act. 
(airodaavfiai) (^mribofitjv) ircTrpdKo, nfwpdfiM f'npa'^f}v 

8. t^MaKta ((^) = (Aiy/ii (404, 2) to say. The Pr. Ind. is scarcely 
used. Hm. has only the Impf. In Attic prose^ the Par. is frequent 
^tead of ^r, not used, 404, 2), but other forms are rare. 

9. xao"*" (x°) '^ 9<iP^' From st. x^*' (329 a^ Pr. ;^aiVo> late), come 
\aifovfxai €X!^yov K()(riva 

10. dp€aK» (^apt) to please • 

dpta-a tjptcra [dpffptKa] (rjpia^ijv n. A* "pT.) 

445. Stems in o. 

1. ava-PtwrKOfjuit (fiio) trans, to re-animate^ intr. to revite. 
Ao. aVc/3ttt>v (408, 18) intrans., dvffii<A(Tayi.r)v trans. Cf. ^M$c0 (428, 2). 

2. PKaxTKa (/loX, pXoy /3Xo 58 D) to go^ poet Pr. Impf. only in comp. 
/xoXov/ioi ' c/ioXov fiffi^aica (340, 58 D) 

3. fiifipwTKM 0/>o) to eat. 

{fiprntropm] [c/3po»o-a] /3<i3/>»iea, ptfiptofuu (Jfipa&fiv n. A.) 

a. The defective parts are supplied by forms of luMw cl. 9 (450, 8). 

4. ytyvcbo-KCA (yvo) to hMU>: also •ylMDO'irtt IcBB freq. In Att. 
yiwa-ofuii tyv^v (408, 14) ryviaKa^ ryvfl»<r/xai iyva&^riv (842) 

5. Sptto-ictt (3op, 2/>o, 840) to leap, chiefly poet : also ^dpwfjMi cl. 5. 
^povfKU c^opov 

6. rirpaxTfCtt (rpo) to wound. 

rpwrti Sfrp^^aa rirp^pai trpwl^irjv 

5. Hm. also UJo/ioi (TXafuu), Imv. iKifii (Theoc. 1X£»i), see 404 D, 10 ; 
Pf. tKriKtL . 

6. Hm. Pf. M. 2 S. yiipyfiai^ fJL^fUfjf (Imr. /i^fufto Hd.), see 868 D ; Sub. 
1 P. fiMfi^d/At^ (Hd. fttfA9t^fit^\ Opt fjLtfiyffuiWf 8 S. fitiufi^o^ see 898 D. 

7. Poet, fr^prn/u (w«po), see 448 D, 6. 

11. Hm. fideneu {fia) = /SoTiw to go (486, 1), chiefly in Imv. fidtrx* »i A<m/«, 
go; once hrifiturKiyiW to cause to go upon. 

12. Poet. jccjcX^o-fftf (icXt) = jra\^tf cl. 1, to coW (420, 5). 

445 D. 8. Hm. fi^fip^idtt. Ep. 2 Ao. tfipw (not in Hm.). Soph. 2 Pf. Par. 
■ &T«f (409 D, 16> 

4. Hd. 1 Ao. Myimira. Poet. V. ynrris (for yimeris). 

6. Hm. rpi^. 

Digitized by 



446. Stems in i and v. 

1. mwiiTKio (tti) to gke to drink, Iod. and poet Cf. mv» (435, 4). 
iritrti CTTlaa 

2. KvtffKd (kv) to impregnate^ Ao. cxt/o-a. 

a. Mid. Kx/t<rKOfJLat to hccome pregnant ; but k{>v<, kv4u cl. 7, to he pregnant. 

3. /xcd^o-ica) Oi€3v) to intoxicate. 

a. Mid. fit^^Kofjuu to become intoxicated; but fttbCm (only Pr. Impf.) to 
be intoxicated. 

447. Stems ending in a consonant. 

1. iXiaKOfxat (<IX, <iXo, 331) to he tahen, used as pass, to aip€» cl. 9. 
dXoxrofMu coXttv or coXttxa or ▼• dXa>rdr 

itXo)!' (408, 12) ij\<kyKa 

2. aiHlX/crKA) (av-oX, av-oKo) to expend : also dvakoci, 
draX»(ra> aMiXa>o'a ai^^iXttica, ai'dXfii>/iac dveXaliijp 

dvfj\<oa-a dvrjX^KOy dyfjkoifxai dvijkcal^TfP 

a. Rare forms, Jiyd\wra, ^yikMfim (314). 

3. dfifiXiaKa (a/xjSX, a/x/3Xo, 331) to miscarry: also c(-af^3X<^. 
dfijSXtfcrtt rj}i^\ui<ra TjfipXtaKO, f/x^a>/xa< 

4. oftirXaxio-Ko) (a/xTrXa/c) <<7 mis^, err, poetic 
dfi9rXaK^(rfli> rffinXoKOP ^fiirXdKtjrat 

5. ivavpioTKOftat (cir-avp) ^(^ enjoy: also €jravplaic<a, ewavpta cl. 7. 
inavprjiTOiuu imjvpov, imfvpoyLriv 

a. The word ia Ion. and poetic ; in Att. prose, only 2 Ao. Inf. #ravf>^dcu. 

6. evpiaKfo (<vp) to find, 

tvprja-» (331) cSpov €vprfKa, evprjfiat evpi^rju 

a. For 2 Ao. Imy. cdp^, see 366. 1 Ao. M. ^^pdfitiw late. 

7. or€pt(rK» (jTTtp) = or€p€<a cL 7, to deprite* 

crepficroi itrripria'a rWcpi/iea, i;;mh corrtpfi^ijv 

a. Fa88. ortpdrKOfjMi and erepovfuu to be deprived; but oripopM cl. 1, to 
6tf tn a «^a^e of privation, 

8. oXcf 6) (for oXric-crKtf, St aXrie) to toari <>2f / -^^^ i^^ >^ prose. 
dXe^^o-o/iat ^Xc^d/ii;^ 

a. A Fu. &A/|o;(at is also found. 

9. aXvcTKcD (for aKvK-<TK», St aXvic) to avoid, poet ; Pr. Impf. rare. 
dXv^tt ^v(a (connected with akiopai, st. oXv, 426 B, 7) 

446 D. 4. Hm. iti^^o-kw {peai) to akoWy declare. Akin to this is Hd. 9ia^ 
^icicm or -^AffK» to shine, dattm. 

447 D. 7. Hm. Ao. Inf. ortpt<rai. Eur. 2 Ao. P. Par. er^p^it. 

8. Hm. Fu. &Xff(4crc», Ao. 'j^A^^n^'a, 2 Ao. &AaAjtoir (884 D, 389). 

9. Hm. has also AAvo-xi^w cL 4 and kXwrtsiiw cl. 5. 

Digitized by 


448] C0NS0NA1«T-ST£MS. 8EVENTU GLASS. 177 

10. dibdaxa (for 8i8ax-<r#c«, st. dtbax) to teoch. 

didd(a> tbida$a dtdiSaxcu, 'yfUii ^Btddx^fjv 

11. \d(rK<a (for XoK-a-Ka, st. Xdic) to «p«i*, ppctic. 
XoKTicrofiai iXdiajaa (331) XfXi7«ca or 

IXdKov XcXdKa (338) 

12. fii(ry<a (for /iiy-o-fcci), St. /xiy) to mix, = fiiyw^i cl. 5 (442, 7). 

13. 7ra<rxM (for naZ-aKa, st. 7rtl3, TrcvS, 329, 33 1 a) to suffer. 
ntLtrofiat (49) endZov niiroi^a V. fradiyrciff 

a. For the two forms of the stem, compare rh vd^os and w4if^os suffering. 

Seventh Class [Epsilon^Class^ 331). 

448. The stem assumes cin the present. Here belong 

1. ald€Ofiai (aid) to /eel shame : also atdofiai poetic. 
tu^iaofiai ]jd€a'dfirjv ^dtafuu (342) j/^cVdi^v (413) 

a. ^tirdfifjy, in Att prose, pardoned; in poetry, felt shanie, = ijUffdritf. 

2. yafxto (yaft) to marry (Act. uxorcm duco, Mid. nubo). 
yafia ryiy/io y€ydiJLrjKa, -rjfiai V. yafi€Trj 

a. Late forms yofi^a'afj iydtiyica, iyofU^rtr Theoc. 

3. yijZtat (yi^a) to rejoice, poetic j in prose only 2 Pf. 
yiyd^crtt) €yrjZr}(ra yiyrjZa am glad 

4. 5o«c€fi> (doK) to seem, think. 

dd£w tdo^a dcdoy/ifli {tbdx^tiv r. A.) 

a. 8oK4<ro0, ^d/nro-a, 8f 5^Kf}ica, ScS^jcTr/tot, iioicfi^y arc poetic or late. 

5. Kvp€<a (Kvp) to hit upon, happen, Ion. and poet. : also /evpa> rare. 
KVpr\tT<a, Kvpa-a cKVpaa, iKvprjaa 

10. Ep. Ao. 49iSdffKriffa (331, not in Hm.). The orig. stem was 8a, Hm. 
Fa. h^ot shall find (378 D), 2 Ao. Ziiaoy (384 D, also iSooi^) taught, 2 Ao. M. 
Inf. 8c8(Wdai.(for dcSacfri^ai), Pf. ScSii^ira (331) fiave learned, 2 Pf. Par. 5c8ac6s, 
Pf. M. Par. ScJaijM^M*, 2 Ao. P. ^Wi/y learned, Fu. P. Sa^o-o/Mu (896 D^ 

11. Hm. Xt}Kc», 2 Pf. Par. Fem. \t\aKv7a (838 P). 

13. Hm. 2 Pf. 2 P. ir4xoir»t (409 D, 14), Par. Fem. ireira;^u7a (cf. 338 D). 

14. Hm. iira(pi(rKC9 (aip) to deceive, 2 Ao. livwpov (884 D), rare 1 Ao. iprd- 
^maa (331). 

16. Poet. itpapiffKw (op) to Join, fit, trans., 1 Ao. ^pffa (345 D), uau. 2 Ao. 
IjfKipoy (384 D) twice intraus., 2 Pf ftpa^am^otne^^,///^ (found even in Xen.), 
Ion. &fnjpa, Hm. Par. Fern. ipapvTa (338 D), Ao. P. 3 P. Ap^w (395 D), 2 Ao. 
M. Par. &pfJLtyos (408 D, 84). 

16. Hm. t<rKc»{=¥uc'(rKti0) and itffKta{2Z Da) to make like, consider like, 
cf: 2 Pf. totKa (409, 7). 

17. Hm. rtHo'KOftat (= ti-twkjo-kojmu) to prepare (cf tc^x<' c^« 2, 425, 16), 
io aim (cf. rvyxdya cl. 6, 437, 8). ' 

448 D. 2. Hm. Fu. Mid. 8 Sing, yofiicrffrrat will cause (a woman) to marry, 

Digitized by 



g ( fiapTvpiu} (jiapTvp) to "bear witness, inflected rcg., but 
' ( fiafyrvpofiai cl. 4, to call toitnesses'^ Ao. tfjLaprvpdfjLrjv. 

7 j f vpeo) (£vp) to shave^ Ao. t^vprjaa^ Mid. (vptofjuu^ but also 
' t i^pop-ai cl. 4, Ao. €$vpdp.riv, Pf. i^vpriftai. 

8. irariopai (frar, Orig. fra) ^ ^t, Ion. and poet, 
iritroftoi t7r&(rdfjajv iriira(rfiai Y. ^-Traoror 

9. nfKTta (n-eic, frcicr, 827} to e(7md, «Aear. (Hm. mUo for ytckm.) 
(frcf fi> n. A. €jrf$a n. A.) cVex^i/v 

10. piTTTftt) (pt(^, ptwr) to throw, = pttrrw (427, 14), only Pr. Impf. 

11. a»3co) (a>3) to push ; Impf. cu^ovt' (312). 

coiTtf, <u3^(ra} loio'a [ca)iea] loxr/xaA iaxr^tjp 

a. »d4o'<» is not found in Att. prose. The syllabic augment is rarely 
omitted in Attic. 

Eighth Class {Reduplicating Class^ 332). " 

449. The stem assumes a reduplication in the present. For 
/ii-yerbs of this class, see 403. There remain 

12. Poet. Zovxim to Bound heavily, Ao. iZohniira (even in Xen.), l-fio^ 
muva (cf. i^lyBoviros loud-thunder%ng\ 2 Pf. S^Souira. 

18. Poet. K€KaS€t9 to roar^ Fu. KcAa54<r«, Hm. Pr. Par. K^kiJimy. 

14. Ion. and poet. Kftrr4w to prick, Fu. iccrr^^'^f etc., reg. ; but Hm. Ao. 
Inf. K^«rai(=ric€j»T-<rflu), V. Kttrrds (=:«CKr-TOj). 

15. Poet. KTvwdw to crashj clatter, rare in prose, 2 Ao. tKrvirov^ also in 
Trag. 1 Ao. ^Kn^mjo-o. 

16. Poet. Aiy^fl* to shudder, Fu. ^ly^irw, Ao. ip^ifn^Oy 2 Pf f^^fya used as 
a present. Different is ^iti^w to be cold (371 d). 

17. Ion. and poet, vrvyia to dread, hate, Fu, errvyfiffofuu, Ao. itrr^yfiffOf 
etc., reg. Hm. has 1 Ao. laTv^a made dreadful, 2 Ao. tcrvyw dreaded 

18. Pr. ^iX/ctf ^0 love, inflected reg. as a verb of cl 1, see Paradigm 287 ; 
but Hm. Ao. M. i^tKifitiv (st. ^iX). 

19. Hm. (xpauTfitu to help, ward off, Pr. Impf. not used) Fu. xpwtfyc^trw, 
Ao. ixpaio'firio'a, 2 Ao. txp^^l"^^- 

Add the following, which annex a in the present (331) : 

20. Pr. fipvxdofxat to roar, Ao. ifipvxnffdfiiiy. In Hm., only 2 Pf. fi4fipvxa 
used as a present. 

21. Poet, yodw to bewail, Fu. yoijcofjuuf Hm. 2 Ao. Hyooy, 

22. Hm. dfiptdofjuu to quarrel (Fu. iripiffofjieu Theoc), Ao. i^iipurdfifiVt Ao. 
P. iZupiv^v (896 D). Pind. Zriplofiat^ ^riptdu. 

23. Poet. KtxfuMt -ofiM^ to lick, Fu. ?axi»-^<rofuu, 2 Perf. Par. irregular 
Xf\tixiA6T€s Hes. 

24. Hm. fifiKdonai (ji&k, iitiK, 326) to 6/«a/, 2 Ao. Par. ^iri^i^, 2 Pf. Par. 
fUfATiK^Sf Fem. fisfiaKvut (338 D), Plup. ifA^firiKoy (351 D). 

25. Hm. fiifrridu, -o/uu, to plan, Fu. pufrrlirofuu^ Ao. ifirrrurd/irip, Pind. 

26. Pr. fjwKdofuu (fivK) to low (used in AtU prose). Poet. Ao. ifAwnHMfiiir, 
Hm. 2 Ao. ifiuKoy, 2 Pf. fi4p,vKa used as a present. 

Digitized by 



1. ytyvo/iai (yrv) to become : also yiyofuu les3 freq. in Att. 
yty^irofuu (ytvofirfv yiyova (409, 8) have become^ have been 

ytyivjjfiai (JytviiZfiv L) 

2.' Xaxta (o-fx) ^ ^<>2c2, another form of c^t* (424, 11). 

3. luiLvta (ficv) fo remain^ poetic form of /acVm (422, 18). 

4. friin-tt (frcr, irro, 389, 831) to fall: cf. irimtt cl. 5 (488, 4) poet. 
Yrco-ovfuxt (877) tfirecop viimaKa 

a. IrtirQir Ib for orig. and Dor. Iircrov (62 a). 

5. rijcr» (for TiTiCtt, Bt rcic) to bring forth^ beget 
rt^ofuu €T€Kov T€TOKa (834 a) 

r/^» less fr. Urt^ rare (rcrey/xai n. A.) (cVip^S^v n. A.) 

a. Mid. rtierofjuu rare and poetic. 

6. rcrpatt (rpa) to d<?r0 ; also rcrpatW (829 a, 828 d). 
Tpria-» (885 a) trprjo-a T€Tpnfiai v. rpn^ros 
TtrpopA €T€Tprjva (later -dMi) [(Vcrpai^ijt/] 

For reduplicating verbs of the sixth (inceptive) class, see 444-6. 

Ninth Class (Mixed Class^ 833). 

450. Different parts of the verb may be derived from stems 
essentially different : compare Eng. go^ went. Here belong 

1. alp4i» to tahe. Mid. to choose; st. alpt^ cX (812). 
aipria'a tlkov (cXw etc.) ipi]Ka^ Sp^f^^ VP^^^^ 

a. Fu. ^Kti n. A. Ao. 9t?Ji/aiy late. 

2. fpxopai to go, come; st. ep;^, eXv3. 

iA€i/<ro/«u ^XSov (839) cX^XtJSfa (321) 

a. For 2 Ao. Imv. ^a;^^, see 366. For ^Kt^opai (326), the Attic proee 
generally has cT^ut (405, 1 a). 

3. cV3(0 to eat; st. codt, cd, <^ay. 

ISo/Uft (378) e^ayov i^ioKa (331 ) (4d€(r2f7v n. A.) 

iBridiafuu (331, 842) V. cdcorcJr, rcor 
a. iff^iv cornea from lir;^^ (328), and that from i9v (411 J)): ail these 
forma of the Pr. are fomid in Hm. 

449 D. 1. 2 Ao. 8 &g. t^ytrro Dor. (and Hes.), different from ydrro aeized 
(408 D, 35). From St. yew comes also poet, ytiyofuu cl. 4, to be bom, Ao. ^cc- 
rdfofw trans, begot, bore (ol yttydftwot the parents, also in prose)^ 

2. Poet, also /ax<^» (829 b), l<rxawC» (331). 

4. Hm. 2 Pf. Par. mwre&ras, Soph. ire«T(^y, -wros (409 D, 17). 

7. Hm. la^ (av, cwt 831, ac 89) to «/eep, Ao. &€ira (a, but by augm. d\ 
once contr. tfo'ct/icy. 

450 B. 1. Hd. P£ ipalpfiKa (821 D). 

2. Poet. 2 Ao. ff\vdoy with v (but only in Ind., 1, 2, 8 S. and 8 PA Dor. 
(not Find.) jfi^y, i\ffoy, Hm. 2 Pf. f IX^Xovdo, 1 P. tMiKn^/uy (409 D, 18). 

8. Hm. Pr. Inf. tipiwyat (406 D, 8), 2 Pf. Par. ihfiAs, Pf. tf. ^9«SoMai. 

Digitized by 



4. Spdoi to see, Impf. ivpmv (812) ; st. Spa, id, oir. 

oyftofiai €i^ov (ibta etc. ti^pdKo^ tutpcLfuu afp'Sirjv^ Y. oparSs^ 

Imy. idc 866) ontana (321 ), Sififuu oirrdr, rcor 

a. The Comic poets have Ff. Upcuca : 6irtnra is chiefly Ion. and poet. : 

^»pd^y is late. Ao. M. ^dfiriv is rare ; €lB6firip (for clSor) is generally 

poetic (in Att. prose only in conip.), Imy. ISav, but as exclamation 

IM lo I Poetic is also Pr. Mid. cTSo/uu to appear, appear like^ Ao. 

5. Tp€x^ ^ run; st. rp^x^ ipfp- (334 a). 

bpap.ovpai tdpapoy BebpdfirjKa (331) V. ^ptmoy (66 c) 

a. d-p^^o/Mu, li^pc^a (66 c), and MpofM are found in poetry; 8c8/>(^i}/mu 
occurs in composition. 

6. <f>fp» to bear; st. ^p, oi, cmic. 

010-0 ( fyvf yjcov (384) cV^raxa (821, 834 a) rjvix^nv 

ola-opai (as ( ffvcyKa (381) f v^vry/iac iv€^r)(ro}ua 

mid. and pass.) rjvryKdpriv T. otor^r, rcor oia-d^aro/xai 

7. ayiopai to buy, Impf. iavovpajv ; St. 6>yr, vrpMi. 

cuv^o-o^i f Trpid/Ai/v (408, 8) €ajn]fiat. iavffirjv 

a. i»yfi<rdfiiir is late. The syllabic augment is rarely omitted in Att. 
i^ynftai may have, ^wrfi^p always has, a passive meaning (415). 

8. rtn-oi' I said; st. etTr, cp, pe (340). 

fp» Uirrov €^17^0 (319 e) fppfj^Tjp, V, pijrcfe 

( etffa €iprfpai (ippi^v n. A.) 

(Imy. c(7rc36C) tipija-opLM pij^tja-ofiai 

a. The Fr. Impf. are supplied by X^yw, ^if/t(, and (especially in comp.) by 
ityopt^ to discourscj as iwayoptltf to forbid, Ao. &irciiroir. The form 
wlvov comes from c-cr-oy, orig. Fc-Fcr-oy, a reduplicated 2 Ao. like 
irffVidoy (384 D) : cf. Iiroj, orig. Fciro^ vord. The stem of ^pd was 
orig. W€p (cf. Lat. verbum) ; hence cfpijica for Ft-rpiy-iro, if^^idriy for 
€¥pri^v, prjrSs for Fpriros. 

4. Hm. Fu. ^irt<(4^o/uu «/ia// cAoose, but ^ir({i^o/Mu «Aa// /ooJb on. Aeol. Pr. 
ipflfu Theoc. For ttraopMi (oir), see 429 D, 4. 6. Dor. rpdx^- 

6. Hm. Pr. Imv. (p4pT€ (406 D, 4), Ao. ffyctjca (rarely ^yciirov), M. Iiytucd- 
fjL-ny ; Ao. Imv. oTo'c (349 D), Inf. oW/i€v(cu), V. <p€pr6s. Hd. has Ao. Ijytuca, 
Pf. 3i. irfiytvyfjuUf Ao. P. ^ycixdtyv. 

8. Um. Pr. c7/M» rare, Fu. ^/>^c», Ao. ttroy and in Ind. ^with augm.) Unroy 
(= c-FcFnrov). From St. o'er, ^ (63), comes iy4v» or iyyiwUf 2 Ao. Iri-ovoy 
(839), Imy. iyi-tnrt or tyirrfs (2 P. lovrrt for cK-oircre), Fu. ^W^^v (=fyt-<nr-o-w) 
or ^vinnrt\ir» (331). Ud. makes Ao. usu. cTiro, Ao. P. fl/)^v and tlp4jl^y as 
well as ip^driy. 

Digitized by 


451] INDEX OF VEBBS. 181 

of Yerba described in the foregoing Sections. 

45L In the following alphabetical list, the verbs before described are not 
only referred to by the present ; but one or more forms are generally added, 
to exhibit the stem and its changes, or to show the most important peculiarities 
of formation. 

In using this index, as well as in looking out verbs in the lexicon, the 
student should bear in mind especially the following points : 

I. At the beginning of verb-forms, 

a. c before a consonant (sometimes even before vowels) may be the aug- 
ment or reduplication (308, 812, 819, 822). 

b. fft may arise by augment or reduplication from c (312, 322). 

c. 1} may arise by augment or reduplication from a or f (309). 

d. « may arise by augment or reduplication from o (309). 

e. 61 in a few words takes the place of Ac, /i«, pc, as redupl. (319 e). 

f. A consonant with c may be the reduplication, when followed by the 
same consonant, or when a smooth mute with t is followed by the cognate 
rough mute (319). 

g. A vowel and consonant may be the Attic reduplication, if the same 
vowel and consonant follow ; but the initial stem-vowel is usually lengthened 
after it (321). 

h. When prepositions are prefixed, there is danger of mistaking an initial 
Btem-vowel for the final vowel of the prep. Thus icaroi^w = icar-oy^w not icaTo- 
yvtf, bitoKicus = i.iM>\4aai not cnro-Aco-as* hriSovca may be either iit'iXiowra 
(Pr. i^-op^) or IxiSowra (Pr. iirMiwiu), 
IL In the middle of verb-forms, 

i. a or o may arise froiii t in the stem and present (334). So oi may arise 
from cf, and 09 rarely from t}. 

j. 1} may arise from a final a or f of the stem, and » from a final (335). 
In the first aorist system of liquid verba, i| may arise from a and ci from « (337). 
In the second perfect system, n may arise from a (338). 

k. The relations of \h^ consonants are shown in the following table, where 
any termination of the other tenses may correspond to any form of the pres- 
ent given on the same line : 

FutlAor. 2Pf. Perfect Middle. 1 Ac. P. Present. 

-^« if^a -^ "Mft^i ■4'**» -in-ai, -^ov -^di?!' -ir», -/i», -^, -»t« 
-ifl» -ja -x« -r/**"! -i«> -troj, 'X^oy 'X^y -«», -yw, -x*, -o'<r», -f« 

A. ' (V 1 -Tfl9* -8<v« -i^<v. -inrw, 'Cm 

-trm tra ^/ioi, -croi, -crrw, -<r^y -ffShiv | ^J .^«' .(«/.^^ J^i 

*A({-« {iaaa, dura, Ua^v) 420 D, K). &84<r«f, &8i7Kc&r, 818 D. 

teya-ijuu {iiyiio'^v, ir/aadfiny) 419, 1 ; ac (la^», i(ffa) 449 D, 7. 

iyd-o/jLCUf iyaiofuuj D. &ci/m» (ocp, ^tpi^ovrtu, Awpro) 432 D, 2. 
iyttpu (ay€p, iyfiytpKa) 432, 1 ; evy-lifip^f crvyocfpcroi, ib. 

liytod^oyTtUf iByp6i».€vosy D. &c{-w, = a<>{w, av|c{K», 436, 3. 

Srtwfu (^o^a, Hya) 442, 1. t,r\pLi (ac) 404 B, a. 

arfp (inytlptoj ityp6fAfvos) 432 D, 1. ali-4ofuu {^iffdriiv), c^ofiau, 448, 1. 

iy-w {1iyttyo¥f i|x«» 47<«X«) ^24, 1 ; alyi-v (^co-tt, f/Kiy/Mu) 420, 4 ; 

iyltWf W», &^crc, I). edylCofuUi t^yrifu, D. 

&5 (&i'Miw, loSoy, ctfoSoif) 487, 1. td-wpuou^ i,ir{o)aiwfuUf 440 D, 0. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




a/pew (clXor, ikui^, ^f>^r) 450, 1 ; 

i^tdfniKa B. 
tapu {^poj Hipdriy) 432, 2 ; ap-^/ii}K D. 
cdc^-iyofiM (ija^Sfifiy, fa^fiM^f 

fldftrd^/iOi, 436, 1. 
kt-u i&iov^ iw-^lffa) 809. 
euc-ox from ox, 442 D, 16. 821 D. 
duc4-ofiM (iiKfffifiiiy) 419, 8. 
iLKo6-w (itcfiKoa, iiKov<rdriy) 423, 1 ; 

iucovd{ofieu Hm. 
iucpod-ofuu (iiKpoaadfiriy) 835 a. 
a\ (crx», 4i\riy) 482 D, 22. 
iLXd-ofxai {hXd\rifuu) 8^1 D. 867 D. 413. 
&X8-(bw, -aiyw, -hinctit, 436 D, 12. 
&Xc/^ (Ma<^) 425, 5. 
&X^{w (^Aff^a/iiir, &Xc{^cro/4a<) 447, 8; 

jSAoAxor D. 
&X./o/iai or &X.c^Oft«u (a\v, 4Aff[v]d(/(9jy) 

426 D, 7 ; iiKttlyw ib. 
&X^-« (ffXcira, &X^Ac<r/(ai) 419, 0. 
&}i^-ottcu (ij<dii<rofuu) 422 D, 19. 
oA.-fo'KOfuu (liU«y, i)A«y) 447, 1. 
i\tT-alyw ir^/ifyos, iikiroy) 436 D, 13. 
oXjc (&\^|», &\aXjeoy) 447 D, 8. 
&X\iLrirw (iiXXdyriy, ^AAaxa) 294. 
&\-\ofAat 432, 8 ; a^ro 408 1>, 33. 
iLKvKrdCBt {aXoK^tcrrificu) 321 D. 
&X^cnca> (l{Xv(a) 447, 9; 

dA-vo-K-tCCo', sbw, D. 
iiK^-dyu {1i\^y) 436 D, 14. 
afjMfn"dyv ()}^taproy, ^/it(pn}ica) 

436, 2 ; ^fifipoToy D. 
iifjLfiX'iffKw (ff/u3Xw<ra) 447, 8. 
afiiKKd-OfACU (ii/uW-fi^y) 418. 
kfiwurxy^ofJMt (&/i^ci», ff/AViffxo'^) 438, 5. 
&fiirXa«-/0'«ctf Mo-w, fluTXoiroy) 447, 4. 
iifiiy-w (ff/ivvo), i/tvyOi^w, 411 D. 
&y^aX-(<ric», iy-oXA-^, 447, 2. 
&y8ay» (laSov, &84cr«) 487, Ij 

j^vdoyoy, £9or, c(fa8oK, coSa, D. 
kyix-OfiM (^yflix<^fi7}y) 314. 
Mvo;^« 821 D. 
&<^of7-«« (&y^9»{a, W^^to, W9»xc() 

424, 16; &j^ofyKV/ii ib. 
kihopbi^ {^y^pdwroj -ttftai) 814. 
&in^w (ffyv<ra, ffywr/ioi) 419, 17 ; 

iyirca^ iyCrw^ ib. ; &yw D. 
&y«7-a (&iwxJ^i, ijywToy) 409 D, 1 1. 
kw-a^lfftw (^xo^y, -ijo-o) 447 D, 14. 
kw^XFn 404, 3 ; ivoxpf i>. 
&«T« (&^) 427, 1 ; la^ D. 
op (arp«) 482, 2. 
apd-ofjMt (AfT^/AfMu) 404 D, 9. 

iip-ap-4<rK«0 (ilp^o, iipapoy^ VVi 

&PM«««) 447 B, 15. 
iLp4-<rKu (ffpc<ra, lipiabriy) 444, 10. 
&^;ici'Of 818 D. 
&)>ic^-« (ffpKc<ra) 419, 10. 
apn6rrm (^p^ta<ra), apfi6Co»f 480| 1. 
iipy4-ofiM Oipy^diiy) 413. 
ttp-yvfuu 442, 2. 
ap<^ (Wo, 4/>^r) 419, 16. 
&pir((Cc» (ofWttd, c^nrcry) 431, 1. 
&/>^w (i$pv<ra) 419, 18 ; Ap^rv ib. 
*)»X-» (ipx^h ^p7M«) 424, 2. 
dura 408 D, 1 8. 420 D, 10. 449 D, 1. 
turntyos (oS, widyw) 408 D, 44. 
oif^twtf, aXfi-€» (riHilKa) 486, 8. 
avp {iw-mffhltTKO/iaif -/a) 447, 5. 
aupa (ioMwpd-ct, iiwo'&pas) 408 D, 19. 
k^irm ifi^a) 430 D, 8. 
iJp{nr<rw (a4»vy» a4»i/8) 431 D, 9. 
&X^o;ia< (^x^^<r;^y) 422, 1. 
iLX-yvfAM, {iiKax^fiiiy, hK^xni*^ Mx«- 

fiai\ iucaxi(ti», ix^««'» ixc^'^t 

442 D. 16. 
&'W (So-o, &M«ya<, &arat) 408 D, 18. 
&«/>ro for riopro {itlpv) 432 D, 2. 

Bo^iw (jBo, ^/Sijr, Miftf-a) 435, 1 ; 

fiiffKu, fiifids, fiifivyf D. 
/Sax-Xtf (l/3aXor, j3^i3Xi7ica) 432, 4 ; 

i3c/9oXWo, f/3Xi|T0, ^XcTo, D. 
/3<<«TW (^i9<<^y) 427, 2. 
fid'iTKM = fialycf, 444 D, 1 1. 
fieurrdCw (^oaraS, ^Mroey) 431, 2. 
/ScfoAUu, /S^OAUU (i9i<^) 423 D, 2. 
/3</3({C» (^</3a<r««, i3i/3») 375. 
fiifidi (^a) 403 D, LO ; fii^y 435 D, 1. 
fiifip^KPf 445, 3 ; $€fip^, tfip^y, B. 
iSii^ (^/3W) 423, 2 ; fitlofiat^ /Scomcu, D. 
dyar$ii<yKOfuu (i3io, iyt$lwy) 445, 1. 
/3Xa (/3<lU-X«, fi4fikriKa) 432, 4. 
/SXiiinriv {ifiXdfititfi fi^fiKai^) 427, 3 ; 

fiUfierai B. 
fiAaurr-dym {l^fiKacrqy, [0]ifiKdffniica) 

436,4; /SXATT^wib. 
/3X^-« (i3/^Xc<Ni) 424, 8. 
/SX/ttw (l/SXiiTBi) 430, 2. 
fiXdtCKm (iixo?i4>y, fi4nfikoMca) 445, 2. 
/3oXc (/3^-X«, fi€fio\iaro) 482 B, 4. 
i3^<rK« (/So, i3o<rK, fiotric4i<rvi) 422, 2. 
fiov\-Qfuu {ifiov?Ji^y at ^/9.) 422, 8 ; 

$6K9<rSrai, -i3^/3ovXa, B. 
$pdfftrv (ffipaca) 430, 8. 

Digitized by 





«^X«» 'fiP^M, -fipax^is, 424 D, 4. 
fipl^ (fidfipt^a) 424, 5. 
fipo {fiifiptSKTKw) 445, 8. 
fipux-dofuu {^fipvxa) 448 D, 20. 
fi»-w4w (I^IMTO, $4fiv^/Mt) 438, 1. 

Ta (ylyyofuu, yryoi^s) 409, 8. 
7BVi-^« (fyij/w) 447, 2. 
yd-m/fuu^ yviw^ 4S9 D, 6. 
y4-ywMXj ytywflvKWy -iwy 424 D, 80. 
ytlpoftai {yWf iy^wdfutiv) 449 D, 1. 
7fAi-« {iyiXuaa^ tjtXdtr^riy) 419, 2. 
7«F {ylyyo/t€u, iytvofiriy) 449, 1. 
T^r^o 408 D, 85 ; I-tci^o 449 D, 1. 
7)»;^w (T^yil^) 448, 8. 

TnpcC-d-icM, rnpd-^, 444, i. 

/Mu) 449, 1 ; 7ci[yofUM D. 
yi(y)p^K» {iymp, tfyywirfuu) 445, 4. 
Tw^Av^w 427, 4. 
TTO (7i7ri6<riw») 446, 4. 
7«Hi» (fyooF) 448 D, 21. 
7pc(^w {iypJL^y) 424, 6. 
Twr (7^i/a) 424 D, 80. 

Aa (So/m) 434 D, 3 ; {Balofuu) 484 B, 4 ; 

(^S/ttv, 84a>) 447 D, 10. 
8a/-n;/u (ISoura) 440 D, 7. 

9ar4ofAat, 434 D, 4. 
9aU» {Miia^ idrrrtu) 434 D, S. 
9dK-rcff {t^ioKoyf 9^^ofuu) 435, 7. 
Bdfi'tnifu, -rdet (iSifiifyf iZofidir^pf 

ii/ih^y)j BatJLd{t9, 443 B, 1. 
9€ip^-dyv (Hap^y, iMpdiiKo) 436, 4 ; 

Zar4Q/tai (SaWa<rdai) 434 D, 4. 
9^Hiro 881 D. 

M-di-a (Sc/5»), laScMTo, 409 D, 5. 
BfiK-yvfu (Mtixa) 442, 3 ; dcK-, 8((de7- 

/ioi, 9eiicaM(ofuu, 8ci9/0'KOfuu, D. 
5/^-« (I9ct;ta, 94dfirifuu) 443 D, 1. 
BtoK-ofuu {HSpoKoy, 94BopKct) 424 D, 81. 
Sci>-M (i9dfniy\ 9alp»y itipw, 424, 7. 
8cX-d/Mi (^S^/i^y, S^KTo) 408 D, 86. 
dA» (f8i}<ra, dcdcica) 420, 1. 
94-^ (Sci, ^d^Tjo-ff) 422, 4 ; ac^/MU D. 
dript-iofieu (ilhiply^y) 448 B, 22. 
8<, Sci, Soi (ScMMica, S^io, I9«i<ra) 

409, 5; S((aca, 8fl/d», 8/c, 1). 
Btatrd-w {MtijniKa) 814. 
Buucoy4-w (8c8ii|ic^n}ica) 314. 
9m-\4yonai (8ifAix!^) 413. 

dcdaiyica, ^8<(i}y, B. 
Sraij/At = S^r 403, 3. 
8i-8p<i-o-ic» (IBpfiy) 444, 2. 
MSopijiAi (So, fSttica, UiofAoi) 403, 4. 
5ic (^yS/co-oir, Slwfuu) 404 B b. 
Bifyftai (8iC«) 404 B c. 
B^w (Si\(njr Bt^atf) 871 c. 
BUiicWj Buand^t 411 B. 
Bo {BlBwfu) 403, 4. 
BoK-^w (ISoCa) 448, 4. 
8ovir-^« (^TSo^cra) 448 B, 12. 
ir^ (SiSodiTiCM, rSpoy) 444, 2. 
S/Nuc (8«pie-o/iai, ISpcueor) 424 B, 31. ' 
Bpd-^ (B4Bpafuu, iBpda^ny) 421, 1. 
Bp€/i (rp4x»9 l^Bpofiopf B4BpofAa) 450, 5. 
B^ya-fuu (iBvyii^y, -ia^y) 404, 5. 
B6tt {my, 4Bt^y), B^yw, 423, 8. 

•E (Tij/ii) 408, 1 ; {tpyvfu) 440, 1. 

4di» (tlwvf cTcura) 312. 

iytlpv (iyp4rropa, ty^ry^piMi^ ^p^mv) 

432, 5 ; Pyp^i -ofAtUf ib. 
cS, eS-o, eS-c-tf- {ia^itt) 450, 8. 
ICoAMu (18) 431, 6. 
4^\-w (ii»4Krjaa\ d/A«, 422, 9. 
i^lCw (c£»«ra, dl^iica) 296. 812. 
tlBoy (i8, dfHi«) 450, 4. 
cldi^f (i8, oISo, $$ciy) 409, 6. 
c/icd^» (cficmra,* pKtura) 810. 
cr«r-a> (clla), clirc&», 411 B. 
fliers (iK, ^o(«ra) 409, 7. 
€2Xo0 (lAo-o, U?ifuUf id\iiy, ^^Aci), cl\/»y 

c/A^w, cTAAw, fAAtf, 432 B, 22. 
cTjuat, cToTo {€yyufAi) 440 B, 1. 
flfjU {ts, &y, ^y) 406, 1. 
c7/u (t, f^ciy) 405, 1 ; fflc, Jc, Xeray^ 

{4)ti<rdfi'ny, B. 
etmy (eyyv/u) 440 B, 1. 
^Iw'OP (4p&, cfpi^fco, 4^^4^y) 450, 8 ; 

ttpy-yvfu (cp^ctf), «lp7-», 442, 4 ; 

ep7, ftpy, i4pxaTo, ^pyu^y, B. 
djp-o/uu (= Ipo/uu) 424 B, 9. 
cipv, 405 B b. 420 B, 12. 
cf/Mv (ip4w) 450 B, 8. 
^» (^TpKUf Upfuu) 812 B. 
flora (c(r<rai, c<ras, TCw) 431 B, 6. 
itffKw, tffKw, 447 B, 16. 

cr«;^(D;»)s22; l«;toB. 

ffA (aip^w, elXor) 450, 1. 
^Aa^yw (M^Awca), iU-^ 435, 2. 
A^-tf (A4a<7m») 321. 

Digitized by 





V^ for cAv;^ (fyxo/ioif ^X^or) 450, 2. 

^^jc-w (cTAicv(ra, ctXicvoyuu) 419, 19; 

i\K4<a D. 
IXr-» {l^oKxa, i<i\W€Hf) 424 D, 82. 
cAv;^, cAcv;^ (fyx^f*^) 4^0* 2. 
^/i^-« (^/Aco-a) 419, 11. 
^ya(/>» (4^ya/>oy, iviiparo) 432 D, 23. 
ivcarri6^fuu (liyayrMjiv) 413. 
ci'eic {^^fxa, ijv€yKaj1l¥€yKoVf4y^voxih 

iirfiyryfiai) 450, 6 ; ffyccica, -oVf D. 
^ir-ci^vo;^6 321 D. 
iy^fii'OfAM {iye^fi-fidriv) 413. 
iyiv'TU {^yliroaroy, iyivnroy) 427 D, 20. 
^ifr<ro-» (= iyivTw) 429 D, 3. 
hyyvfii (iiiupiwa) 440, 1 ; cTkvoi^, co'o'a, 

cr/uai, ciTTOi, e'/aro, D. 
^voxA^-w (4v«6xA'>}<ra, -ico) 814. 
loijca (^^'icciy, cIk^s) 409, 7. 
ka^iiim {UpraCov) 812 b. 
^i<i')-^ir-a> {fvunroy, M^o») 450 D, 8. 
iirifi4\ofuu (ixefieX-fi^y) 413. 
ixlffra-fiai {iiTriarfi^y) 404, 6, 
cir-o/iai (e/irtj/iijy, itnrSfiTiy) 424, 8 ; 

eir^, f(nrof^, ffircto, D. 
^p (elirov, ^pw) 450, 8 ; tXp» D. 
^pc£-» (iipdadvy)* fya-fuu^ 419, 3. 
ipydCofuu (tXpycuTfjuu) 312. 
«)7 (rpTw, «rp7», fXpyyvfu) 442, 4. 
Ip8o0 (cp7, fopTo, ^(^/Tyety) 428, 14. 
^pcfd*<» (ip^p€iirfuu) 392 D. 
^/>c/ic» {lipiKoy, ifytipeyfuu) 425 D, 19. 
ipfimo {liptiroy, ipiipiva) 425, 6. 
iptiraot (ffp€(ra) 430, 4. 
ipf^fuu {1lpvyoy)j ipvyfo^vw^ 425, 12. 
ipt^^y ipv^'cdyofJMiy 425 D, 20^ 
ipiH-alyu (-^<ra<rdai), -naiyut 436 D, 15. 
ip-ofiau {ip^ffOfAoif iip6/Mriy) 424, 9 ; 

^pofuu, 4p4'U, -ofxcUf ^flyw, D. 
l0ir-«, -^f« (cfpiroi', €?pin/<ra) 312. 
• ifp-w ( Wr7<ra) 422, 6. 
iir«J-ep-cro 345 D, 
^p^K-cv (^p^icoicoi') 424, 10; 

ipvKdyot, -aydMf D. 
ip6ofiai (cpv, e(pv), fi^ofiM, 405 D b. 
^^-w (ctpuera, cfpiz/iax) 420 D, 12. 
ipX-ofuu (^X^oy, iX'fiKv^ iK^itrofuu) . 

450, 2 ; ffAu^oi^, ^pri^oy, D. 
« (cl/if, 4<rrt) 406, 1. 
^o-^rw (^Sofiai, iipayoyy im^OKOy 

iiflBtfffMi), l[<rduy i^My 450, 3. 
iff-cra, co'-TOi (cvrv/Ai) 440 D, 1. 
liro-cu, ?<r<ro/iai {T^m) 481 D, C. 

iarid-w {flffriMTo, -ica) 812. 
c09-« (c^S^o-w) 422, 7. 
c&Aa^e^o/Mi (fvXafi^^y) 413. 
^ip-la-Ku (tupoy, tSpTjKa) 447, 6. 
fv^paiyw (tv^pdy^y) 414. 
ix-ex^dyofAM (-iyx^W*'> •^X'^f"") 

436, 6 ; ^x^», -o/ioi, ib. 
lx-» (f^xof, e|«, ^(Txo*', <rx^<r«) 424, 11 ; 

6x^f^^9 ^x-cSx*""*! ^<rx«i^o>'f I^» 
fi^-» (fiiho-o) 422, 8. 
Hw/Asy (&-u) 408 D, 18. 

Zd-w (Q, rCi7, C6<ra>), Ion. C<^», 371 c. 
CciJy-w/u (^f^h^y) 442, 5. 
C^-ta (Ifeiro, f«rr<f5) 419, 12. 
C<&-yyvfii (l^wo/AOi) 441, 1. 

•H/3<£-<ric«, ^3<<-fl», 444, 8. 
fiH-oiiau {ififf^yy ^itr^o'ofuu) 413. 
^^(M (ris) 406, 2 ; eToT<u, foroi, D. 
^fii {^y, H) 404, 1. 
ilfi^ta (ifiy^fivKO.) 821 D. 

et£A-A« (rd^Xa) 432, 6 ; 

;^A^a;, ^aK4^y, rnXM^do^y, D. 
^ay {^(TKu, i^yoy) 444, 4. 
»air (rd^rprct, rwp6y) 425 D, 17. 
d<fir-r« (ird^Tiy) 427, 6. * 
;^f (W^/ix) 403, 2. 
^tlyco (^tywj ^€ya) 432 D, 24. 
»i\-u (;»cA^<r«) = ^;&^A-«, 422, 9. 
^dp-ofjuu 424, 12 ; ^ip<rofiaiy 3cpc/w, D. 
;^^tf (^, MaofMi) 426, 1. 
i^tyyifw (ll^yoy) 437, 2. 
;^A(£-<tf (r;^Aa<ra, 4»\i(rd7jy) 419, 4. 
;^Afi3-« (Tfi^Ai^ki, 4^\(firiy) 424, 13. 
3j^<r#c« (^i^ovov, re^Ko) 444, 4. 
;^op (^p£6(rice0, ^6pyvfMi) 445, 5. 
^pdffffw (^3pa^o, r4rpfixa) 428, 8. 
;^pa^ (W;^poj;[(r];i04) 421, 18. 
;^p€ic (rp4x-U9 i^pe^a) 450, 5. 
;^p«ir (Tp/(^», l3^pc^o) 424, 26. 
3puir-T« (rpi;^) 427, 6. 
^pdxrtm {t^opoy\ ^ipyvfuu, 445, 5. 
;^-iw, »v-W» (= ;^<J^) 436 D, 10. 
3vr (t^-», r^fifuu) 424, 28. 
;^^-« (l^ucro, r4^Ka, irv^y) 420, 2. 

•I (eTAAi) 406, 1. 
M-o/iOi (icurdymy, td^y) 415. 
{a^» (£€0*0, &0'a/A€y) 449 D, 7. 
id(x-«, Tax-^w, 424D, 88. 
ii(6pdu, cTBoi')450,4; 

{oTia, ddt&s, ^8ciy) 409, 0. 

Digitized by 





Uip6-tg {(Bp^p, tBp^^w) 896 D. 
Tf«(a, iCc), /fi£ir«,431,6. 
Xti/u (I, ^«a, cfira) 403, 1. 
ur (roura) 409, 7 ; (i-laxt^) 447 D, 16. 
bc-r4ofuuj Ix-dtw^ 438, 2 ; Xk-» D. 
lXa-;MU (tXD;»i, X\a»i) 40-1 D, 10. 
Ixdiricofiat 444, 5 ; 2xi-o/Mu D. 
2XX» 432 D, 22. 
Ifidaffw {Ifuura) 430 D, 9. 
TTTOfiai = xcro/ioi, 424, 19. 
Itrofu 409 D, 6. 
trKtf (lie), ^t<rj«, 447 D, 16. 
loTiifu ((rro, conyica, lorc^s) 403, 5. 
t<rx»(«x) = ^X»»449,2; 
Urxitw, tcxaydMf D. 

KoS (Wjco^ok, -4<r«) 428 D, 18. 

Ka^t{ofUU (Ko^Zovfjuu) 481, 6. 

icd^fuu 406, 2. 

Ka^l{w (ko^w) 431, 6 ; Ko^u&a D. 

Koiyufuu (icoS, ic/«cflur/iai) 442 D, 17. 

ico/iw (Iffoi^y) 432, 7. 

ico/w, ie<(« (xav<r») 434, 1 ; 

linya (^fcffia), ic^af, D. 
icoX^ (^K^r<ra, ic^icX)7«ra) 420, 5 ; 

xpo-fcoAi^o/Mu, KifcX4<rKW, D. 
KoX^vru {koXvP) 427, 7. 
Kdfi'im (iKcuioVf K^KfifiKo) 486, 8. 
Kc^uv-TM {K4Kafifuu) 427, 8. 
iec8<i-iwfu, ic(8jn}/u, 439 D, 4. 
jcci-fuu (jc/m/mu) 405, 2. 
iceiptf (iccfM^» iicdfnip) 432, 8. 
ictXtO-iv («cAii5»y) 448 D, 13. 
jkAc^ (iccic^AciMr/uu) 421, 20. 
kIk-Xm {K4Xfff», UfXtra) 846 D. 
nix-ofuu {iK9K\6firiy) 424 D, 34. 
xcvr^^M (iccMRu) 448 D, 14. 
K9pd-yyvfu («c€ic/MUca) 439, 1 ; 

Ktpduj Ktpaluy D. 
KfpBaiiw {K^pSaySf nwip^Ko) 483, 6. 
jre^^M 425, 18; Kcvdt£iw, ir^;^c, D. 
JC^S-w (kcicoS^o-o/aoi) 422 D, 20. 
Ktip^<r<rw {icfipvKf Jcnc^pvxaV 428, 2. 
Kiiyrifu = icc8^-iw/iJy 443 D, 8. 
KticXiieKW (ifXc) = icaX^«, 444 D, 12. 
xi-yvfAtu (fxtoy, iKta^if) 440 P, 5. 
Kiptnj/Uf -ydw, = Ktpd-yyv/Uf 443 D, 2. 
tctX"^^ i^i^tX^^f Kixh<^^l*^) 436, 7. 
iclxfnifu (xpa, ^Xf»l<rot) 403, 9. 
kA (ff/A-Ofuu, iK9-K\-6fiiiv) 424 D, 84. 
icAiC» (K4KXaeyya) 428, 12; 

%KKee)fOVf K€K\7ry^Sf D. 

cAa(w, ic\d« (m^ouo'ov/uu) 484, 2. 

fcAi-M (fjcXatftt, ^icXcttr;^) 419, 5. 

«rA6 (icoA^M, KtKKr]Ka, kikX^cku) 420, 6. 

kA€(-» (ir^irAc<[(rJ/Mu) 421, 16 ; 

KXrit-Vy IfcAo^a, D. 
icAc(w, K\4ofiai (icAv), 426 D, 8. 
K\4w^u (4K\diniVy K4KKo<pa) 427, 9. 
#cAj;-i» fifcirAp/MU, iKKtja^y) 421, 16. 
KA/y» (KAIyc^, K4icKifiat) 438, 1. 
kAv (lirAvor, icAcfw, kA^o^aw) 426 D, 8. 
KfjM {KdfA-rotf K4KfifiKa) 435, 8. 
Ktfal-» («c^Kyaiff/tai) 421, 12. 
«cyd-« {Kin}t K4Kyrjo'fAai) 421, 2. 
K^ir^w {k4ico^) 427, 10. 
Kop4'ywfu {KtHiptc/JUu) 440, 2 ; 

K€KOpTI^S, KfK6p7tfUUj D. 

Kop^aw (K€Kopv^fi4yos) 480 D, 10. 
Kor4'W {iit^taet, KtKorti^s) 420 D, 11. 
«rpa (MpdyyvfUf K4KpaKa) 439, 1. 
ic}k<C<» (K^iriMtya, K4Kpax^i) 428, 18. 
Kp4fM'tiat (Kp€/i4i<rofiai) 404, 8. 
Kptfid-yyvfu (4Kp9fjuiaShiy) 439, 2. 
Kp4invaiiai = Kp4fta'fuu, 443 D, 8. 
Kp(C« M«r«, K4Kpiya) 428 D, 20. 
icf>(y» (icpryw, k4kpuc(i) 438, 2. 
Kpo{h» {K4KpovfuUf iKpoio-driw) 421, 28. 
Kpinrw (Kpv0 or icpv^) 427, 1 1. 
Krd'Ofuu {K4KT7jfuu) 8l9 b. 898 a. 
KT€lyu (icreyw, ifirrcvor, H'lerary, 

iar^4KTora)f kfro'ierlyyv/Uf 488, 4. 
jct(C» f ^0-Mrr-ficyos) 408 D, 26. 
&ro-'irrlyw/i< (irrcy) 442, 6. 
KTvr-4w (Mktvwov) 448 D, 16. 
Kv-iffKw (lirvo'a), ic^, irWtf, 446, 2. 
icvAZ-w («ccir^A((rfuu) 421, 6 ; 

Kv\ly9wt Kv\.ty94wj ib. 
icv-W» {(Kv<ra) 438, 8. 
ic^-rw (k4kv^) 421 y 12. 
Kvp'4m (lucvpo'a), K^f>-w, 448, 6. 

Attyxdin» (IfAaxor, cTAi^xOy A^Aoyx") 

437, 8 ; AcC^ofuu D. 
Aii<b/ia( = XofifiidyWf 429 D, 6. 
\a/i0dyv {4\afiorf cfAi}^) 487, 4; 

Ac{/i4'0iiai, A(A<(^1}lca, D. 
Xdfiwtt {\i?Mfiira) 424, 14. 
Aoydtiyw (UKa^Vt A^A^da) 437, 5 ; 

Acb-KM (Aeuc, Ai}ir, Aoicc) 447, 11 ; 

Ai}ic/«. D. 
Afyw ( A^/iijK, A^rro) 408 D, 37. 
\4y^ (ctXoxo, cTAcYMttt) 424, 16. 
Acfw (lAcTor, A^Aoiva) 292; 

Xtfiirdtm 426, 7. • 

Digitized by 





Xm^ (4\t^^) 421, 21. 
\cx (^Afirro, IXe{o) 408 D, 88. 
\il^ = ^JUf^dlWy 425, 1. 
Xio'ffofiaif \lr-Ofxcu, 430 D, 11. 
\i)^'d(» (XcXciXM^fi) 448 D, 23. 
Xoi;-O0 Q^Xov, KovpuUf \6€) 371 e. 
x6-» 269 ; X^/Ai}y 408 D, 29. 

Mairofuu {ifjJynVf fUfiripa) 432, 11. 
fiolofJMt (ji4ftoya, fiifiofitp, fiwfM^s), 
/icufiAw^ 434 D, 5 ; ftSfiwos ib. 
fAouc-i&if (jiTiKdo/uu) 448 D, 24. 
/ioyd^M (l/Mi^oy, fAo^trofim) 437, 6. 
fUppe^ieu ijJMpa) 443 D, 4. 
ItdpfT-rw (fitfidxoicv) 427 D, 21. 
/uuyn/p^eOf fjLafnvpoficUf 448, 6. 

tUx-ofuu (i/iaxfirdfiriy, fitudxn/Mi) 

422, 10; /iax^-o/i«D. 
fi49^ficu (-^(To/uax), /A^8o/icu, 422 D, 21. 
fA€^6-ffKw (ifitb^d7iy)y /ic3^, 446, 3. 
fifipofioi {ififiop€, €tftaprcu) 432 D, 25. 
fi4x\-» (ifi4Wfnra or ^/a.) 422, 12. 
niX'Ct Ufi4\ri<ra) 422, 11 ; 

fi4firj\a, fiififiKfrcUf D. 
/tcy (judofuUf fA4fioifa) 434 D, 5. 
/i4y-w (fi€fi4yriKa) 422, 13 ; fiifUfct ib. 
/urofiiKoftai (jiert/itKii^y) 413. 
/t9fjc-<{o/MU (/uun^Vy fttfiriK<&s) 448 D, 24. 
/irfTi-^f /irrrio/Aoi^ 448 D, 25. 
fdypvfu, fiiay»f 442, 7 ; /xTicro D. 
fUfi4'0fMi (jjL^fitfififiau) 415. 
fu/urfiaKV (/ivo, fUfunifJuu) 444, 6. 
fi//iM» {iuiufd(i») = fUy^f 449, 8. 
/li/oTw (/try) = filyyufu, 447, 12. 
/iva {jufurfi<nw, fiffiyri/iou) 444, 6. 
/ioA (/3X<6<ricM, ^/ioXov) 445, 2. 
fi«/^fl» (/tti7, fiv{f) 431, 7 ; fiv(4«, deo, ib. 
fivK-dofuu (i/ii/icoy, fi4fivKa) 448 D, 26. 
fiv-« (I'/ivcra, fjk4fAVKa) 420, 6. 

Nai€T^-« (raiCTcUira) 434 D, 0. 

yalot {tvwnroy 4vd(r^v) 434 D, 6. 

ydirw (ya9, ray) 431, 3. 

yeiir^-<tf (^vcfxco-a) 419 D, 21. 

W/i-« (vcy^juvjica) 422, 14. 

vco/Aai430D, 12. 

yc» (yv, Ivfiwra) 426, 2; yitxm D. 

KM (i'en;[<r];i«u) 421, 5. 

pICb0 \yi0) 429, 2 ; vlirrn ib. 

plccofJMt (nr) 430 B, 12. 

Ivo-, Sia-, iy-f 9po-yo4ofuu^ 418. 

B^ (l(c<ra, (ffOT^T) 419, 18. 
^vp-4«9j ^6p-ofMt, 448, 7, 
(i)-« (l{v«r/Mu) 421, 10. 

OSvi (orSvo'^/iiyy, ^Si^iNrroi) 821 D« 
2;C» (o8, oC^ ^»M ^31, 8. 
01 {^4pw, diw) 450, 6. 

orr« (^sr^a), orT^v^ 424 D, la. 

oTSa (r<rao-i, C(8<6f, ^cir) 409, 6. 
old-<lrM {ol^<rw\ otl4»y 486, 6. 
olvoxp4'» {i^vox^ti) 812 D. 
oX-ofuu, olfuu (^^ii^y), 422, 16; 

ofx'O/ioi (o^x^oio/Mi) 422, 16 ; 

olxy4wt To^xniM^ pix^Ko, D. 
o\ (ff!X«, ^(JXci) 432 D, 22. 
6Xwrd^M (-4o'«i 6Xi<rdoy) 436, 9. 
6\-\vfii (&X^fii}y, 2»XMXa, oX^Xcica) 

442, 8 ; axcxw, oMfityost D. 
oXt (IXtm, foXxa, ^«iXv»ir) 424 D, 82. 
6ftryvfu (6fA^fioKa^ wfjL6[ff]Sniy) 442, 9. 
6fjL6py'yufu {&fjLop^a) 442, 10. 
^WjhI/u ToMt, &ir6/iQy) 403, 6. 
6yo-fMt (ityofrdfiTiyy wySir^y) 405 D a. 
or (dpcUv, ^o/ioi, cb'ttTO, &^^y) 450, 4. 
3>rvr»roir^(r«)484D, 7. 

e78oy, 28c?y) 450, 4. 
ofty (Ijp5o0, lo/rya, i^pytur) 428, 14. 
^pvcUrw (d^pTdra) 382 b. 
ioiyyvfu, 6p4yu, 442 D, 18. 
op-yvfti (ipffOj Apopoyf 6p»p€Lf ipAfn/uu) 

442, 11; Spro, 6ply», 6po^, D. 
hpinrvso (ip^pvxn) 428, 4. 
iffffopm {ow) 429 D, 4. 
6<r^o^yoftai (oa^piiirofuu) 436, 10. 
oupt'U {4oipii<ra, -tiku) 812. 
ovr(i-« (o&ra), o^<£^«, 423 D, 5. 
6^i\» (&^€\oy, ^^iX4<r«) 482, 12; 

iipixxw D. 
6<f»\-urKdyw (d<»XoK, ^^X4<rw) 436, 11. 
ox (*X«» ^X»««i ^<6x«To) 424 D, 11. 

Ila {4ir&trdfiiiyy w4xafuu) 885 D. 
xa;^ (riCff'XWy ^«-a;^or) 447, 18. 
xai(u Cwai9y xcuy) 431, 4. 
ToZ-ttf (rcu^o-w, ^«'a/<r;^y) 421, 18. 
ra\al-w (4iraXad<rdny) 421, 14. 
Tijtx-Xw (IriiXa, -ircvoXi^y) 482 P, 26w 
wait/paiytty^ vofn^ayimy^ 472 k. 
wapayofU-tt (TafnjrtffiifO'a) 815. 
wapotyi-^ (wmp^pilKa) 815. 
ird0'^« {fhtara) 430, 6. 

Digitized by 





wdax^ (Iradoir, rti^ofuUf r^owda) 

447, 13 ; whrwrbt D. 
waT'^ofiai (/ircurdftvjy, wfwcurfuu) 448, 8. 
wai-«9 (x4xttvfuu, ltrw&[ar]^if) 421, 19. 
irc<^« (vt^y ir4woi^) 295 ; x^i^ov, 

xciri;^0W, rid^o-M, 425 B, 8. 
irtufd-w {rtufp, W€irii<m) 371 C. 
xtlp^(xep&^ ixdfniy) 4^2, 13. 
TCK-T^p (^Wx^^y), xf/iMtf, 448, 9. 
xcXiC^M (iff Aa9, irtAo, rAo, vA^o), 

rcAdiw, T(c)A4{d«, wiAytifu, 428 D, 21. 
W€\-ofiM (iirk6fifiy), x4Xw^ 424 D, 35. 
v^fiw-^ (iriwofu^ ir4w€fifi€u) 424, 17. 
V€v^ {wtUrofuu^ »Aro*^e) 447, 13. 
rdoS-ofuu {irap9t vap'c, vopS) 424, 18. 
wip^co (Hvpa^p) 424 D, 36 ; 9op»4«9 ib. 
wtomifu (tc/m) =: xwp^oirw, 448 D, 5. 
rtffw (v«x) 429, 1 ; t^ittm ib. 
w«T, w« (r(«TM, frc^or) 449, 4. 
wer^yrvfu Criwrafxai) 489, 8. 
Wr-o/Mi («{fl]T^<ro/iai, limji') 424, 19 ; 

Trrofuu, v^ofioi, Tordoftai^ ib. 
irc^ftcu (=xvy;^o/xai) 425, 14. 
v^ryyufu (iTdyfir) 442, 12 ; -^»ijicto D. 
wbitnifUf -reU, = x€Ae(-^(v, 443 D, 6. 
W/iirA3|/ii («-Aa), tA^.&m, 403, 7. 
wlfixpTlfu {wpa), wp^^, 403, 8. 
ituf^Ka 426 D, 4. 
rf-iw (Wo/coi, ftrioy, xcvMca) 435, 4. 
wnriaictff (iri, Ivto-a) 446, 1. 
vtirpiUricw (vfMt) 444, 7. 
nlwrm (ircr, (hr^oPi ir^Mca) 449, 4. 
xiTi4« (rrr, firtryoy) 438, 4. 
xfrmifu,,-!^, = wfrd'yrvfUf 443 D, 7. 
viipaiffKM (fau) 446 D, 4. 
vA for vcA (t^Ao/mu, vrA^/ityr) 424 D, 35. 
w\a {xlfiTrKriiu, wK'fj^) 403, 7 ; 

{lrtXd(Wf wXSrro) 428 D, 21. 
wXdC*' (IhrXay^a, hr\dyx^'') ^28 b. 
wkd^nrw (lirAiura) 430, 6. 
w?Jk-w {iwXdKfittf WrAoxa) 424, 20. 
xA/m (tAv, I^Acvo-a) 426, 3 ; TA<i« D. 
tA^o'o'w (irA^Tiyy, -fTAiyjiy) 428, 5. 
irA^yw (wKvyw, viwXvfim) 433, 8. 
irA(^M, = xA^w, 426 D, 8. 
wdn (sw, IryciMra) 426, 4 ; 

wdryvfieuy wiyvarKWy D. 
wry.* (^»»'M»') 424, 21. 
xo (x(-M0, wiwuKo) 485, 4. 
xo;^^-« and wovl^ 420, 8, 9. 
ironiv^ 472 k. 

mp {(wopopj viwptnat) 424 D, 87. 
9oo^6p-c» 472 k. 

wpa (wt/iwfnifUj «p4^) 408, 8 ; 

(xwpArifw) 444, 7. 
wpa» (v4o&tt, thrpcAoy) 424 D, 86. 
TpifffTw (wdirpdya, x4irpdx^) 428, 6. 
wpia (iwpidfiny) 408, 8. 
wpl'W {ir4xpurfuu) 421, 7. 
xpo (ftropov, wcrpwToi) 424 D, 87. 
wpo^fi4'0uau (rpoudv/i^;^ir)413. 
vra (wwTOifyvfUj wdwrafiai) 489, 8 ; 

{x4T0fMt, ixrriy) 424, 19. 
irrdp-yvfuu, xraipw, 442, 18. 
«T^^<r» (lf«njxa)> «Tc^<r«, 428, 7 ; 

•xrirriVf wtvrtit&St D, 
mivffot (imura) 480, 7. 
«T0 (»/irr», x^irrwKo) 449, 4. 
«T<J-« (twrvaa^ imHrr6s) 419, 20. 
xvy^dyofuu (In^^/iiyy, xc^<rofUu) 

487, 7 ; Xfi^ofjuu ib. 

'Pa(yw (ifi^dSarai, ^dtnrart) 892 D. 

^o^-w (i^^altr^y) 421 D, 24. 

^(£«TW (4^^<i4niy) 427, 13. 

^e (clpiyjra, ip^^Vy i^^i^y) 450, 8. 

^^C» (^er> ^P«|a) 428, 14. 

P4m (ifi^uvy, ii^vriKOj tpp^wra) 426, 6. 

^^rri^/(i (ippdyriy, K^^uya) 442, 14. 

^ly^ (^p^iTa) 448 D, 16. 

Pty6'W {prytiyt ptytfflf^) 371 d. 

Piirrfw, = Mirra (jJ«^), 448, 10, 

flwTw (im^y) 293. 

P^OflM (pioTO, ^vff^cu) 405 D b. 

Pinei-m (p9pvirwfi4yos) 819 D. 

p6-yyv/ju {ifptia^y) 441, 2. 

Saf/w (o-opw, <r4impa) 432, 14. 
croAr/Ccv (^irtiiAriy^a) 328 b. 
<ra6-w {4<r<i»<ra) 431 D, 5. 
o'fi4'yy»iu {(a$m't l<r/3€0>icu) 440, 8. 
c4^/xM {4a4<p^y) 413. 
0-c/-» (<r^(rffi<r/icu) 421, 17. 
<rff^ (f<r(rvfuu, ovro) 426 D, 9. 
<Hiir« (^<r<i»ijy) 426, 2. 
<rK(i«T« {4vK^iipt\y^ 427, 15. 
<rKt9d-yyufu {i^KAofffUu) 489, 4. 
(Tk^A-Am (IcTJcAiyi') 432, 15 ; litrjciyAa D. 
trK4ir-rofjLai, <rKoir4^f 427, 16. 
<nr^ir-rtt» 427, 17. 
trKlHyrifu = aKM-yyvyHj 443 D, 8. 
<nc(^T-r« 427, 18. 

o>ul-» (<r/i§, (lirfiriira)^ tr/i4ix^t 871 c. 
o*^;, 0*^, <r^0Mrt, 481 1), 5. 
<nr for <rcir (lirofiai, lovtf^i^y) 424, 8 ; 
frt-tnrwj Htnrtrtt 460 D, 8. 

Digitized by 





inri-«0 (Icnrao'a, $<nnurficu) 41 9, 6. 
m^lpw {mrtp&f 4<nr^y) 432, 16. 
onrcV5-w (^(nrcMra, -aiiau) 381. 891 c. 
ffra {tarrifii) 403, 6. 
ffTfifica {ffrifiy iffrlfirifMi) 426, 9. 

<rr€A-X» (^<rrfi\o, iardXnv) 290. 
ffri(rf-<a {l^ffropya) 424, 22. 
ffT^p-iiTKmy ffTtpiwj ffTfpofiatf 447, 7. 
oTfG-Toi, (Trew-To, 406 D c. 
aTop4-tvu^t, ffr6p'rvfu, 440, 4. 
arrp4^-<a (itrrpd^piiyf l[arpo^) 424, 23. 
ffrp^'tnnffu 441, 3. 
irrwy^w (loriryoy) 448 D, 17. 
e^(a or trtpdrrw (ic^ynv) 428, 16. 
<r!f»dk-Kw {i<r<p7i\a, iffipdKijy) 432, 18. 
<rx for <rcx (^X«. ^^^X^v, j:rx^<rfl») 424, 11. 
tr^Cw (o-M, <ro08) 431, 6. ' 

Ta (rttywf T4raKay ravM 433, 5. 

Toy, reray^v 884 D ; riaaw 428, 9. 

ra\a, ^r(£\a(r<ra 408 D, 6. 

ravi-ia (frdtn/ara^ rerdvufffiau) 483 D, 6. 

rc^fdffaw (irdpa^a), ^pJurtrw, 428, 8. 

rwrata UrirfiiVy riraxa) 428, 9. 

rap {Mwruy irdiffrip) 427, 6. 

to^aSk, T^&ipro, 426 D, 17. 

Tf for ;^€ {rt^fit, M^y) 403, 2. 

Ttlyw (rtyuy riraKa) 433, 6 ; 

rca^Wf rvraiifVy D. 
T€JC (t/ict«, iriKOV^ riroica) 449, 6. 
rcXc-w (^rcAe<ra, rer^\ca/Mu} 288. 
T«fi, rirtioy 384 D. 
rifi-yw (Irci^y, rdr/AiiKa) 436, 9 ; 

rdfivio, rdfjMj r/i'^ycv, D. 
ripv-n 424, 24 ; r€Tapr6/iriy D. 
ripff-ofjuUf TtpcaiyfOj 424 D, 88. 
r^rpaiyw {Mrprivaj 449, 6. 
r€^X" (t^twttmu) 426, 16; 

rmKov, TiT^cricw, D. 
T^(forTo-c?)433D, 6. 
T^icw (^Tifinji') 426, 8. 
rrikt^iicfy {^tU-Xu) 482 D, 6. 
Tie, Tert?;«i>f, rrrlrifAai, 886 D. 

iri^y) 403, 2. 
rtfCTu (Ircicoy, t^tojco) 449, 6. 
rf-yw (irio-a), rlyv/At, 486, 6. 
TiTo/w (tov) 433 D, 6. 
' Ttrpdto (rpcLf irpriaa) 449, 6. 
Ttrpd^CKM (rpo) 446, 6 ; rpci>o» D. 
-iT^o-ico/Mu (ti-twic) 447 D. 17. 
'i-w {frura) 436 B, 6. 

tAo, fe-Xiyy 408, 6 ; t^tXijjco 409 D, 10. 
rfi€ (r4fUfWf rdr/AfiKa) 436, 9. 
Tfi-fiyv (lETfiayoy) 426 D, 18. 
rpo (rtrpdoff HrpJiira) 449, 6. 
Tp«r-€lofi€y (r4pim) 424 D, 24. 
Tpox (^pdffffu, Ttrprixo) 428, 8. 
Tpiwct Urpavoy^ rirpo^a) 424, 26 ; 

rpiiev, TpaHw, rpawtw^ D. 
rpi^w (l^ptif^o, irpd^Vf rt^pftfifieu, 

rh-awpa) 424, 26 ; rpe(^ D. 
Tp4x-» \i^pt\a — i^pd^Vy iedpdfAiiKa) 

460, 6 ; rpdxu D. 
Tp^-« (frpctf-o, &rpe(rrof) 419, 16. 
r/)(/3-w {irplfirjy, r4Tpt<pa) 424, 27. 
Tp(f« (t^/)»7o) 428, 16. 
rpv^ {^p^wrct) 427, 6. 
rp<&y» {irporfoy) 425, 4. 
rp^^ = nrp^VKWy 446 D, 6. 
TV for ;^ (;^a>, irifdyiv) 420, 2. 

TW7X<^««> (cTVXOf, TCW^OfUU, TfT^X'?**) 

437, 8 ; r4rfvxa D. 
Tuic (Tf<Jx**'> T^rvKoy, Tir^ffKno) 426 D, 16. 
T^-T« (TwiTT^crw, Itv^, (hvToy) 427, 19. 
T^^-« (Wi^ijy, r4^ixfMt) 424, 28. 

**tvitTXv4ofuu (6v€(rx6fLriyf -fifuu) 488, 6. 
{;-(» (£<r/iai) 421, 11. 

«a, ^a(v», 432 D, 19 ; ^/xf, 404, 2; 

iriipaneu 433 D, 7. 
^oy (^<r;^(», a^yoy) 450, 3. 
^a(y» (i^)dr/iy, wi^vti) 291 ; ^((c, vr* 

^(rtraif ^ac/y«, ^ouii^di/i', 482 D, 19 
<t>d-(rKUy — ^iiiy 444, 8. 
9ia-^a^ir», -4>c&o'k», 446 D, 4. 
^c/5o^iai 426, 11 ; xc<^id-<$juv)y, -^<ro;ia(, D. 
^cy, 4>a (Irc^i^oy, ir4<f>afuu) 433 D, 7. 
^^jp-» (oTiTM ; liyeyKoy, IjyeyKOy iy^yoxih 

iy^iytyfuu) 460, 6 ; Hy€iKa D. 
^c^ (j4<ptfyoy) 426, 16 ; ^vyTctinw iU 

v§pv{^ts D. 
<^W (^) 404, 2. 
0;M-yw f l^^ao-o, l(^y) 436, 3. 
^)Mpw (<p^tp&f 4<f>^dpriy) 482, 20; 

9i-4^opct D. 
^(-1^00 (iip^ura) 4^6, 6 ; 

<^iX-/m {4<t>i\d/iiiy) 448 B, 18. 
^i\orifi4-ofi(u {4<pt\oTifiii^y) 418. 
^X({-«^, = 3X(<-o;, 419, 4. 
^X^w {iip\4yny late), ^XcyfJ^, 411 D. 
^y for ^cv (ir/<^yoy) 433 B, 7. 
^pdyyv,utf ^pda'a'09, 442, 16. 

Digitized by 





iffpdCw (<ppaB) 428, 11 ; M^ptOw D. 
^piffffw (v^ippuca) 428, 10. 
ipv\da'ir» (^vAoie, xt^^Xaxa) 428, 11. 
^ip-ct {(p6p<reOf xi^vptieu) 845 D. 
^^» (l4>vr, fi^vo'a) 423, 4. 

Xo/fw (ix^priP, x^^<») 432, 21 ; 

K^up6tiLHVy iccxaf>i?<6r> D. 
Xa^<i-« (^X<^Ao<ra, 4xa\dadrip) 419, 7. 
Xou^dytt (I'xa'or) x^itfotAOi) 437 D, 9. 
X(^-<r«r« («x«*»^ «^Xnwi) 444, 9. 
X^Co* (xco'ov/tcu, K4xo9a) 428, 19. 
X^»(IX««,«^X»'««)426, 6; 

x«f», ix««» !>• 

XXa5 (icfxXaS-iif , -orros) 860 D. 
X^ («c/xAMrfuu) 421, 9 ; xJ»iwiu ib. 
Xpa {idxpnt^^) 403, 9. 
%'XPaurtJL-0¥^ ixpai^firiirat 448 D, 19. 
Xpd'Ofiai (WxpYIAuu) 3^6 a. 871 c. 
xi^'^ («c^X7'^<''M<t<) 421, 3. 
»»ji (XP<^ XP«i 'XPJ*') 404, 8. 
Xp<-» (ic#xp«W/*«) 421, 8. 
Xp^yyvfu {Kixpwrfuu), xP^C^t 441, 4. 

▼({-« (ifr?, ^ihWluai), iMx-«» 421, 4. 
^H, (i4^y, i^^y) 424, 29. 

*Q^4u (loHTa, loHT^) 448, 11. 
itvirOjuu (imifo^fifpff htpidfiriw) 450, 7. 



452. Simple and Compound Words. A word is cither simple, i. e. 
formed from a single stem: Xoyo-s speech (st. Xey), ypa^-a> to write (st. 
ypaKp) ;— or compound, L e. formed from two or more stems : Xoyo- 
ypd(l>o-s icriter ofspeeehee. 


453. Vebbals and Denominatives. Words formed immediately 
from a yerb-stem are called verbals .\dpx-^ beginning, from the stem of 
ipX^ to begin. ^Tliose formed immediately from a noun-stem are call- 
ed denominatives : apxa-io-s of the beginning, original, from the stem of 
dpxTi (apx°) beginning. 

454. ScFFizss. Noans (sabstantive or adjective), whether derived 
from a yerb-stem or a noun-stem, are formed by means of added endings : 
these are called formative-endings, or suffixes. Thus Xdy-o-r is formed 
from the yerb-stem Xry by means of the suffix o ; apxa-lo-s, from the 
noun-stem apxa by means of the suffix lo. 

Rev. a. The suffixes limit the general idea of the stem, bj assigning par- 
ticnlar relations, under which it exists or manifests itself. Thus the verb-stem 
Toi€ {troU-w) has the general sense of making or composing : from this arc 
formed by various sufhxes, irowi-r^-f person composing, poet, wolri-o'i'S act or 
art of composing poetry, woin-fia {woin-tiar) thing composed, poem. From the 

Digitized by 



▼erb-Biem ypai^ {ypJu^a^ to write) come ypo/p^^s writer, ypcu^i-s (ypa^tS) writ* 
ing^futrument, ypd/i-fui ^for ypaf-fuvr) written letter or doetanent^ yoofi-fA'^ 
written stroke or line. Similarly, noun-stem Siica, Norn. Uticn riffht^ 8ua-MHf 
riffkteofu^ just, iucctuhtr&mi justice ; noun-stem /ScuriAev, Nom. /SocnXc^f king, 
fiarlKt'id queen^ Peurikt-ld kingdom, /3a<nX-iJC^-f kingly. 

Bbu. b. A few verbal nouns are formed without any suffix : ^uXdacw {^vXok) 
to watch, ^vAo^ (^vXok) watchman. Such words change c of the verb-stem to 
(cfl 25):>\^« to hun^ ^Xi^ (^^Xoy) Jlame. 

455. Euphonic Changes. The union of stems and suffixes gives oc- 
casion to many euphonic changes : 

a. VwDcls, when they come together, are often contracted: iLi>xatos for 
apya-to-s, /3curtXc(a for fiaffikt{vyta, iS^dua truth for a\i7i^c(<r)-ia (64) fVom &X9^ 
dr^ (oXij^f) true, aidotof venerable for ai5o(<r)-io-i from idtis shmne, reverence. 

b. But a final vowel is often elided before a vowel in the suffix : ovpdifto-s 
heavenly from ohpay6-f heaven, i<nr4(fioi^s belonging to evening from karipa even- 
ing. Even a diphthong may be elided : fiaanK-iKi'S from ^ociXc^i « 

c. Again, vowels are interchanged, c with o, ci with oi : cf. 25. This oc- 
curs chiefly in verbals formed by the suffixes o and a (467) : rprfx-o-s turning, 
manner, from rpdv-ct to turn, Xoar'6'S remaining from A.cfT-« to leave^ irofiw-^ 
sending, escort, from wifor-m to send, hkoi^^ ointment from &^ to anoint. 
Also iLf!oty-^s helpful from &p4y-« to help. 

d. Further, vowels arc sometimes lengthened: \i^ forgetfutness from 

\ttpbdtfw (\ad) mid. to forget, Especially, vowel-stems lengthen their final 

vowel before a consonant : irolri-tuL, wolrj-irt'S, iro<v^^-i, from xot4'W ; — or annex 
<r before /k or t : K^K^va-fia command, KsKswr-rii'S commander, from kcXc^w to 
command. In these changes they follow the formation of the Perf. Mid. : cf. 
Tc-To/)|-;iai, -(rat, -rai, K^-KtKwff-iuu, -rat ; and, on the other hand, S^/ta gift, 
96^M giving, 9o-rffp giver, from 9lBufii to give, Perf. Mid. U-Zo-fuu, -irai, -reu. 

e. Lastly, consonants, when they come together, are subject to euphonic 
changes : ypitfi-fia for joeup-fiaij), Xd^u speaking for Xry^ffi-s^ Hucaa-r^'S judge 
for JiucaS-rri'S from 8iicd^» to judge, etc. 

/ 456. Accent. As a general rule, neuter substantives take the accent 
as fiir as possibly from the end (recessive accent) : Xirpov ransom, ttX^ic- 
Tpov instrument for striking the lyre, aptnpov plough^ naibdptov little boy 
or girl, ypdjipa toriting, nvivfia breath, noirj^ia poem. This is true with- 
out exception in words of the 3d decL : for exceptions in the 2d decl., 
see 463 b, 465 a. 

Many masculine and fcmmine suffixes are regularly accompanied by 
recessive accent. Those which are not so will be specially noticed in the 
following enumeration. 

I. Formation of Substantives. Principal Suffixes. 

457. A. Many verbals are formed, especially from primitive verbs, by 
adding to the stem the suffixes, 

o, Nom. o-r, masculine : Xoyo-s speech from Xtyw ^o speak. 
a, Nom. d or 17, feminine : fiax-rf fight from fidx'Ofiai tofighU 
For change of vowel, see 455 c. 

a. These words are properly abstracts, expressing the action of the verb; 
but actually they have a wide range of meaning: arix-XM to equip, send, 
TriX'O-s a sending, expedition; hence that which is sent, an army or navy, 

Digitized by 



irrdA-4 that toith vhich one ia equipped^ chthina^ drew ; ^Ai^'dv (^tiAoic) to 

guardy ^Xeut-^ act of guarding; out also p^ of guarding, waiwrBtation ; 
time of guarding, toatek of the night ; party guarding, garrison, 

b. Adjectivea also are formed by the same suffixes : Xonr-^f, -^ -^y r«- 
mainintf, from Ae/ir-M to leave. 

c. Accent. Adjectives in ot thus formed are ozytone: Kont^s. So too 
Bubstantives in of, when they denote an agent : ity-^s leader. 80 also most 
in a or )} ; especially those which have the change of vowel (465 c): wofiw-^i ; 
or come from stems of more than one syllable : ^vAox-^. 

458. B. The agbnt is expressed bj the following suffixes : in verbals^ 
thej denote the person who performs some action ; in denominaHoe$, the 
person who has to do with some object 

1. cv, Nom. evsy masculine; always oxytone. 

Examples of verbals in c^f. 
Tpo^-f^f writer from ypd^w to write 

yop^s parent ylyyofjMi (yep) to he bom 

Koup-^^s barber Keipw (iccp) to shave 

Denominatives in civs. 
f«v-cd-f horseman, rider from fmro-s horse 

wop^ftre^s ferryman rop^/iS-s ferry 

a. Several masculines in t6f have corresponding feminiuea m etd (pro- 
parox.): fiofftXt^s (of uncertain derivation) king, fem. /3aaiA«ia qveen (later /^^ 
/SorUitfffa). ^ 

Tdpa, Nom. T€ipd, 1 

459. 2. TTjp, Nom. rrjp ^ 

Top, T<ap \ masc.; 

TO, T17-S J 








' fem. 

^i^T^} fro«.t.<r-,Pr.<rrff«(48I,e) 

^frrt»p (Top) orator st. ^e, Fu. ipH (460, 8) 

KpiTift {tu) fudge St. icpi, Pr. Kply» 

"•T^'J ("^"5 po«' ^ ^oU-of to compose 

won^pia xem. ) ^ 

:^;:J'. WJ'S;;''''^ } -^-^ '"^"^ ^^^^^ 

«oAl-^l^f (-ra) citizen from WXi-f cify 

olic^-nrf (-ra) house-servant \ ^j^^ j^^ 

oUi-ri'S (-T18) fem, ) 

a. Accent. Verbals in mp and rpis are always oxytone: so also most of 
those in rris, especially when the penult is long by nature or position. Verbids 
in r«p, Tcipa, rpta, and all denominatives, have recessive accent. 

460. C. The action is expressed by the following suffixes: 

a. Ti, Nom. Ti-£ ) 

ai, ai's > feminine. 

aid, aUL 

These belong to verbals only: 9i is for ri by 62, of. Lat. ti-o. 
ifir^s^faUh from 9eU^ (9iSi\ 2 Ff. tnut 

Digitized by 




fidfin^t-s imiiaiion * from fufi4-ofiat to imitcUe 

aKi^i'S consideration trx^TOfMi to vietOj connder 

wpa^i-s action wpdffffM (irpay) to cut 

y^yf^i-s origin ylyyofiai (yty, yfy^) to heeome 

ioKifta-ffla examination ioKifUCtt (^oKifiaS) to examine 

b. fio, Nom. fjid-s^ masc and ozTtone, belongs only to yerbals. 
iBvp-ft^-s toailinff from iiT&p-^/xtu to toail 
Koyur-fiS't calculation Koyi(oiuu {XoytX) to ealetUcUe 
mrortr'fjA-s spasm cwd-w to draw 

pv^/U'S (movement) rhythm pi» (^v) to flow 

c. From yerbs in eva are formed substantiyes in wia (for ct^-ca) which 
express the action ; they are all fem. and paroz. : Trai^eia education^ from 
fratdri/(0 to educate; ^aaikeia hingtihip^ Jcingdom, from jSao-iXcvu to he 
hing (cf. 458 a). 

461. D. The result of an action is expressed by the suffixes, 

a. ^lar^ Nom. /ux, neuter ; only in yerbals. 

wpay-fAa (-fiar) thing done^ affair from wpdccw (fpay) to do 

(almost the same as rh wetrpayiAdroyf Lat. factmn) . 

pti'lM (pnfiar) word from st. ^c, Fu. ip& 

(cf. rh tlfnifi4yoyy Lat. dictum) 

Tfirj-fta {rfirifiar) section from rlfiyv {rtfi, r/ie) to cut 

(cf. T^ r€rtxrifi4yoy piece cut off) 

b. €f, Nom. or, neuter. 

\dx-os (AaxcO ^o^ f^^™ Xayx^oo (Xax) to get bg lot 
£^f (t^ts) custom St. cl^, ^n^a am accustomed 

rin-os (rfirer) chUd rimw (t€Ic) to bring forth 

In denominatives^ the same suffix expresses quality : 

fid^-of (fia^s) depth from fia^i-s deep 
$dp~os (fiapes) weiglU fiapi-s heavy 

firiK-os QirfKes) length iiaK'p6'S long 

462. E. The instrumsmt or means of an action is expressed by 
rpo, Nom. rpo-Vy neuter ; cf. Lat. trum. 

Af>o-rpo-y plough (aratmm) from &p((-« to plough 

xO^po-y ransom X^ to loose 

9l9aK-^po-y teacher's hire ZiUdo'Ku (8i8ax) to teach. 

Rem. a. The kindred feminine suffix rpa is less definite : (^-<r-rpa flesh- 
scraper from {v-w to scrape^ hpx^-^-^pa place of dancing from bpx^-ofuu to dance, 
MaKal-e-rpa wrestling-ground from toXm-w to wrestle, 

4G3. F. The place is expressed by 

a. rrjpioy Nom. rripio-v^ neuter j only in yerbals. 
iutpoa-rfipio-y Lat. audi-torium from ixpod-ofuu to hear 
iucac-r^pio-y court of justice ZucdCu (ZucaZ) to judge 

b. €10, Nom. cTo-v, neut. ; properisp., contrary to 456 ; in denom. 
Xoy-tto-y speaking-place from x6yo-s speech 

'Kovp-tio-y 0€trber^s shop Kovpt^s barber 

Mou0r-€io-r seat of the Muses Mov<ra Muse 

Digitized by 



c. ov, Norn. d»y, masc and oxytone ; onlj in denominatives. 
This denotes a place wbere something abounds : h^iriK-&v vineyard from 
(t^ircAo-i vine, hf^p-^p merCe apartment from ia^p G. iufBp^s VMtn^ olv-^ mne- 
cellar from otwo-s vAne, 

464. G. Substantives expressing quautt are formed from adjective- 
stems bj the following sufSxes : 

a. np-, Norn, n^r, femmine (Lat tdt^ tUt, Nom. to9, tus). 

vuX^^rnt (titt) thickness from rax^-s thick 
W€4rrris (-TTfr^ yoiUh Wo-f youna 

yi-Tfis {"nrn ^^t^Mlity T<ro-f eqwU 

b. wva^ Nom. trvvri^ feminine. 

ZiKOM-^r^wil justice from ^iKoto-s just 

irv^po^^ discreetness vA^pmu {irctppoy) discreet 

c. la, Nom. io, feminine. 

tro^ia wisdom from tro^s toise 

MeufUfwla happiness MaiftMv (evScu/ior) happy 

&A^de>ia truth i^knStfis {oKri^ts) true 

€lhfo-ui good-will tUvovs (evyoo) well-disposed 

d. flff, Nom. or, neuter, see 461 b. 

465. H. Diminutives are formed from substantive-stems by the 
following suffixes : 

a. io, Nom. lo-y, neuter. 

vai3-(o-y little child from vmf (toiS) cAi/J 

Krfr-io'p little aarden iniwo-s garden 

hitipTHO'V javelin iSutmv (oKorr) lance 

Those of three syllables are parox., if the first syllable is long by nature or 
position: «tuS(oy. 

Other forms connected with to are 

iSio : oU'iito-y little house from o1ko-s hojuse 

dpio: raiB^uhw little child weus (vaiH) child 

iipto : /MK-v9ptO'V little song fi4^MS (jie^^s, ftc^c) *o^ 

b. Masc. icrico, FeoL icrxa^ Nom. iinco-r, (Vjo;, parox. 
wsay-lcKo-s Lat. adoleseentulus from ytayia-s young man 
vai^incTi young girl ^ «u» (xcu9) ^W 
0T«^ar-(0'ico-i m^/tf wreat/i eri^eum^s wreath 

466. I. Patbontmics (substantives which express descent from a 
father or ancestor) are formed from proper names of persons h^ adding 
the suffixes, 

da, Nom. trfSy masculine, paroxytone ; and 
d, Nom. (, feminine, oxytone. 
These suffixes are applied directly to stems of the first declension: 
llasc. Bop<^-9ii-f, Fem. Bop^-s^ from Bop4ds 

AiweMhits Alv§la-t 

Stems of the second declension in lo change this to la : 
Haao. eeoridr^Sf Fem. eeard-Sf from B4tmot 

Mcyo«nd-^t Mciw(rio-s 



Digitized by 



All other Btems take i as a wnneeting vowei, before wliich • of tlie 2d decL 
is dropped. Those in m lose v by 89. 
Maso. K9Kpaw4-9rfSf Fein. KtKfww-i-s^ from K^jcpo^ 

(Hm. has also a form ni|Xi7-«i4bM, ol 189 D.) 
Ai}TO-(-^f uom. Aifr^ (Aqro) 

and from stems of the 2d declension : 

Masc. TaKraX-(-^f, Fem. TtarraXrts, from TArraX^-s 

Kpotf-l-hts KpSpo-s 

a. A rarer suffix for patronymics is lor, Nom. W : Kpo^-tmf (Kpo^4M acm 
of Kf>^yo-s. The poets allow themseWes many liberties for the sake or the 

467. J. Qbntiuu (substantives which degignate a person as belong- 
ing to some people or country) have the following soffizes : 

a. ffv, Nom. cv-(, ozjtone: cf. 458. 

Mffya^»-c^f a Megarian from M4yupa (2d. decL plor.) 

'£p«rp(-«^s an Sretrian *EprrpU (Ist deoL) 

b. ra, Nom. n;-f , parozytone : cC 459. 

T€7f^-Tij-f from Tc7^a, Alya^-ni^ from AfTtro, 'Hm^i^^ny-ff from''Hvty»-t, 
2i«cXi^(-Ti)-s from JUxtXia, 

c. The oorresponding feminine stems end in d, Nom. s: Utyapls 
QAtyaptd) a Megarian tDomahj TfTvorK (<^X S«eXiMrir (-cd). The accent 
falls on the same syllable as m the oorraponding masculine. 

n. Formation of Adjectiyss. Principal Suffixes. 

468. 1. CO, Nom. co-r, 

expresses that which pkrtaifs in any way to the sobstantire from which the 

adjective is formed : 

obpdihto^ heavenly from o^pop^-t heaven 

TXa^'Uhs Viealthy (for «Xovr-i»-i) rAovr»-t wealth 

ohcuo-s domestic (for otx^uht) oTko^ houae 

kyopM-t forensis (for tKyopa-io-s) iyopd foram 

driptio-s of the summer (for ;^pco'-io-s) bepos (^^s) summer 

alioto-s venerable (for ai8o<r-io-f ) aO^As {cuios) ahame 

fiaffi\€U>-s kingly (for fiofftXtv-to-s) fiaa-tXt^s king 

a. This suffix is also used in connection with a^jectiTe-stems : iXev^p-to-s 
liberalis, from iXti^tpo-s liber. 

b. It often serves to form adjectives denoting country or people (geniiles\ 
which may be used also as substantives : MiX'fiaHo-s (for MtXjir-io-s) Milesian 
from MiXijTo-Sf 'A^ycuo-s Athenian from 'A^tmi Athene. 

c Adjectives in aio*r, oio-s are generally properispomena {eSos, o7os). 

469. 2. fco, Nom. xcS-r, always oxytone, generally applied to tiie stem 
with a connecting vowel *. 

a. In verbals, it expresses abilitt or riTXKSS : iLpx-i-icS-s capable of gov- 
erning, ypai^t-K^s fitted for writing or painting. Many verbals insert, be- 
fore ttJs ending, the syllable ri, which denotes the action (460 a): ahr^Tt^t-ie^^ 
eapabie offeelingy irpatc-ri-KS-s suited for action, 

b. Denominatives in kS-s express that which pertains to the noun from 
which they are derived : fioffiX-i-icl^ kingly^ ^uo^kS^ naturoL 

Digitized by 





470. 3. iM>, Nom. ivo-r, and 

4. CO, Norn, fo-s^ contracted ov-r (145 c). 
Theae denote the xatkelll : ^id^iro-f of ttone from Aidv-f , (^A-uw-f tModlm 
firom (^Ao-r, (xp^«^») XP*'*^'^' golden from xpiwrrf-y. But iro, Nom. ly^f, 
ozytone, forms adjectives denotmg tihk: •x^w-ofA-i belonging to yttUrday 
hesternuB, wktm^w^s nocturnus, iap-iM6^ yernus. 

6. err, Nom. M. €<-i» F. co'ira, N. cr, 
denotes iulnesb or abundance : x<H^'^^'' graeefid from x^^'h ^A^'<(-t iffooJy 
from 0Ai|. These are mostly poetic 

471. 6. A^'ectiye-suffixes of less definite meaning are 

ir^iy oxytone, mostly passive : ^ciW-s /««/«/ (to be feared), trtfi-v^s {rifi-ifftai) 

X6-Sy mostly oxytone and active : 8«-A^ fiarful (timid), kmrn-Ki-s d$cep(ive, 

o6-^y mostly oxytone and active : Ai^iv-^s ihtning^ ^fi^-pS-s fiightfid (alarm- 
ing), also pass, afraid, 

uo-ty active : fUx-i-fio-s toarlike ; or passive : AofS-c/io-s to he eung of. And 
akin to this, 

ayio-^ {ri = ri, 460 a) : XP^^H^^ vHful^ ^^^ifio-s (= ^vY^iiuhs) avoidable or 
able to avoid. 

€St Nom. 11$, Neut. C5, oxytone, chiefly in compounds, see 475. 

III. Denominative Verbs. 

472. Denominatiye verbs are formed from noon-stems in many ways. 
The most important endings are the following ; ther are given as seen 
in the present. In their effect upon the meaning, tney are not clearly 
distinguished from each other. 

a. o-« ftur^6-v to let for hire 

XffwrS-^ to gild 
{rifti6-et to punish 

b. a'» TtfAd-v to honor 

olrtd-ofuu to accuse 
yod-tt to lament 

c. ff-« api^fit-w to member 

cfrrux^-« to be fortunate 
laropi-w to know by inquiry 

d. cv-« fiao-iXt^ to be king 

fiov\§i^ to tiike counsel 
&A17JMW to speak truth 

e. <(•« 4kwiC-t9 to hope 

lAAi}W^-tt» to speak Greek 
^iXjtwwi{-9f to favor Philip 

£ «f««# hutd('W to judge 

ipydC-ofuu to work 
fitd{-ofuu to use force 

g. auhe^ trniixdv^ to signify 

\MVKaly-w to whiten 
Xa\eiraltMa to be angry 

h. vr-« iiZ^y^ to sweeten 

Xataro6y-u to brighten 
akrxiy^/uu to be ashamed 

from fua^f hire 
Xpvff^s gold 
Cnida penalty 
rtfiii honor 
air ta fault 
y6os lamentation 
ipi^fL65 number 
tbrvx'h' fortunate 
Hffrap knowing 
fiaffike{f-s kino 
fiov\fi counsel 
iKxis hope 
*EWijy Ureek 
Zttai justice 
fiia force 
a^fui sign 
XevxSs white 
XoAcir^f hardf angry 
il^^s siceet 
kaftirp6s bright 
al<rxos shame 

Digitized by 


196 coMFOsmoM of words. [472 

Rex. i. It happens occadonallj, that from the same nomi are fonned 
seyeral yerbs with different endings and different meanings : thus from 8ovXo-f 
dave, BovX6^ to enalavej 9ov\§^ to be a tlave ; from voAe/io-f loor, voXcfu^ 
and woKf/dC-w to wage vfar, vo\fit6-w to make hoetUe. 

Rem. j. Yerbs expressing deeire (desideratites) are formed fromrerbs 
and nouns ; most frequently with the ending <r«» : ytXatr^lv to desire to lauoh^ 
Upvuretto to have a mind to do; also in a», ia»: ^vd» to be eager for murder, 

KXawruiu to be disposed to weep, Some Terbs in a»y uuo express an atfeo- 

TiOM OF TUE BODY : &XP^ ^^ ^ affected with pallor, i^ttX^ud» to have sore eyes. 

Rem. k. A few intensitss (almost entirely poetic) are formed from primi- 
tive Terbs, by a more or less complete repetition of the stem, generally with 
some change of vowel : fuufU-v to reach after, long for, from fialofuu (jut) id,, 
vop^p-et to be agitated (of the sea^ from ^6p^ to mix up together, irotwvi^ to 
puff with exertion from iiW» (nvv) to breathe. Here belongs Ep. wofju^alvmi^ 
(once Sub. ^ Sing, vofi^ypiri), also iroft^oi'tUr, shining brightly, from ^adw. 
{wan-4>a¥ for pav-^, 65 a, 48). 



473. When a noun stands as the first part of a compound word, only 
its stem is used : vav-fiaxia (voOr, y^ax^) ship-fight^ xopo^bibdoKaKo^ (x6pov, 
hibatTKoKoi) ehorua-teacher* 

a. Stems of the Ist decl change a to o, appearing thus like stems of the 
2d decl. : x^P^'yP^^^ ix^P^ ypi4>») land-deseriber. Stems of both these de- 
clensions drop their final vowel, when a vowel follows : x^P"^*^' ix^P^^^ ^7^) 
chorus-leader. It is retained, however, when the second part of the compound 
began originally with digamma : Hm. Z'niuO'epy6'S artisan, Att. 9fifiMvpy6s. 

Stems of the 8d decL commonly assume o as a connecting vowel before a 
consonant: iuf^piayr-o^oiS-s image-maker, 7cvrp'0-Kr6yO'S parricide, ^wri-o^ 
XSyo-s natural philosopher, Ix^v-o-^yo-s fsh-eating, 

b. But the exceptions to these rules are quite numerous. Thus, the stems 
in s are often found in a shortened form : {i^-o-irr^yos {^l^os, st. {t^er) slaying 

with the sword, reix-o-fuixia (st. rcix's) battle at the wall. -Stems or the 1st 

decl. sometimes retain the final a (as a ov i\)\ iiptrd-xAyos prater about virtue, 
XVff^pos bearing libations for the (iea<f.—— Sometimes an inflected case is 
found instead of the stem : vm6shhkos ship^house, youo'l-ropof traversed by ships. 

474. When a noun stands as the last part of a compound, its final 
syllable is often changed. 

Tlus is the case especially in compound adjectives : ^iX^-ri/io-x (rifiii) honor- 
loving, iroKv^pdy/mr {wpSyfia) busy. So too in compound substantives, 

when the last part is an abstract word : Xi^o-fioXla (/9oX^) throwing of stones, 
ravfiaxla (Mxn) ehipfight, e^iepaJiia (vpa|is) good success. Only after a prS' 
position can the abstract word remain unchanged : wpo-fiovK^ forethought. 

475. A yerj frequent ending of compound adjeetives^ though seldom 
seen in simple words, is rjs masc. and fem., cr neut,j it is found 

a. in many a^'ectives formed directly frdm the verb-stem: &-/3Xai3-4ir 
(fi^dirrv, St. $Ka$) unharmed, abr^it^s (&pir^#) self sufficing, independent. 

* Digitiz^iJDy VjOOQIC 


b. in adjectives of which the last part is a substantiye in €f (Nool oi) '-i^ 
9eKa-«T45 (^TOf) of ten years, icoKo^fi^s (^i^s) iU-dispoHd. ^ 

476. Compounds in which the^r«^ part is made directly from a verb' 
9tem^ are nearly confined- to poetry. They are formed in two ways : 

a. The Terb-stcm appears without addition, except a connecting vowel 
(e. If or o) used before a consonant : vc/d^opx^' obedient to command, Bcuci- 
^fiot (8^-wtf to bite) heart-corroding, itpx-i-riicTwy master-builder, fiur-6-yvyos 

b. The yerb-stem has ai added to it: this expresses action (cf. 460 a, 469), 
and becomes <r before a vowel : Xv-o'l-^oyos releasing from toil, ipv-ff-dpfun-' 
«r, -as (nom. ace. plur., Hm.) chariot-drawing, trk-fi^-imros {rKfia'a'Wf st. irAiry) 
horse-driving, ffrpe^l-ducos {arpi^-w) peruerter of justice. //5 

477. Compound Verbs are formed directly or indirectly. They are 
Ibrmed dibectlt by prefixing tL preposition to a simple verb. 

Originally the prefix was a mere adverb, qualifying the verb. Hence the 
augment was applied to the latter, not to the preposition (818). Hence also 
in the early language, as in Homer, the preposition was often separated from 
the verb by intermediate words, and even placed after the verb : in the last 
case prepositions of two syllables suffer anastrophe of accent (102 D b). This 
separation of the preposition from the verb is called tmesis {rfirjirts cutting * 
from viiiyto to ctU). 

478. All other compound yerbs are formed indirectly, being deno- 
mvaSitXYCS TMde from compound nouna: 

Thus from A(3or and fidKK» comes the compound noun ?a^o-fi6ho5 stone- 
throwing, and from this the compound verb Ki^ofio\4» to throw stones ; from 
wavs and ^x<>Mcu comes vqvijJxos fighting in ships, and from this vauitax^ta to 
fight in ships; from c3 and st. €py comes wepyenis benef actor, and from this 
9v€pyer4» to benefit. 

479. Accent. Compounds of the first and third declensions are ac- 
cented like simple words with the same endings. But many compounds 
in ^r (3d decl., 471, 475) are paroxytone instead of oxytone. 

Compounds of the second declension are generally proparoxytone. 
But those formed from compound yerbs, by adding suffixes, are common- 
ly accented like simple words with the same suffixes: ovWoyia-'fio'S 
from o-vXXoyifofww to infer, dnodo-rto-s from dirobibafii to give back. 

a. Objective compounds (480^ of the second decl., when the lost part is 
an intransitive verbal, follow the aoove rule : Xt^6-^\os^ throvon at with stones, 
ljcnrp6-Krovo5 slain by a mother. But when the last part is transitive, and made 
by adding o (Nom. os) to a verb-stem^ they accent the penult if it is short ; — 
if long, the w/<tma : >j^o-fi6\o5 throwing stones, iJLrrrpo-KT6vos matricide ; arpar- 
rry6s army-leader, general, Xjoyo^oUs story-maker, tfvxo-^nftntSs conductor of souls. 

But compounds of Ix^ ^^^ ^X^t ^^^ some others, follow the general rule : 
r,yioxos (rcin-holder) charioteer, iaJiovxos (contr. from iaS6-oxos) torch-holder, 
tmrapxos commander of horse^ | 

II. Mbanino or Compound Words. 

480. As regards their yeaning, compound nouns (substantive and 
adjectiye) may be divided into three principal classes. The division re* 
lates properly to direct codtpounds, as vawrr/yds ship-builder, from vavt 

Digitized by 


198 BiEANma of compound words. [480 

and nfiyvvfui not to indirect compounds (derived from nonns already 
compounded), as vavTnjyia ahip-buildinff, vawnjyiKos helonffing to ship- 
huilding^ derived from the compound vavmjyos. 

1. Objective Compounds. In these, one part is related to the other 
as a grammatical object; so that, when the two are expressed as separate 
words, one must be put in an oblique case, depending, either immediate- 
ly or by means of prepositions, on the other : 
Koyo^pdpo-i apeechrvrriter = xSyovs ypd^r 
ii^i6-koyO'S wwihy ofnienUoifi = &|u>f iiiyw 
Z^uri^aliJMv ftarina tlte divinitiet = Mm^i robs Mfioma 
Xtipo-Toirrro-s made toith Jmnda = x*^^ wonfrSs 
^0'$\afi4is harmed by the god = iwh roO ;^v fiefiKaftfiipof 
oUco-y^y^s bam in the house = iy oXk^ ytv6iuyos 

481. 2. Possessive Compounds. In these, the first part qualifies the 
second like an adjective or adverb, while the whole is understood as he- 
langing to something ; so that, when the compound is expressed by se- 
parate words, a participle of ?xfi) to have, or some verb of similar mean- 
mg, must be added : 

fuuepS-x^ip long'handed = fuucpits x^tfns ^x^^ 

itpyvpo-ro^o-s with silver bow = i^yyvpow ri^oy lxi*y 

dfiS-r para's of like character = Sftoioy Tp6voy tx"'^ 

yXavK-wrts bright-eyed = yKaanuhs ^^doA^o^f Ix^'^ 

xiKp6'yafio-s having a (bitter) unhappy marriage 

Z^Ka-erlis (having) lasting ten years 
a. Here belong the numerous adjectives in -^Siyf (-o-ciS^s) : yvyaut^^t = 
yvnuKo-ciS^f having the appearance or character of woman, woman-4ike. 

of which is an adjective or adverb : 

iLKp6^o\i'S (summit-city) citadel = ftjcpa ir^Xii 
fi€<Miftfipia mid-day = fiiffii iiti4oa 
i^ev^iciipv^ false herald = ^'^vS^yi inipv^ 
6fi6^ov\0'S fellow-servant = 6ftov iavKt^my 
fuyaKa^pmis (grand-appearing) magnificent 
6}^l-yoyo-s late-bom = d^^ yey6fJxyos 
This is the least numerous of the three classes. 

Rem. Prepontiom may be connected with substantives in eadi of the 
above-described relations : ' 

a. Objective: 

iyX<^ptos native = iyrg X^P^ (^*') 

i^tlimos belonging to a horse = c^' tvw^ {Hy) 

b. Possessive: 

Iv^cos having a god in him^ inspired^ = ly {laur^) ^thy Hx^^ 
iift^ueltty having pillars round it = Kt6yas d/i^* (aMy) (fx^^ 

c. Determinative: 

inipi^iarpoy amphitheatre = a surrounding or circular, theatre 
&Tff\c^fN»f freed-man, =: free fh>m (the gift of) anoUier, = 6 kv6 rtyos 

Digitized by 


484] icEANma of compound wobdb. 190 

483. Alpha pbiyahyb. The prefix ok- (cL Spw toithaut, Lat. in-^ 
Eng. !£»-), before consonants d-, is called on account of its meaning 
Alpha privatiye. Compounds formed with it are determinative, when 
the second part comes from a verb or adjective ; when it comes from a 
substantive, they are mostly possessive : 

i-yffo^s untoritten = ed ytypofifiiyos 
&AxeA^po-» unfree = odjc iKt^pos 
&r-aiSi^s shameless = atSA oix tx^ 
&-iraii childUn = inu9af obit Ix^ 

a. Determinative compounds formed with this prefix yram«tti»<an<ti>«i, are 
rare and poetic : /i^nip ifiirrwp an unmotherly mother = /i^njp ob /I'tirup •S^o. 

b. Words, which began originally with digamma, have &-, not Ay-: iriKttv^ 
'dianff unwUUnfff ib^ut^s^abtiis^unteetnly (st. uc, fouca). 

484. The inseparable prefix 9vt- ill is the opposite of c9 toe//, and expresses 
something bad, un/artufuOe, or difficult : H^fiwXos ill-advised (possessive) = 
Koicia fiovXks ^X^^f 9usdpwros ^determinative) ill-pleaeed, HvsdXwrQs hard to be 
caught. Here too. determinative compounda formed from substantives are (^ / V 
very rare : Hm. Atmpts wretched Fori*. J^ /^ 

Digitized by 





/ • 

/ 486. Syih'ax (chWofis arranging together) shows how words 
are combmed in sentences. 

A SENTENCE is BiMPiJs, when the essential parts of a sentence 
are found in it only once. (For compound sentences^ see 724.) 

The essential parts of a sentence are 

the Subject, of which something is said, and 

the I^EDiCATE, which is said of the subject. 

The subject of a sentence is a substantive (or substantiTO 
pronoun) in the nominative case. The predicate of a sentence 
is 2k finite verb in the same number and person as the subject. 

a. The only nominatives of the fint j>er8on are *y«J, w^, riiuis; of the 
second peraoUf oi, o-^, IfUis; all other nominatives are of the third person. 

b. These are sometimes called the grammatieal^ in distinction from the 
logical^ subject and predicate. The latter include, beside the nominative and 
finite verb, all other words in the sentence which belong to these respectively. 
Thus in the sentence fivplmv iyayruoftdrmr ^ ^intx^i T^^i ^/i«r our soul is full of 
numberless contradietionSf ^x4 <^d y4fui are the grammatical subject and 
predicate, ^ ^^v^ iifi&y and fivpl»p ivorrmijATwy y4fi€t the logicaL 

c. The ii\/lnitive mode, though it is not the predicate of a sentence, 
has its subject The subject of the infinitiye is a substantive in the 
acetisative case. 

486. Objecf. The verb, beside its subject, may have an ob- 
ject on which its action is exerted. The object of a verb is a 
substantive in an oblique case (accusative, genitive, or dative). 

The object is direct or indirect^ according as it is related 
immediately or remotely to the action of the verb. The verb 
is transitive^ when its action passes over to a direct object : other- 
wise, it is intransitive* 

a. The remote relations of an object to a verb are expressed to a 
great extent by means oi prepositions. 

b. The infinitive and pa/rticiple may have objects, both direct and 
mdirect) like the finite verbs to which they belong. 

Digitized by 




487. A substantive may be qualified 

a. by an adjective in the same case, nimiber, and gender. 

b. by a substantive in the same case. 

488. The adjective is called 

a. an attributive, when its connection with the substantive 
is taken for granted in the sentence, not brought about by it : 
6 oyo^os ayrjp oxrKti rrp^ Bucauxrvvqv the good man practises justice, 

b. a PBEDiCATE-ADJEcnvE, whcn it is brought by the sen- 
tence into connection with the substantive : 6 avrfp dyo^os can 
{yiyyeraij tfxuverai, fcaAcirai, vo/At^crot) the man is (becomes, appears, 
is called, is considered as) good, 

RiM. c The adjective in the former case is purely adnominal, belonging 
exclusively to its substantive : in the latter case, it is generally ad»erbial, being 

connected also with the verb. ^Thus the Greek often uses a jpredicate-ad- 

jective,' where other languages use an adverb, or a preposition with its case : 
Tpnxuoi kini>Aop they went avoay on the third day ^ AaKt9at/t6ytoi t<mpoi i/plKowro 
the Laeedaemoniaru arrived afterward, ZpKi6f ffoi \4yt$ I speak to you under 
oath. In some sueh cases, the adverb, used in Greek, would give a different 
meaning : irpAros Mii^fu^ irposifiaX* he first (before any one else) attacked 
Meikymna; vp^rp Mri^fiyif irpos4fia\M he attacked Methymna first (before any 
other place); but with the adverb, irpwrop Mrjdifurp irpos4fia\t first (before 
doing any thing else) he attacked Methymna. 

489. In the same two cases (488 a, b), the qualifying sub- 
stantive is called • 

a. an appositive : Savfidiu} 'MiiXruj&jv tov urparqyov I admire 
Miltiades the general, 

b. a PBEDICATE-SUBSTANTIVS : trounxn (KoXown, KoJ^uTTaa-L, vo- 
fuiovat) MiXrioSi/v arpaTrjyov they make (call, appoint, consider) 
MiUiades a general. 

Rem. c. The substantive qualified is called the subject of the attri- 
butive, appositive, or predicate-noun. This must not be confounded with 
the suDject of a sentence (485). 

d. The attributive stands in the closest relation to its subject, forming 
with it one complex idea, like the parts of a compound word. The appositive, 
in general, is less closely related to its subject, being added to it as an explan- 
ation or description. (But see 600 a.) The predicate-noun (adjective or sub- 
stantive) is stiU less closely related to its subject, being brought into connection 
with it by the sentence. 

e. The predicate-noun is sometimes called simply a predicate, -It is oc- 
casionally preceded by ias as^ expressing comparison : rots Ifrrocw &s Mksts 
XpS»vrat they treat the weaker as slaves. 

Verbs op iNCOMPLErrB Predication. 

490. Many verbs, from the nature of their meaning, are com- 
monly connected with a predicate-noun. Such are verbs which 


Digitized by 



signify to be^ become^ appear^ be caUed^ chosen^ considered^ and 
the like. With these, a predicate-noun iB put in the nomincUive 
case, agreeing with the sulject of the verb : o avrip afxl^o^ iari 
(yiyyeron, ^atycracy koXcitcu, vo/u^erot) ; see 540. 

a. The yerb tlfii to he. when thus used, is called the copula, since it 
does little more than couple the subject and the predicate-noun. For the 
frequent omission of the copula, see 508 a. 

b. Yet all these verbs, even ufii tobcj^xe often used vrithout a pre- 
dicate-noun, as complete predicates. 

c. Trcmntive verbs, which correspond in sense to the foregoing, take 
a predicate-noun in the acctisative cas^ agreeing with the object of tho 
verb. Such are verbs which signify to make^ caU^ appoint, connder^ and 
the like: notovtri (KaXovai, Ka3ioTa(ri, yo/xi^ovo'i) MtXruidi/v ar^nfyoy} 
see 556. 

d. The infinitivea and participles of the same verbs are also connect- 
ed with predicate-nouns belonging to their subject or object. 

Pbonouns of Reference. 

491. a. Kelative Pbonoun. A substantive may be qualified 
by a sentence : avrjp tv iratq-cs ifuXown a man tohom aU love 
= dv^p TToo-i <t>iXxK a man beloved by cUl. The sentence is thea 
introduced by a relative pronoun, in the same number and gender 
as the substantive. The latter, as it commonly goes before the 
relative, is called its antecedent. 

b. Demonstrative Pbonoun OF Refsbencb. A substantive, 
once used, may be recalled or referred to by a demonstrative 
pronoun, in the same number and gender as the substantive or 

y 492. Equivalents OF teie Substantive AND ADjBcnvE. The 
/ functions of the substantive and adjective, described in the fore- 
going sections, may be sustained by other parts of speech or 
forms of expression. 

The principal equivalents of the adjective are 

a. the article: o\ &/^p<oTroi the men. 

b. the adjective pronoun : river ai^pwroi what men t 

c. the participle : advftovyrcr Sa^pwroi dispirited men, 

d. The article is used only as an attributive. So too the adljeetive and 
participle are. always attributive, when placed directly after the article. In 
like maimer, other forms of expression, when they follow the article, have the 
force of attributives : especially 

e. a Bubstanftve in the genitive : ol rqr irt^Xrwr ta^pwiroi the men of the eUy, 

f. an adverb : ol wvv ta^poifwoi the men new (living). 

g. a preposition with its case : olivr^ WAcc (ky^pwoi the men in the city. 
h. Even without an article preceding it, the genitive is often used as an 

attributive : i^/uoyui ipyipov coin oftilver^=z silver coin; also as a predicate* 

Digitized by 



Doua : r^ t^fuff/xa hfy^fw i^rt ike coin is of silver, A similar use of the ad* 
yerb, and of the prepofiitioD with its case, is comparatiyely rare: ^ ^atra oirjc 
XAAo ti ^pti fl JkmiKpvs ZovKeiw defeat brings notMna else than utter servitydsy 
ir ro6r^ rf rphrtf ^o-oy ol "iXKa^vts the Greeks were %n this eandUion, 

For the use of a sentence {relative sentence) as equiyalent to the adjectiTe, 
see 491 a. 

493. The principal equiTalents of the SUBSTANTIYX are 

a. the adjectiye, or any of its equivalents, when used without a sub- 
Btantive : frdvres iir^veaav all approvedy ol tp rg ndkei cxaXcfrcuvov those in 
the city toere angry. 

b. the substantiTe pronoun (personal or reflexiye) : ^fieU 6fioXoyot)/i«v 
tee assent, « 

c. the infinitiye, with or without the neuter article : ?do|rv dfrcX3«tv 
U v>aa thought Imt to depart, 

d. a sentence, used as the subject or object of another sentence : 
\iyenu ort ravra eyivrro it is said that these things took place. 

e. any word or phrase viewed merely as a thing: rb yv&^i atavrov 
Koi t6 v^p6p€i earl TavT6v the '^ know thyself" ^^ ^^ '' ^ ^'^ " ^^^ 
the same thing. 

The forms c, d, e, are equivalent to substantives of the neuter gender. 

f. A preposition with a numeral may take the place of a substantive : 
iarfyanw avr&y frtpl ifilbofi^KOPra there died of them about seventy^ 9i4^eipajf is 
bteroKoeriovs they dsstroyed to the number of eight hundred, 8o also the phrases, 
M wokb a wide extent^ ifi /Uya a great party icod^ ktcdarovs or jcad^ (m) cjcoo'- 
row each by himself and a few others : al wrjes M iroXh r^i daXitrmis ireTxov 
the ships covered a wide extent of the sea, 

g. All these forms are said to be used substantivelyy or used as sub- 

Indetebmixatb Subject os Object. 

494. The su^ect of a sentence may be thought of in a manner 
wholly vague and general, merely as that to wnich the predicate 
applies. This is called the indeterminate su^ect^ and is not ex- 
pressed in words : 

d^i j[y it was late^ if/i^pa iy4y9TO it became day, koX&s fy^i it is welly 8cl 
fjuixt' (^^ needs a battle) there is need of a battlsy 8i}\o7 (there is something that 
makes clear) it is clear, wapelxet (there is something that allows^ it is allowed, 

The same construction is seen in passive verbs, especially in the perfect 

and pluperfect : wupecKeiaffral fuu (things have been prepared) preparation has 
been made by me. But it occurs most frequently when the yerbiu in rdoy (or 
Wa) is used with elpd to be (expressed or understood) : ovk hZutyrriop 4<rrl (not 
any thing is to be unjustly done) injustice must not be done, rf p6fi^ reiar4o¥ 
(or ir«urr4a) obedience mttst be renderal to the law, 

a. These verbs which have the indeterminate subject, are most prop- 
erly called iMPxasoNAL verbs. That name, however, is applied also to 
the more frequent cases, in which the subject of a verb is not a nomina- 
tive, but an infinitive or a sentence : tfteomv svbatfiovelp it is possible to 
be happy, iijXop ^p Sri iyyvs irov 6 paeriXevs ^p it WiS plain that the king 
1MW somewhere near. 

Digitized by 



495. The object of a verb may be similarly indeterminate : 

poet 5ray 6 Halfunf c2 ZiZf, rt 9e7 ^iXmw whenever the divinity may give 
abundantly ^ what need of friendei Transitivo verbs may thus appear aa in- 
transitiye : 6 xAyos Korix^i the etary (holds) prevails, 

496. The subject of an attributive is very often indeterminate. 
The attributive then is neuter^ and may be either singular or 
plural. The indeterminate subject may be expressed by such 
words as thing^ affair^ condition^ quality^ apace^ time^ and many 

&7ad^ (good things) poedB^ rh \ey6fuifow (the thing said) the common saying^ 
rk xi^liTifta (the useful things) thai which ii useful^ rh r^s WXwf the {affairs) 
of the citVy rh rvoaiViK6y the (condition or character) of tyrant^ vh tnXj&if the 
(quality) ieautiftiy ht\ irokb (over much space or timej to a great extent or for 
a long time^ 4v fUa^ (in the midst) in public^ h^ el (irom what time) einu^ rh 
hth rov8« (the time from this time) henerforth^ rh ravTuc6y the (naval force) 
navv, rh fiapfiapue6if the (barbarian world) barbarians, rh KoufSy the eommonr 
wealthy rh Iktwlaia the (festivai) of Dionysus ; cf. 663 b. 

a. Neuter pronouns are very often tnus used with indeterminate subject : 
other attributives, in this use, are generally preceded by the neuter article. 


Pdotb Vkeb and Subject-Nominative. 

497. a. A finite verb agrees with its subject-nominative in 
number and person. But 

b. With a neuter plural nominative, the verb is singular. 
Cf. 614 e. 

Examples, a, eh ah xdrra flrcf, iced iKprdaa/ier ifisis thou saidst all things 

well, and we approved, ^b. rh irpdyfiara ravra Btud 4im these circumstances 

are fearful, ^For exceptions in number, see 611-17. For omission of the 

subject or the predicate, see 604, 608. 

Adjective and Substantivb, 

498. An adjective agrees with its substantive in case, num- 
ber, and gender : 

kit^p ^tXSri/ies i^Kti ala^cpAr icep9&p &Wxc0'3ai a man fond of honor is die- 
posed to abstain from disltonorable gains. This rule applies both to the 

attributive and the predicate-adjective, ffimilar rules may be given for the 

▲BTiCLE, ▲DJICTIVE-PBONOUN, and PARTICIPLE. ^For exceptions in number 

»nd OEMDEB, see 611-2S. For omission of the subject, see 609. 


499. The appositive agrees in case with its subject: 

els n^Xroi r6\tr okov/c^mfy to Feltae, an inhabited nty.-^^A aiinilar rule 
may be given for the PBEDiOATE-suBSTAHrm. 

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MS] AFFOsmoM. 206 

500. Apposition is of seyenl kinds : * 

a. ATTKiBunvx Apposition : the appositiye has the force of an attribntive : 
^iffSw^KBucMs Xoxoyot rear-guard captains. 

In this way, words denoting station or condition are connected with i^p 
man or ta^prnvn per»<m (the former often implying respect, the Uttter contempt): 
ta^s 9ucaffral judges (juror-men, cf. £ng. gentlemen of the jury), /Uroucos 
taidptntot a foreianrrendent. Names of nations in attributiye apposition assume 
the character of adjectives : "EAXififfs frtKroffral Oreeian targeteera, ■ 

Here belong albo the cases in which an appositire is placed between the 
article and its substantiye (684 a) : 6 Zh^pdrns itorofUs the river Euphraten^ 
6 Merayttrrti^y fi^y the month Metageitnion. 

b. Partititb Apposition : the appositiye is rekted to its subject as the 
part to the whole : 6 crparhst Iwitus ical fr9(ol the army, cavalry and infantry, 
Avroi ai fi^y 'xynaral tlffUFyoi ik kokoI pains arCf some Qood, others evil, ai rix' 
w€u rh oMis iicdarri tpyw 4pyd{rr€u the arts toork earn one its own work^ oZrot 
HXAof 6xXa \^i these say, one one thing, another another. 

To words denoting person, in the accusatiye or datiye, the poets often add 
an appositiye denoting thenar/ (head, hand, heart, mind, shield, etc.) which is 
specudly affected by the action : Aiflovlnir o6raffw ifior he wounded DelopUes 
(in) the shouUer, M V &x^ ^^ X^^ fufploy 6^^aX/uiia'» excessive grief overspread 
fhim the eyes) his eyes, 9elt6r ce frot ^Cyep fyicos Mrrmv what manner of say- 
tng has escaped the fence of thy teeth f eMs ri fWf XKrro dvfi6v and satiety came 
to his spirity o-ol ydp re fi/dkurrd ye KeAs 'Axat&v reiaoyrai /iC^ourt for thy words 
most Of all will (he people of the Achaeans obey. 

c. Descriptivb Apposition : the subject giycs the name of something, 
which is then described by the appositiye : ^ ^fierSpa TtJXir, ii Kotyii Kartx^vyij 
rw 'EAX^i^i' our city, the common refuge of the Greeks, hi^^os Ktd tpifios^ 
Appose ivftfio6\» boldness and fear, inconsiderate counsellors, 'A\4^aySpof 6 #i- 
AivTov (sc. vi6s) Alexander the son of Philip, 

d. DEFiNiTiyE Apposition : the subject yagiiely indicates something, which 
is then definitely expressed by the appositiye : 6 ddyaros rvyx^yei iy Bvoip 
Tperffidroty itdXvffis, rris ^^^s ical rov ff^fupros death happens to be a separation 
of itoo things, the soul and the body, rodr6 ye abrSf ^ elfiovXia this very thing, 
good counsel, 9ok» rh ^aror wpiciW, ^rri/ior rots &k\ois I seem to be doing the 

easiest thina, censuring the others, In Hm., the deroonstratiye 6 94, used at 

the beginning of a sentence, is often explained at the close by adding as an 
appositiye the object referred to : o/ 8* iiyrioi tyx^ Aeipay Tp&es but they in op- 
position raised their spears, the TVojans, rh 8* iwdptrraro x^^eop fyxos but it 
flew over him, the brazen spear. With 6 /i4iff this is much less often the case. 

501. When a word and a sentence are in apposition, the word may 
stand either in the nominative or the iiccusatiw : 

poet /tciyroi iteff6msy Tttffrtf o^ afuitph ir6ket they are fallen, no small 
ffround of confidence to the city, poet. cMai/ioiw(i}i, /Ata-dhw iiBiaretr Kiyesv may 

yvu be happy, a reward for the sweetest words, ^The word is put in the no- 

minatiye, as not depending in construction upon any other word (642). When, 
howeyer, it is put in the accusatiye, it is brought into a kind of dependence 
on the yerb of the sentence, as if in apposition with a cognate-accusatiye (647) 
supplied after the yerb : c&8ai/iorp£i}f (cd9ai/ior(ay) iiurhhv, etc. 

602. a. When the word is neuter, it is not certain from the form, which of 
the two cases is used. If, however, it stands in apposition witJi a dependent 
sentence, it must be regarded as an aecusative. 

Digitized by 



b. Kenter words often used in apportion with a sentence, are 0^|mor 
rigny rtKjjAipiw evidently icf^tUcuoy chief point ; also attributives with the neater 
article, rh fiiytaroy the greateet ihing^ tS ivwrlw the contrary^ rh rqf wapoifdas 
the expressum of the proverb ; and neuter pronouns, as ovr^ rovro this twry 
thing f rabrh rovro thieaame thing, 8vo«y birrtpov one of two things, 6iftip6r€peif 
or afi^^€pa bothy etc. 

c. The sentence is sometimes introduced by ydpfor, especially after <nf- 
fitioy and TCK/i^pfor, which may then be regarded as sentences themselves : 
oifBhy Morwo¥ diuTpot • oJi/Uioy 94* ob yi^f tuf 9wp' $Kor &s ilfua they had no 
confidence ; but proof {oi d^ is here, follows) ; for they would not (otherwise) 
have come to ua, 

Pbonoun of Reference with its Antecedent. 

503. The relative agrees with its antecedent in number and 
gender : 

iyravda j[r icpirtif i4>* f \4yerai Mapff6as rhv JUrvpotf ^^einrac here wdw a 
springy by which Marsyae is eaid to have eauahi the Satyry trapdJ^ewos dripUuf 
ir\^fniSy t Kvpof ^pevc a jmrk full ofwUd beatUy which Oyrtu used to hunt 

^A similar rule may be given for the demonstratite of BErBBENCK. 

a. If the relative is subject of a sentence, its verb takes the penon 
of the antecedent: ^fuU ot rovro X^yofuv toe who say this. 

For exceptions, see 511-23. For attractum^ incorporation^ and other 
peculiarities of relative sentences, see 807-23. 


504. The suBjEcrr of a finitb vkbb is often omitted ; 

a. when it is a pronoun of the first or second person. 

It is then sufficiently expressed by the personal ending of the verb : A^ 
Ispeaky iuco^o'art hear ye. But the pronoun is not omitted, if there is an em- 
phasis upon it : & &y iyi» \4yWf bfuis iuco^aare whatever I may sayy do you hear. 
Compare 667. 

b. when it is a pronoun of the third person, referring to a word in 
the context : 

Kvoos riis wavs /lerewifv^Of Zwus 6irXiras hfroM^eit, tcai fiuurdfi^vot roibs 
To\§fdovs irap^X^ffy, el ^vKdrroter Cyrus sent for the shipSy that he (Cjrrus) 
might land lieavy-arriud m«n, and they (the army of Cyrus) having overpowerea 
the enemy might effect a paeeagCy if they (the enemy) should be keeping ouard. 
The subject may be only implied in the context ; as the subject ofirapv<^i9h 
in the example just given : ravruch i^jipruero i 'EWhsy koL rris bakdffints hrr- 
eixorro fsc. ol "EWijycs) Greece was fitting out navieSy and they (the Greeks) 
were applying tliemselves to the sea. 

c. when it is a general idea of person (»v3pa)n-off). 

Thus in plurals such as ^a<r(, A^youcri, they (men, people) say. Less often 
in the singular : iodK'miy^e the trumpet soundedy lit. (one) sounded the trumpet 
A subject of this kind is very often omitted, when it is the antecedent of a re* 

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Ifttire pronoun ; the relatiye sentence then takes the place of a subject (810): 
5r ol iHot ^iXov^uf kitoMiirK€t v4o5 (one) whctn the pods lavg dies young. 

Here hNBlone, at least in their original use, such yerbs as ffci it rainSy wi^i 
it »now8t iurrpiKru it lightenM^ irtUt (it shakes) there is an tarthqucLke, etc. ; 
these operations of nature being regarded by the Greeks as actions of a divine 
person, Zeis or ^t6s (which are sometimes expressed with these verbs). In 
liuter use, the idea of personal agency seems to have been lost, so that the sub- 
ject became wholly indeterminate ; see d. 

d. when it is the indeterminate sabject (494) : 
Is t^ ovT^ oh irpovx^pei htU fohen (things did not advance for him) he had 
no success. Here also a relative sentence may take the place of a subject : 
poet, ^fc rod ^lAoirorrur yiyi^td^ &p d4Kets Kpareiy from love of toil are produced 
\tkings) which you toish to possess, 

505. The object of a yebb may be omitted in the same cases 
(the first, of coarse, excepted) : thus 

b. when it is a pronoun, referring to a word expressed or implied in the 
context : ifiirtit\iLs Sardyrwv riiP yy<&firiy itT4ir€fiX9 (sc. ainoiSf referring to ardy 
rmw) filling the mind of all he sent {jLhem) away, 

c. when it is a general idea of person : ^lAori/ita ira^llvti (sc. hv^ptSneovs) 
Ku^tweieiw 6irip evto^leks r« iral Trarphos emulation incites {men) to incur danger 
for fame and country^ poet. fyxA ky^pw hs hxiw^wop fiiop i^rttipaffs I envy 
among men {one\ who has passed a life without danger, 

d. when it is indeterminate : Zuupfyei itifuroXv pia^iiP fiii fia^6irros one who 
has learned (things learnable, i. e. truth, knowledge) differs entirely from one 
who has not learned^ ol hwX Sy tt6/ie^ KaT€ffKev£cairi the gods have provided j 
{the things) which we require, I 

506. The subject of an appositive or predicat&^oun may be omitted, 
when it is the same with the omitted subject or object of a yerb : thus, 

of an AFFOBiTrvs : BefwrroKkris firw mpk a4 (I) Themistodes am come to 

thee ; of a fbedicatx-koun : pijropis iart (ye) are orators^ %y ol ^ol ^tXouffty 

kroMitncu vios (one) whom the gods love dies young^ rtt kok&s rpi^vra x^P^ 
da>9pelovs woiei (sc. ii^pd^ous) the places that furnish a poor support make {men) 

507. The prsdicate-noun is seldom omitted : rl 8^ iari rovTO^ xtpl oZ alrrhs 
hntrrliiuey 4<n\y 6 <ro^f<rr^5, koX rhy fio^iyr^y (sc. iwurr^fioya) xoiu whaty now, 
is this, with which the sophist is both acquainted himself and makes his pupil 
{acquainted) ? 

508. The tebb itself is sometimes omitted : thus 
a. the yerb cc/ai to he, when used as a copula (490 a). 

The forms iarl and eUrl are very often omitted : iya^s 6 Mip the man (is) 
goodf ^&y ivya^us fieylarrj the power of theaods (is) greatest, rl rovro what (is) 
this f what of it / raOra /iiy oty 8^ oirvs I say, then, these things (are) so, ovx 
Spa Ko^t^eiy (it is) not time to be sleeping, ol &9iicoi olrBW trpdrreiy /act* &AA^X«y 
ololrs the unjust (are) able to accomplish nothing with one another, Untias lirc^- 
^ey ipovyreu 8ri iy dSy ffSij vdyrts he sent horsemen to say that (they are) now 

all on the way : especially with verbals in r4oy or ria (494) : r^ y6pjp irtuT' 

rioy (xstar4a) the law must be obeyed, lit (something is, or things are) to be 
done in obedienee to the law. ^The omission of the copula in other forms is 

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comparatively rare : tptk^Koos fyorye (ec. cl/J) I for my part {am) fond ofkeat' 
itiffy €ws (sc. iar4) ir" iy do'^oXct, tpvXdiwr^t vhile (you are) yet in wety^ 5#- 
t0ar0, i^{ (sc. ^9) iff fi4a^t 'col vofnifiw ry dorcpaff niyht intervened^ and tee were 
present on the next day, 

b. some common verbs of being, doing, saying^ going, earning, hring- 

This omission is nearly confined to brief and pointed expression, especially 
in questions and commands. Thus, HWo ri ff or &AAo r< (sc. I<m, ie) any thing 

else (true, than what follows?, see 829 a). Xya rl (sc. yiyifnu) to what endf 

lit. that what (thine may come to pass ?, see 826 b). iLyputr4povs abrohs 

hri^yt, Kcd ravra ^sc. hrohiffw) eU a^6y he rendered them mlder, and thai 
(he did, viz. rendered them wilder) tovoard himeelf; iral ravra is especially used 
with concessive participles (789 f) : Soiccis fiot ov xpostx^iyy ical raOra iro^s &9 

you teem to me not to (Aserve, and that (you do) though you are toiee, rt AxXa 

oZrot (sc. ixolriiray) f^ iTrtfioiKtviray what else (did) these men than plot against 
(us) ? ohZ\y &\V ^ av/ifiovKe^ovciy iifity (they do) nothing else than advise im, rl 
Xffh rhy fiirpun itoXlrriys r^ 4avroO rcff>a<rdo< ctl^Ctir what should the moderate 
citizen (do)? endeavor to preserve his own^ e3 yc, yii riiy''lipat', 5ri 6p^oTs rhy ira- 

r4pa (thou dost) well, by Mera, t/iat thou art upholding thyfcUher. ico/roi koI 

rovro (sc. \4yw or A.^(«) though this also (t say, or wiU say^, iw' othrie irtfl 
ro^wy but not yet concerning these things (will I speak), hrsl Kojettyo (sc. \§Kr4oy 
iarC) Hnce that too (must be mentioned), /(4 f^' fivplovs ^iyovs (sc. A^yrrc, tell) 

me not of ten thousand mercenaries. & 4>l\€ ^aTdpt, to? 8j^ (sc. c7), mil v6^er 

(sc. fJKeis) dear Phaedrus, whitfier, I pray (are you going), tnd whence (are you 
come) ? is KSpoKas (sc. ^^^c, go) to destruction, lit. to the crows, as their prey, 

ohK is xSpaicas (sc. i^p^ffftis) wo'nt you go to destruction f CISwp, 08«p (sc. 

^ipert\ & yeiroyts (bring) water, water, ye neighbors, ^For o^x 5rt, /ij} 5ri, 

see 848 c. 

c any verb may be omitted, where it is readily supplied fVom a verb 
in the context : 

alf re yitp^EXXriy cT, jcal ii/ius (sc, ia'fihf''EWriyes)for both you tare a Greek, 
and we {are Greeks), rh frames ovS§ls oth-e rire (sc. clxci^) oUre yvy l^fi ^IweTy 
the certain fact no one either then {was c^le) or now is able to state. Such omis- 
sions are especially frequent in connection with conditional and relative sen- 
tences, cf. 164, 819. The infinitive and participle may be omitted in the 

same way: o1ir€ wda-xoyrss Koxby oMy^ oih^ /i/AXorr€f (sc. irdax^^y) father 
suffering any evil, nor being likely to (suiTer any), hy^x^F^°^ *«^ <»' 'A;^wuo», 
^irc(8^ iral rovs Aeuc^lkufioylovs eJHoy (sc. hyax»povyras) the Athenians (aUo, 856 b) 

retired, when they saw the Lacedaemonians also {retiring). For ov fi^y iAAi, 

see 848 e. 

j/ 609. The subject of an ATTKiBUTrvB is very often omitted ; 

/ a. when it is expressed or implied in some word of the context : 

cl rQyfivplMy ikviiwy fda ris (sc. iXxls) (fSr iffri if of ten thousand hopes 
you have any one (hope of being saved), ris &y altrxivy ilv raWifs (sc. Z6iris) 

8^(a what reputation could be mere shameful than this / rovroy hxiyas hraiae 

(sc. irXiry^f) he struck this one a few {blows), &s fial^y iKoi/iiidris (sc. Ihryoy) how 
deep (a sleep) you slept, is fday fiou\M6ety (sc. fiovXiiy) to join in one resolve. 

b. when it is a word in common use, and readily understood from 
the meaning of the attributive or the connection of the sentence. The 
words most commonly omitted are dv^p or ai/ipwros man, yvvi) W9maju 

Digitized by 



Other words omitted are masc. KoKnos gulf, ohos wine; and a number of 
feminines, such as fjfiipa day, yrj land, ^^pa country, 6d6s way^ x'^ hand, 
rfx^n ^^^ ^^^ s^™® others. 

6 ffo^s the vfine {man\ 6 fidpfioftos the barbarian^ rt koA^ the beautiful 
(woman), ol iroXXoi the many^ common people^ ol Brificuoi the JTubant, oi iinyiy- 

p6/i9Poi the {men) of after timee^ iKK\iia'ti(ova'€u (women) in popular aaeembly. 

6 *l6wut9 the Ionian (yulfy = Adriatic sea), 6 &Kpdros unmtxea(unne), ri trporepaia 
the (dav) before^ vi iirwvtra the coming (aay)y i aJBpwy the morrow, ^ iyvSpos the 
desert (land without. water), ii i/iavrov my own (country), fidL6i(§ rV eu^ciw 
walk the straight (way), ^yt r^y M Vl4yftpa he fAU leading on the (way) toward 
MegarOj 4 S<{t^ the right (hand), 4i ttptffrepd the left (hand), ^opiicfi rfietoric 

i oratorical art), itarck ^y ifiiii^ (bc. yyifitp^) according to my (judgment), ip^firiy 
sc. iltat^) Kwrrryopoviri they bring as plaintiffs a deserted (suit, the defendant 
not appearing), tlKOirrfi (jitpls) a twentieth (pari), ^ frtirpwfiiyii (fAo7pa) the allotted 
(portUffC^, destiny, 

. (a) Feminine adjectiyes without a subject arc often used to express di' 
rection, manner, or condition. These uses may have grown out of an original 
omission of Ms way : 4^ ivayrlas from an (pposite direction, in front, luutpdaf 
a long way off, it fuucpdi^ at a long remove (in time), {kc riip raxicrrrpf he sent 
(the quickest way) most quickly, Ajjorc^ciy Aydyien dfr TptSrniv it is necessary to 
plunder (as the first course) at first, r^p JkKKus iSoKtirx» I am prating to no pur- 
pose (the way that leads otherwise, to no proper end), 4 Xtni iced biiola the equal 
and uniform (way of government), condition of civil equality. 

($) With an attributiye genitive, vl6s son is often omitted : 'A\4^aaf9pos 
6 ^Udwwov (sc vl6s) Alexander the (son) of Philip, 6 l^pwiiXKov the (son) of 
Sophroniseus, i. e. Socrates, So oIkos house, or a word of similar meaning, in 
phrases such as ecs TlXdrm^os to Plaio^s (house), iv "AiBov in (the abode of) 
Modes, iy Aiow^ou in (the temple) of Dionysus, elf rlyos 8i8cv«mUov to what 
<eacA^« (school)? 

Rxif. The omitted subjects mentioned under this head have been all masc. 
or fem. In like manner, neuter substantives might sometimes be supplied with 
attributives of neuter gender ; but almost all cases of the kind are better re- 
ferred to the following head. 

c when it is indeterminate : the attributive is then neuter, and may 
be singukr or plural. For examples, see 496. 

In cases b and c, the adjective is said to be used as a substantive : it 
may thus have another adjective joined with it as an attributive : rrXelaroi 
iroXf/uot tery many enemies, avayKoiov KaK6v a necessary evil. 

510. The ANTECEDENT of a RBLATiTB prououn (if the relative sentence 
has the force of an attributive) may be omitted in the same three cases, 
509a,b,c; cf. 810: thus, 

a. when it is expressed or implied in some word of the context : wavfMxia 
vaXatrdrri (so. rw paaffMaxusr) &y ifffup a seorfight the most ancient (of the sea- 
fights) that we know of. 

b. when it is a word like tafbpeswos^ &i^p, yw4i^ etc. : (Ix'^fiey koH yrir iroW^v 
jcol oTrircf ra^y ipyduromu we have both nuteh land and (men) who will work 
it, o(i9et^a xdpeanv if l}icc(y ixp^p there is no one present (of the women) who 
ought to have come. 

c. when it is indeterminate: iititktisiyitiiinfjMXM^ you neglect (things) 
whieh you ought to care for. 

Digitized by 






511. Two or more subjects connected by Ajsm may have a 
predicate-word (verb or adjective) in common. For this case, 
we have the following rules. 

With two or more subjects connected by and, 

a. the finite verb ^or predicate-adjective) is in the plural : 

b. with two singular subjects, the dual may b^ used. 
With subjects of diSerent penonSy 

c. the verb is in the Jint, if that is found among the subjects : 

d. otherwise, it is in the second person. 
With subjects of different genders^ 

e. the predicate-adjective is nuisculiney if they denote persons : 

f. it is TUMter^ if they denote things : 

g. if they denote persons and things together, it takes the gender of 

the persons. 
Often, however, 

h. the predicate-word agrees with one of the subjects (the nearest, 
or the most important), being understood with the rest. Especially so, 
when the predicate stands before all the subjects, or directly after the 
first of them. 

a. K-fidri jcai ivsKoXia xcd fiavta tls r^t' BidyouLy ifitrtwrovffi forffetfuln$8$ and 
peetfuhneaa and madness get into the mtnd— — b. rfio^ Kcd kmi iv r» WA<i 
fiafftki^rrov jdeatture and pain will hear tvoay in the city, c . Seiyol kwL ao^X 
lyflS vt Koi ah ^/icv both land thou were skilftU and wise. — —d. Koi ah KtiL ol 

litKpdi irap^0Tc both thou and thy brothers were present, e. koI 17 yw^ mX 6 

Mip irfo^i elat both the woman and the man are gocd. ^f. ir6\€fios iced ariffis 

6\4^pM rats x6\9aip iari war and faction are fatal to cities. g. ri rdxn kcI 

^tknnros ^croy rup Kpyuv ic^piot fortune and Philip had control over the actions, 

^h. fiatrtKths xai ol ahtf avr^ dsvlTrrti elf rh arparSintop the king and those 

with him break into the camp, ^A^vriai ol ftivirrts koI 6 Znyuos frkiop lx€t at 
Athens the poor and the common people have superior power, llir9fv^4 /ic *Apuuos 
Koi 'Aprdo(oSf irtaroX 6ms K^p^ koI hfup tifpot^ Ktd kcXc^iwi ^vXarrvr^ai Ari- 
aeus 'and Artaozus sent me, being faithful to Gyrus and well-disposed toward 
you, and bid you be on your guard, iyit \4yw jccd lie^^s rk airrd land Seuthes 
say the same things. 

Rem. L When there is a predicate-adjective in the neuter plural, the verb 
is regularly in the singular : oih-c a^fun-os jcdUXoi icol taxhs Sf iX^ ^vpouewrra 
fcphtopra ^prrai nor do beauty and strength of body, when dwelling with a 
coward, appear suitable. The predicate-acyective may be in the neuter plural, 
when the subjects (denoting things) are all maso. or all fem. (522): tby&tid re 
feed H^pa^s Koi rifuu 9ri?A iarip kytm 6pTa hiah birth and power and honor are 
manifest as being good things. It may also oe in the neuter plural, when the 
subjects (or part of them) are persons, these being viewed merely as things : 
4 KoXXiarff m\trtla xal 6 ttdKKurros kpiip Xonrk ip ^fup ifi} 9w^A§Tp the noblewt 
polity and the noblest man would be left for us to eonsidsr. 

Digitized by 



512« a. A plan] predioate is rarely nsed, whezi singular sabjectfl are con- 
nected by if or, o6t9 nor: l/icAAoir hrokoy^trcur^tu At»x^^' ^ AtKOioyiyiis 
Leoch&res or Dicaeogines were ahmU to make a defence ; rarely, also, when a 
nngular subject is followed by the preposition wUh: ArifMff^hnfis /iCT& rw 
cwirpwntyStv mrMorrcuL Marrof^virt Demotthenes vUh his aeeodaie-generaU 
make a treaty with the Mantifieans, 

b. The ATTBiBUTiYE regularly agrees with the nearest subject : vamrl koI 
X^yy iced ikTixBOfi hy every word and means. 

c. For the ▲ppositiyx and prsdioate-substantitx, rules may be given 
Bimilar to those of 511 a, b: bdfpos koX ^/3of, ii^yc ^vfifioiXm daring and 
terror^ unintelligent adoiserSy *HpaK\^s kiU eijccbf ^kp tqv fitov r&p kr^p^wy 
i^Kifrai icar4<miffay Heracles ana Theseus became champions for the life of men, 

d. For the pbokoitk of bef erence, the same rules may be given as for 
the predicate-adjective above (511): thus a and f, tFtpX voKifiov iral e/p^Kf?r, & 
l^« firylorrpf 96ydfuy ip ry fiitp r&v kif^p^wv concerning war andpeace, which 
have the greatest power in the life of men; so h, diraXXay^yrcf 9oK4/ieotf iral Kiy- 
S^pwr Kcd Topax^f, tls %p wvv frpbs aXKfiXovs Koriarrifitp delivered from wars and 
dangers and trouble, in which we have now become involved with one another. 

Agreement with a Predicate-Noun. 

513. a. A Terb of incomplete predication (490) may agree with the 
predicate-noun, when this stands nearer than the subject, or is yiewed 
as more important 

al xopfirfiM licayhv tbiaifioyias ffii/iu6y iart^the dramatic expenditures are a 
sufficient sign of wosperity, rb x^p^oy 7rp6v^ooy *Eyy4a 6bol iKoXovrro the place 
was before called Nine Ways. So, also, participles of such verbs : brtl&eyro 
rhs bvyttripas wadila. iyra they conveyed away their daughters being children. 

b. A relatiye pronoun, used as a subject, instead of agreeing with its 
antecedent, may ^;ree with its predicate-noun : 

4 rov fe^fUKTos 'rifyfi hy t/iepoy Zc^f &y6fxao'e the fountain of that stream which 
Zeus named Desire. The relative may even agree with a predicate-noun be- 
longing to the antecedent : o&S^tot* &y ^ri ^ Jifropuc^ &8ucor irpay/ta, 8 y iel 
xtpi 8ucfluo<ribn)s robs xAyovs wouirat rhetoric coiUa never be an unjust affair^ 
since at least it (rhetoric) is always making its discourses about justice, 

c A pronoun of reference, which would properly be neuter, as re- 
ferring to an indeterminate subject, or to an innnitiye or a sentence, may 
be masc. or fem. to agree with a predicate-noun : 

rovr6 iartp Hyoui this (view or conduct) is folly, but often affrji iarrly Ayota ; 
80 f|8c aipx^ T^f Sfukoylasf ipiff^ai ^fua abrois this is a beainning of agreement, 
(vis.) to question one another, ^wep ffa^ov/icy /ut^ir, Mifuniiirts iffrt {that) 
u.hieh we call learning, is recollecting. 


514. CoLLBcnvB Subject. The singular is sometimes used 
in a collective sense, expressing more than one : co-^ clothing 
(clothes), TrXtV^os brick (= bricks), ij tinros the horse (cavalry^ 
i) flunrts the heavy-armecL 

Digitized by 



a. A collective subject denoting persons^ may have a pre- 
dicate-word (verb or noon) in the jo^wra/; 

*A^rivalwv rh irXri^os oXoyTCu''linrapxoy rlpayyov tvra &Ko^auf€iy the muUihidB 
of ike Athenians believe that fftpparchus was tyrant (of Athens) when he died, 
rh arpdrwfM hropiCero avrov KttrTOvrts rohs fiovs jccU 6yovs the army provided 
itself food by slaughtering tJie oxen and Mses, 

b. Such words as cKaaroi each^ rls any one, was ris every one^ oh^tls no 
one, may have the construction of collectiyes, on account of the plural which 
they imply : kcA* Ztrov B^ycan-ai €Kaaros as far as each one is able, oifHeis ixot- 
fi^iSH}, robs hroXM\6Tat rty^ovyrts no one went to sleep, {all) lamenting the lost 

I / c. A pronoun of reference, referring to a coUectiye, may be in the 
./ plural: 

irapiffrai w^/Xcio, ot ruvUe Kp^iatrovs eUrt (assistance, i. e.) an auxiliary force 
will be present, wlio are more effective than these, fif\4r» trdt rod vX^dovr, koL 
leexopur/i^yofs airois Apx^ h^ careful of the multitude, and govern in a way ac- 
ceptable to them, avyKoXiffos ica» rh arpartwruchy, l^\e(c Tphs axnohs rotdS^ having 
called together the entire soldiery, he spoke to them as follows, rh 'ApKoJ^uchy dirXi- 
ruchyf &y ^px* K\tdy»p the Arcadian heavy-armed force, whom Cleaner led, teas 
ris ifiyvfftyf oTs b^ttlKwy rvyx^iyv every body swears, whom I happen to owe, f^y 
iBuctiy ris iinx*ipv$ robots Kvpos To\4fuos loroi if any one attempt to do in- 
justice, to these Cyrus will be an enemy. 

d. Any singular antecedent, though denoting an individual, may suggest 
the idea of other like Indiyiduals, and may thus have a pronoun of reference 
in the plural : ^aoMpowoihs M\p, ohs 9^ koH iiraiytl rh rXri^os a money-making 
man, just {those) whom ttie multitude even praise. Conyersely, when the ante- 
cedent is plural, the pronoun of reference is sometimes singular, referring to 
an indiyidual of the number : haviderai TdrraSf f tty Ttpirvyx^ ^ embraces 
all men, whatsoever one lie may fall in with, 

e. When the collective subject denotes things (not persons), the predicate 
is regularly singular. The neuter plural subject was regarded by the Greeks 
in this way, as a collection of things, and was accordingly connected with a 
singular verb. But if the neuter plural subject denote persons, then, like the 
collective, it may have a verb in the plural Hence the following rules : 

615. Nextter Plural Subject. A neuter plural nominative 
has the finite verb in the singular : see 497 b. But 

Ezo. a. A neuter plural subject, denoting persons, may have a rerb in the 
plural : rh r^Ai} bw4trxoyro the authorities promised, roirdJie fierh 'Adwedenf tt^vn 
ierrpdrtvoy so many nations were combating on the side of the Athenians. 

b. Other exceptions to this rule, though rare in Attic, are frequent in the 
other dialects : thus Hm. tnedpra A^Avrrcu the cables are loosed. 

616. In a few instances, a plural subject, masculine or feminine, has a verb 
in the singular. This can hardly occur, except when the verb stands first, the 
subject being then thought of indeterminately, but afterwards specified by the 
nominative : boKOvyri BiKoi^ cTvoi ylyyerai darh rrjs 96^iis &f>xa{ re Koi yd/JMi to 
{a man) reputed to be just, there comes, in consequence of his reputation, both 
offices and nuptieUs, ' So with the dual : Herri roiirm Hvrrit rii film there are these 
two different ways of living. 

For dffriw oT («lr<yfs), see 812. 

Digitized by 



517. Dual and Plueal TJnitbd. In speaking of two, the 
dual is used, if the specific number is prominently thought of; 
if not, the plural. Hence, 

The dual and plural are freely united or interchanged in the 
same construction : 

Tposirp^xov S^ vtwiffKm two young men were running up^ iYtkourdrriv &ft^ 
^Afwrci ffb &XA'4^ovs they both laughed out on looking at one another^ fi4^€a-^4 
M* ^Vi x'^P*^^ ^^^ ^"^ 9^ *^<^) f^^ y^ ^^' 

518. Plubal for Singular. The Greek sometimes uses the plural, 
where English idiom prefers the singular : thus, 

a. in impersonal constructions (494 a), a predicate-adjsctite may stand 
in the neuter plural : thus, with indeterminate subject, ttoK^iiirria ^v it was ne- 
cessary to make wear (things were to be done in war), wkBttfu&rtpa iy4yero no- 
mgettion heeame more adeaneed (things became more farorable to naTigationl 
So too, with an infinitive as subject : Mvard iartv bacofvyelv it is impossible 
to eeeape. 

b. a NEUTER PRONOUN may be plural, when referring to an infinitive or 
sentence, which is then viewed as something complex : 6 iu/^os ^bpwtos r^x* 
fty o/i|i^£i} ravro, ^wmiov etyai iarh rov lieav6rov a man without sense wovid per- 
haps think this, that it weu necessary to fiee from his master^ kwt^w koprris 
IJKo/iey, Kelt biprepovfiev ; ro6rwy dtrtos TUupe^p are we arrived after the feast, 
and too late for itf for this is Chaerephon to blame, 

c. in ABSTRACT 8UBSTANTIYES, to cxpress repeated instances of the quality : 
ifiol eii aett ebrvxiai obx hpiaxovai to me thy (often repeated) good fortune is not 

Hm. often uses the plural of abstract words to express the various ways in 
which a quality is manifested: Imroalv^fs MKocrro he was distinguished in 
(the arts of) horsemanship, it^>pai(jfai y6oto in foolishness (foolish operations) of 
mind. Even in concrete words, the poets sometimes use the plural for the 
angular: x4Xa roKtvat eln^ws ^fxovfi4rois forgive a parent justly indignant 
(as all such have a claim to indulgence). . 

d. in the riRsr person, especially when an author is speaking of himself: 
TovTo wetpaa'6fu^ Znty^eroffdm this I (we) wUl endeavor to explain. The plural 
here is preferred as seeming less egotistical. 

This construction is much more often found in poetry, sometimes with 
abrupt change of number: f^Xiov fuurrvp^fita^a^ Bp&o' a Zpiav oh fioi\ofuu I call 
the sun to witness, while doing what ido not wish to do. The predicate-adjective, 
when plural, is masculine, even though a woman is speaking (620) : reo'o^/icd^, 
el xphf iTfltrpl rifA»po6fievoi /(Electra) will fall, if need be, in assisting my father. 

519. Singular eor Plural, a. In dramatic poetry, a chorus is commonly 
treated as an individual, the Coryphaeus being regarded as speaking and act- 
ing for the whole body ; so that the singular is often used in reference to it. 

b. A nation is sometimes designated by the singular with 6 : 6 VloKeZ^v, 
6 n4pa^s, for the Macedonians, the Persians ; but this is nearly confined to 
monarchical states, where everything centres in the sovereign : seldom 6 '£AAi}» 
for tlie Greeks. 

520. Masculhtb fob Pxbson rsr genxbal. The masculine 
is used in speaking of persons, if sex is not thought of; 

Digitized by 



TWf c&rvxo^tfir vdrrts cM wyy^vM all (persona) art kinMh oj tfu proM 

perout. Further a. The masculine is used, when sex is tnought of, if the 

same expression is applied to both sexes : Srirtpos tar J fi*\rtwf cC^ 6 &i^p, 
cCy ^ 7vH^> oZtos Koi TXeiby ^ipertu rov kyn^v vhiehever of the two may be the 
better f whether the man or the womait, that one aUo receives more of tJu good. 

521. Masculine Dual for Feminine. The masculine form is often 
used for the feminine in the dual of pronouns ; not often, in the dual of 
adjeetivea and participles. 

For rci, raird, the forms rd(», to6t» are almost always used: to^« rit 
rSpcva these two arts^ rovrouf rouf Kurvriour of these two mcHons^ — 8^ XMlma^w 
idpto /Airxw^ on^y two means are left^ i^fi&y h iicdffr^ S^ rcvc krror IS^a tipxof^9 
mU 6yoirr€ in each of us there are two ideas ruling and leading im. 

522. Neuter fob Mascitijite ob Feminine. A predicate- 
adjective is often neater, when the subject is masculine or femi- 

In this case the a^ectiye is used as a substanUve (609 c^ ; it expresses, not 
an accidental peculiarity of the subject, but its essential nature: a^aXefi^i- 
irfenhw ^pards a daring leader is danaerous (prop., a dangerous thing, with in- 
determ. subject), xaXhp ii &A^^ia km fi6wifMP beautiful is truth, and abiding^ 
tkufhy o/ roXXoi, SroK KOKOvayohs ^xwri irpooTdrtu formidable are the many, 
whenever they have villains jor leaders, rapaxa^ Ktd ardir€ts i\4^pta rais riktci 
disturbances and factions are ruinoiu to cities. 

So too, a PRONOUN or rbferxnob may be neuter, when the antecedent is 
- masc. or fern. : rvpawiZa dijpoy, t xp^f^'^*'^ ix/o'ircrcu to pursue despotic power, 
(sk thing) which is taken by means of money, 96^ris iwibvfjLU, mU rovro 4iiiXmK§ 
he longs for glory, and has made tMs his aim. 

523. CoNSTBUCnO AD SenSUH (icara owco-iv). A word in 
agreement often coitforms to the real gender or number of the 
subject, instead of the grammatical. 

Thus, a PRZDiCATE-ADJKCTiYE (participle) : rk /lox^ph hv^p^ww, r&y iwi^v 
fiwv hxpartTs ctcrt the miserable wretches are without control over their appetites, 
ravr' IfXrycy ^ fiiaph a^rri KtipaXif, i^€\ri\v^^s these things spake this abomin- 
able person (head), having come out. So, in poetry, an attribittive : 2 rtpurak 
rifii^tU rixvop O greatly honored child; or a pronoun or RErERENCE ; riiamp 
^av6pTwv hrrh y^waitov, oOs wot* "ASpaaros ffToye seven noble children having 
fallen, whom once Adrastus led. 

a. To this head belong also the constructions with collsctite subjects, 
see 514. 

b. An adjective may be followed by an appositive, or a pronoun of refer* 
ence, agreeing with a substantive implied in it : *A^¥tuos iv, ie6Ksms riis /w 
yiarris being (an Athenian) a man of Athens, a city the greatest, obeia if iiivripm 
o\ XFVO"^^ (your house) the house of you, who use, etc. 

c. A word denoting place may be followed by an appositiTe, or a pronoun 
of reference, belonging to the inhabitants of that place : k^lKorro els Kar^pe^ 
tatmrrittv hwoUovs they came to CotyOra, colofiists ofUie Sinopeans, etfAurroKk^s 
^c^i ^f KipKvpav. &y abr&if t&epy^f ThemistocUs flees to Coreyra, being a 
benefactor ©/"(them) the Corcyreams. 

Digitized by 



'O in the Dialects. 

1^24. The word 6 4ir6 (like Eng. the) was at first a DXicoNsnuTiTX pronoun, 
which afterwards, by gradual weakening of its force, became an article. In 
Homer, it is unuUly a demonstratiye ; and, though in many cases approaching 
nearly to its later use as an article (especially when placed before an attributive 
with omitted subject: ol 6^Xoi the others^ rk itrtrSfitpa the things about to be, 
rh Tpl^/ormerli/y, yet in all such cases its use was aUowed merely, not required, 
by Apic idiom. In the Attic, on the other hand, the word is commonly an 
article, the demonstrative use being comparatively unimportant. 

a. The language of Herodotus differs little in this respect from Attic prose. 
The lyric poets approach nearer to the Epic use ; so too the Attic drama in its 
lyrio parts. Even in the tragic dialogue, the article is more sparingly used 
than in Attic proee. 

For d 1^ r^ as^ a relativb pronoun, in Homer, Herodotus, and Attic Tra- 
gedy, see 243 B. * 

'O as a DemonstraMve. 

525. Even in Attic prose, the word sometimes retains its primitiye 
power as a demonstrative. Thus, 

a. in connection with luy and bi\ and nsnally in contbast£d ex- 
pression, 6 iUv..,6 bi this . . . that, the one ,.,the other: 

rahs i^w ol h/rpoi {i^^Kown), rohs tk ol vMucoi these (aick persons) the phi/^ 
neiatiM aid, those (persons in a law-suit) the advoeatea, Oftener, with indsfinitk 
meaning, 6 fi4p .,,6 94 one . . . anothiry some . . . eonUy part . . . part, in which 
use rlt may be added : iKeyoy rod Kvpov, 6 fi4y ru r^v trof^tay, o 9h t^p Kaftr^- 
ptear, 6 8^ r^v wp^Arnret, 6 94 rts koL rh kcUlXoi theif were speaking, one of Cyru^s 
wisdom, another of his fortitude, another of his mUdness, yet another of his 
beauty. Often a different expression takes the place, either of 6 fi4tf, or 6 B4: 
ol fi€p 4^x<"^^9 K\4cipxos 9^ 'rtpi4fi€y9 they toent, but Clearehus remained, clr- 
^Mir MKevov (so. ^7^ /i/y), ol 8* oMy 9eiy i^curaif I was urging a war-tax, but 
others said there tons no need of it 

As adverbs, t^ fi4v . . , Th'S4, rk fi4y . . , rk 94, (also with tI, thus rk fi4p 
ri,) mean on the one hand . . , onthe other, partly . . . partly (in which sense 
we find also rovro fi4p . . . rovro B4). 

(a) After a preposition, the order is usually changed: ip itJkp rots, c2f b\ rd. 

(fi) In later writers (even in Demosthenes), the relative pronoun is some- 
times used in the same way, but only in oblique cases: wSx^is, ks /j^p ktfoiowp, 
fif &f 8^ robs ^vyd!9as Korayvp destroying seme cities, into others bringing hack 
their exiles, 

(7) ^^n 0^1^ b 94 (without preceding 6 fi4y) means but he, but this;^ when 
thus used in the nominative by Attic writers, it refers almost always to a dif- 
ferent subject from that of the preceding sentence : 'Ipdpvs 'A^iipalevs 4inryd» 
yrro* ol 8* Ijk^p In&ros called in the Athenians; and they came. Similarly, m 
Attic poetry we have 6 ydpfor he, for this, 

b. in jccU r6p, xol t^p, before an infinitive : jral rhp kvoKplpoe^M \4yvrai 
and it is said that he anewered, (In the nom., we have jrol 81 and he, xol 4f 
jc«a of: leal ot ^p^rwr and they were aeking, Cfl 9 8* 8; , 4 8* ff, said he, she,) 

Digitized by 


216 sESTRKrmrE abticle. [525 

Idkewiie in rbr mU r^y, rh xol r^, r& mU itC, r& 1^ rtf : l^< ^ftp rh ttal rh «oa|- 
iroi, Kol T^ /i^ irot^tf'eu /or thit and that we ought to have done, and thU not to 
have done. The nom. hs xol Ss occurs in Hd. 

c. rarely before a relative : ip^yenu rod 8 4<rrty X<roy he aime at that which 
M equaly wporfimi fturtuf robs oUnrtp oZrof*it is proper to hate thou of a char^ 
acter eueh as this one. But here 6 may be regarded as a proper article, the 
relative sentence being equivalent to an attributive with omitted subject : rw 
Xffw^ robs rowirovu 

d. in Tpb rov (also written iroorov) before this (time). Also in a few other 
cases of very rare occurrence. For 4r rots with the superlative, see 627. 

'O as an Article. 

526. The article, as a weakened demonstrative, directs spe- 
cial attention to its substantive, marking it either 

a. as a particular objectj distinguMied from others of its 
class {restrictive article), or 

b. as a whole dasSj distinguished from other classes of ob- 
jects (generic article). 

Thus Aif^pwros a man, one of the species (^^mmtos «7 thou art a man): but 
6 dt^pc^oSf a. the (particular) man, distinguished from other men (6 Af^/wwos 
tv wiyrcf yMFovci the man whom all hate) ; or, b. man as such, comprehending 

every one of the species {6 Hy^pvwos ^iirr6s ierrt man is m^ortal), With, an 

▲TTRiBUTiYE, iLyaAol Mp€s good men, some of that character: ol AyoM M^^ 
a. the (particular) good men, distinguished from others of like character, or b. 
good men as a class, distinguished from men of difierent character.— So with 
ABSTRACT uouus, SiKotoirdvn fustice in any form or relation: ji Zuuuwrirn, euhtsiics 
in the particular relation, distinguished from other relations (j^ Suuuomn rw 
^ov the justice of the divinity) ; or b. jtutiee in the sum of all its relations, as 
distinguished from other qualities (^ Bucauoa^rri kperh iari justice is true man-' 

527. A. RESTRicrnvB Abticlb. The particular object is dis- 
tinguished from others of its class, 

a. as BXFORX iuntionxo, or as will known : ^p^fiov llicowre, ical lipero 
ris 6 ^pvfios ^11 he heard a noise, and asked what the noise w(U, ol TpAtj rh 
S4Ka llrri ianttxov the Jhijans held out during the ten gears (the well known 
duration of the siege). 


Media, ^ fc6\is ^y iroXiopicoG^ey the city which we are besieging, h rats teAftms 
reus birht rov irtilov rod Toph rby Kevrplrriy rorofiSr in the villages (which are) 
€U>ove the plain (which is) along the river Centrites, In many such cases, we 
might regard the limiting expression (attributive) as uniting with the one 
limited (subject) to form one complex idea: in this view, the article would 
have its generic use. 


oXvov drink of the wine (here before you), hciiKoa rov fiiKovs I have heard the 
song (just sung), ifioi\ero r^y fJtdxny rotijirai he desired to engage in the (ex- 
pected) battle : ^particularly, as hatural, usual, proper, necessary, etc., 

under the circumstances : al rifuH firfd\Bu, &y iaroKretrp rts r^pamwf if one 1M 

Digitized by 



a tjfrant, the honors (nsuallj resulting) are greats y4yQir6 fui rhs xipncis &«-•- 
Zowtu irarpl be it mine to return the (proper) thanks to a father ^ rh fi4pos rwp 
ip^^w oif >jat$^p iar^Turt r&s 'rtyroKOO'itu ^oajcfuis not having received the (requir- 
ed) /roc/ton of the votes (regularly cost), he paid the (prescribed) 600 drachma/t. 

d. as SPECIALLY BfiLONQiNG TO Iv OBJECT mentioned in the context. The 
Greek generally uses this form for an unemphatic possessive pronoun : Kvpos 
KQ:ra!rtfififfas h.'wh rov ipfAoros r^y Mpatca itfUv Cyrtu leaped down from his 
chariotf and put on his Ireaatplatef oJvos iy r^ vt^ ohK teri there is no wine in 
the (wine-) cask, 

e. as a specimen of its class, selected at pleasure. In this use, the 
article is often equivalent to an imemphatio each : I8«»jv« rola fifiiiap^iKii rov 
fiTivhs r^ trrpartArp he gave three half-daries a month to each soldier (lit. the 
month to the soldier). This use approaches very closely to the generic article. 

526. A NUMERAL may hare the article, when distinguished as a part from 
the whole number (expressed or understood) to which it belongs : iir^o-ay r&v 
x6xonff Zixa tvrttv^ al rptts of the companies, being ten (in number)^ there were 

absent (the part) three^ rh 8^ /u^pir two thirds (two parts out of three). So 

too, an approximate round number, as distinguished from the (unstated) precise 
number: kwi&aifov kfu^ re^t fivplovs there fell about ten t/iousand.-'^A number 
as such (without reference to any thing numbered) may have the article : /a^ 
ipeh Zri rh, Z^exi 4art Sit e( will you say that (the) twelve is twice sixf 

a. So too, the article is used with adjectives of number, as of irXcMrrox the 
most numerous part, the largest number (in a given total), of nXiov^s (the more 
numerous part) the majority, and with much the same meaning ol iroxxol (the 
numerous part) the larger number, often used for the democratic mass, cf. ol 
Myoi the oligarchs. Also, rh woX^ the great part. Of trepot the one or other 
of two parties ; ol JiXKoi the rest, but tKXoi others, 

529. B. Generic Abticle. This must often be left imtrans- 
lated in English : 

b iifdrpsnros ^inrr6t iart man is mortal, tis iraiBts ol yiporres old men are 
twice boys; and generally so, when applied to abstract nouns: 4 HiKOMolmi 
justice, if yempyla husbandry, ^ ^opu^ rhetoric, i\X* ol icivoi rlKTovtrt rii» e^ 
to|f or but toils beget good reputation. 

a. To this head belong the cases in which a single object forms a class by 
itself: iiyri the earth, 6 itKtat^s the ocean, 6 1i\u>f the sun, 4i atK^rn the moon, 
6 fiopdas the north wind, 6 vSros the south wind, etc. These, however, often 
omit the article, like proper names. 

530. Abticls Omitted. In many cases where the article could have 
been used with propriety, it was omitted, either because the dcfiniteness of 
the subject was not thought of, or because it seemed unnecessary to ex- 
press it. This was most frequently true of the generic article, and espe- 
ciaUy with abstract nouns, when used to express a mere idea : dptponov 
y^vxtj rov 3c(ov /icrcvct the soul of man partakes of the divine^ <l>6pos fivrjfiijp 
cWx^o-aci fear drives out recollection : for the divinity (in general) Scdi 
is used, but 6 i€6t the (particular) god. 

a. Proper names of persons and places, being individual in their nature, 

are usually without the article ; vet they often take it, to mark them as before 

mentioned or well known (627 a), and sometimes for other reasons : trt robs 

oTpoTM^raf axnUp leapk Kk4apxop dircAd^rrof cXa Kvpot rhu K\4apx'>^ ^X"^ ^ 



Digitized by 



eaute their sddUra^ who had gone to Clearchue, Cyrt$e allowed (the said) d^ 
archue to retain; 6 TlKirwy the celebrated Plaio, in plur. with geDeric article 
ol UXjirtav^s the Flat6'$f philosophers like P/oto.—'— Plural proper names of 
NATIONS or FAMiUES more often tkave the (generic) article ; yet are frequently 
without it : rhy ir6?iMfioy r&y UtT^joroyrticict^ Kol *A^va/c0y the war of the Pelo- 
ponneeiane and Athenians (the article is here omitted with the second genitive, 
on account of the close connection, cf. ol orpartfyoX koX Koxotyol the generals 

and captains). ^BooriXc^i , used almost as a proper name for the kine of 

Persia^ may omit the article ; cf. irpvrdyeis the prytdnes (officers in Athens). 

b. Similarly, the article is omitted in many common designations of place 
and TIME, made by such words as JSurrv, ir6\tSj city^ iucp6iro\is citadel^ Ayopdforum, 
reixos waUy ffrpar^tZov camp, irt^iov plain^ iLyp6s country, 7^ lavd, h^jixurera 
sea, — 9cC<^ iipurrtod, right, left (hand), Sc^t^y, elft&yvfioy {leipas)^ ^ht, left (wing\ 
ILiffov centre, — j^/icpa day, yi^ night, ?«9 mom, Bp^pos day-break, 8e(\ij afternoon, 
kffic4pa evening, llap spring, — and the like,— especially after prepositions or ad- 
verbs : elf MTV to town, Kctrk yriv by land, M 96pv to the (spear-side) right, 
trap* dunriSa to the (shield-side) left, eb^gyvfAoy eXxoy they held the left wing, i/m 

4lft4pa at day-break, vuktSs by night, b^ l« j%ut before day-light. These 

should perhaps be regarded as relics of earlier usage, which remained unaffect- 
ed by the developed use of the article. 

c. The omismon of the article may hare emphatic force, attention being 
given whoUy to the proper meaning of the word, instead of its particular re- 
lations ; especially in copulative forms, as ytfytuKts ical wiuScs women and child- 
ren, i^vx4 Kol c&fM soul and body, oOre iteerpbs ottre finr^s ^(Serai he spares 
neither father nor mother (more forcible than his father, his mother), 

531. Articlb wrrn AxTBiBUTrvKS. When a sabstantive, 
qualified by an attributive, requires tiie article, this is always 
placed before the attributive. 

This remark applies not only to adjectives, but also to a participle, an ad- 
verb, and (usually) a preposition with its case, when used as attributives ; but 
much less consUntly, to the attributive genitive : thus 1^ rov wrpbs oUla and 
if oUla ^ rev 'warp6s the father's house, yet often i^ oUla rod merpos (but rarely 
1^ iwifiovXii bwb rtis yvyauc6s the plotting by the woman, for ii Ir.ii bwh etc.). 

532. A. Usually, the attributive stands between the article and sub- 

rb, fuucpb. relxn ^^^ ^<^9 ioallsy ^ wpordpa 6\tyapx(a the earlier oligarchy (fol- 
lowed by another oligarchy), ^ icp6r€pov bKiyapxia the earlier oligarchy (follow- 
ed by a different form of goverDment)^ ^ ka^' iifiipw rpo^ the daily food. 

a. When an attributive participle has other words depending on it, cither 
these words or the participle may follow the substantive : al bw^ Ahrxlyov fiJuf 
a^fdau elprifidrtu the slanders uttered by Aeschines, 6 icarciXiy^s Kty^vyos t^» 

wixiy the danger which has overtaken the city, When the attributive parti* 

ciple has a predicate-word connected with it, this is commonly put before it : 
6 erparriyiKhs vofufffAtyos iu^p the tnan considered aefit for a general, rb Korv- 
Xcuot* KoXo^tiMyoy 6pos the mountain called Cotylaeum, ol abrol IfduniK^es those 
who fiave themselves done wrong, 

b. When two attributives precede the substantive, the article is not usu- 
ally repeated with the second : ol &AA01 woAAol ^'bmiaxot the other nwneroM 
aUies, ol M rod fififiaros irap* 6fjuy xAyot the speeches before you on the bana^-^ 
yet also 4 'Arruej^ i woXoiib ^H) the ancient Attic speech. 

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533. B. Less often, the snbstantiTe stands first, followed by the 
article and attributiye : (6) dvrip 6 ayaSo^. The latter is then less closely 
connected with its subject, and has the general nature of an appositive. 
The substantiye itself may appear either with or witkcmt the article, viz. 

a. WITH the article, when this would be required, even if tfae attributire 
were dropped : ol Xioi t^ rc<xos vcptciXoy t6 Kaiy6y the Chians threw down (the) 
their wtfly the fuw one. 

b. WITHOUT the article, when this would not be required, if the attributive 
were dropped : rl 9ia^4p€t &y^pwiros iucpariis driplou rod iucpar€ffrdTOu how does 
a violent man differ from the most violent wild beast (but without the attributive, 

534. a. In general, any word or group of words standing "between the 
article and its substantive, has the force of an attributive (492 d). Ex- 
cept, however, the particles /mv, dc, ye, re, ydp^ bfj : t6v /xci^ aubpti, rqv Bt 
yvifaiKtt^ — but with a preposition, npos &€ t6p avhpa or irpbt rbu fiyBpa dc 
(jrpos rov d< avbpa^ rare in prose) : — also, in Ionic, rn : ruy ns Htpa^utif 
one qf the Fersiane, 

b. In most instances, where an attributive is used as a substantive (the 
subject, especially the indeterminate subject, being omitted), the article is found 
before the attributive, see 496 a. 

535. Article with Prkdicate-Nouns. a. The predicate-noun, in 
general, rejects the article : av'Sipwro^ ct thou axt a man. Hence we may 
distinguish subject and predicate in sentences such as npob6Tris ^v 6 arpa" 
nryAs the general mas a traitor. 

The reason is, that, in ordinary predication, the subject is said to be (or iMi to 
be) AM individual of the class denoted by the predicate. But if the subject is said 
to be THE individual or the class, distinguished from others, the predicate-noun 
may have the article : rh» A4^iinrov iunucaXovpTts rhy rpoddrviy calling Dexippus 
the (notorious) traitor, ol Ti^4p.tyot rohs y6/Mvs ol iur^wtis liy^pwroi slai km ol 
iroXXol the enactors of the laws are the weak men and the mvititude (as a class). 

b. The predicate-adjective (or participle), if connected with a sub- 
stantive which requires the article, cannot stand between the article and 
substantive (534), but must precede or follow both of them : dya^bi 6 dvrip 
or 6 dvTfp dyc&os the man is good. 

rh ff&pa byrrrhv firorrcs ^x°ftty we all have our body mortal {the body, which 
we all have, is mortal), axnhs iya^hit ahv hyoAoXs roU rap* iyuol good myself , 
with the men about me good (while my attendants are good), ifia r^ ^pt iipx^- 
fUy^ at the beginning of the spring (when it was beginning), ol 'Adriycuot rap' 
ix^yrvy r&y ^vfiftdx^y r^y nyefiovlay iKafioy the Athenians received the leader- 
ship from their allies acting willingly (these were willing to confer it), ir6<roy 
ftyci rh trrpdrsufM hoto large is he leading the army (the army, which he leads, 
IB how large)? iy bxoi^ fyyu 'c^ ^vrtitiy oUa I know in what kind of soil one 
must plant (of what kind the soil is, in which one must plant). 

536. Article with Adjectives op Place. Some adjectives of place, 
used in the predicate position, refer to a part of the subject : 

fUffri rj x&pa or ^ x&pa iiitrri the middle of tlie country ^ but ^ /i/irn x^P^ '^ 
middle country (between other countries) ; trxoroy rh ipos or rh tpos terxflxoy 
the extremity of the mountain, but rh tcxvroy tpos the extreme mountain (of 


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Beyeral mountains) ; ixpa fi x^^P or i^ x*^P ^P<'^ ^^ paint of the hantL ^lo 

tike manner, lifuavs i fitos or i 0los lifiurvs haifofthc life. 

537. Article with iras akd Zkos. The adjective vas (strengthened £«vf, 
ffufivas) all has usually the predicate pomtion, but sometimes the attributiTC, 
with little difference of meaning : irdyrts ol iroATrcu all the citizenty ol woJCtroi 
rdrr€s the eitizem all; less often ol wdtfrts rnXSrat the whole body of citizens 
(cf. ol Tdyrts with numerals, kicarhv ol vtUrci a hundred as the whole number, 
a hundred in all). Without the article, vdrrts woJurat all citizens ; and in the 
sing., irof iroXinff every citizen. Yet the sing, may mean all : rSo-oy d/uV t^v 
&A.^ciay 4p& I will tell you ell the truth ; so even without the article: wAarp 
Tpo^fda with cUl zeal^ els iirtunv ^emhj&nrra to (all) utter meanneee. 

Similarly, ti\os whole : 2Xn i^ leSXis or ^ ir6\is HXn the city as a whole, ^ SXn 
T62as the whole city, ^ t6\u ^ 5Xiy the city the whole of it; without article, SXif 
rd^Ait a whole city. 

538. Article with Pronouns, a. Substantires with ode, ovror, €«<- 
vof, require the article, and the pronoun takes the predicate position: 

S8c 6 ki^p this man, rh Tpdyitara ravra these affairs (the subst, if used 
without the article, is a predicate : iv n4poms v6fios ierlp olros among the Per- 
sians this is a law). The same is true of Aft/^f hfju^epos^ both, Itedrspos each 
(of two). 'EKoaros each (of several) has the same position, if its substantive 

takes the article : iKdani ^ Vx4 ^^^ magistracy : and this is likewise true 

of the genitives of personal pronouns {jxov, cov, aJbrov, iifiAp, etc.) when con- 
nected with a substantive which has the article (while the reflezite genitives, 
ifuufTOVf etc., have the attributive position) : ^ yXSoretd erou thy tongue, furs- 
r4fv^o 'AffTvdyfis riiv iavrov ^vyar4pa ical rhv iteu9cl aibriis Astyiges sent for 
his daughter and her boy. 

Yet if the article is followed by an attributive, most of the above pronouns 
may stand between the attributive and its subject: {lynrr^ir t^w fdaw ixtinff 
iroXirtiajf we must seek for that one polity, i^ ircUcu ^/idr ^{mtis our old nature. 

b. The pronoun aMs, in the predicate position, means ipse ; in the 
attributive, idem: ain-bi 6 dvrif} or 6 avrfp avrSt the man himself; but 6 
avTOi atnip the iame mariy rarely (6) dv^p 6 avros. 

c. The possEssiTB pronouns take the article, only when a particular 
object is referred to : tfios <^tXof a friend ofmijiej 6 ifibs ^iXor my friend 
(the particular one). 

d. An iMTEAROOATrvE pronoun may take the article, when it relates to an 
object before mentioned : vdax^i S^ ^a»pMrr6v • rb rl ; A. Me suffers something 

wonderful. B. (The what) What is it f So, even a personal pronoun : 8cvpo 

S^ ^b$A 4iftMtf • vapb, rtyas robs bf»,as{ A. Come hither straight to vs. B. (To the 
you being whom) Who are you, that I must come tof 

e. "Erepos (Lat. alter) one or other of two ; 6 Zrepos the Ofie, tJie other ; ol 

h-€poi the one, the other (of two parties), may mean the enemy. "AWos (Lat. 

alius) another, 6 iXXos the other, ths rest : ^irdprrip r« koI riiy ftXXi^y 'EAA^a 
Spartaj and the rest of Greece ; often used for aU except a part mentioned 
AFTERWARD : T^ pXv &AAy ffToar^ ^lo^aftv, ^Karhy b^ ire\racrhs irpotr4fiir€i 
with the rest of the army he Kej>t quiet, but sends forward a hundred peltasts. 

T hese pronouns have sometimes an apposftite relation to their substan- 
tives: ol woAirai moI ol (lAAoi ^4yoi the citizens and (the others, being foreigners) 
the foreigners beside, yipmp x^P** M^* Mpov vswiov an old man comes 'with 
(a second person, a young man) a young man beside. 

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639. SuBjacT-NoMiNATivE. The subject of a finite verb is 
put in the nominative. (For the rule of agreement, see 497.) 

540. PitEDicATE-NoMiNATivB. The predicate-nouu, when it 
belongs to the subject of a finite verb, is put in the nominative. 
This occurs with verbs which mean to be^ become, appear, bi 
made, chosen^ called, considered, and the like (of. 490) : 

Ka^ltrroTtu ficuri\€i&s he becomes (established as) king^ *A\4^w9pos Ms itvo- 
fjLd(ero Alexander was named a god^ ^Mis fiot <rwH\p tmm art come for me as a 

savior. To these verbs belongs iutoCtg to hear^ in the sense of being called : 

ol iy 'A^vais ^iXiinr/^oinrci ie6\aK€S Koi ^€ots ix^P*"^ fJKovov those in Athens, 
who favored Philip^ were called flatterers and enetnies of the gods. 

541. Nominative por Vocative. The nominatiTe is often used for 
the vocative in address, especially in connection with o^ror ; 6 "AttoXXo- 

dapos o^ror, ov Trept/xcwlf you Apollodorus there, will you not stay f 

also in exclamations : vrimosfool/ 

642. NouiNATiYs Independent. The nominative is used for names and 
tiileS) which form no part of a sentence : K6pov 'Aydfiatris Expedition of Cyrus, 
BtfiKiow Upwro¥ Book /^r<^;— -and sometimes so, even when they become 
part of a sentence : ttpos^lky^ riip r&v tromip&y jvou^y iwuvvfiiaVf aVKOipJamfis 
he obtained the eommon appellation of the vile, ** sycophant,''* iraptyy^ 6 Kvpos 
ff^ifdiffm^ Ze^i i^mMxoa koI ^c/u&y Cynts gave out, ca pass-tpord, *^Zeus, our 
ally and leader.** 


543. The person (or thing) addressed is put in the vocative. 

a. In Attic prose, & is usually prefixed ; but in animated address, it is 
sometimes wanting : fiii ^vfieire^ A ftySpcs 'A^traiot make no noise, O men oj 
Athens, iucoitts^ ^JUrxJitnt hearest thou, Aeschines / 

b. The vocative, like the interjections, forms no part of a sentence, and is 
therefore enclosed in commas. 


544. The accusative properly denotes the OBJBcar of an action, that 
to, on, or over which an action is directed $ thus 

The DmBcr Object of a transitive verb is put in the accusa* 
tive : 

6 Ms ff^{ft iifjMs 49 Ktp96tfoi5 the god preserves us in dangers. ^For omit' 

eion of the object, see 505 : for omission of the verb, see 508. 

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a. Many Greek yerbs are transitive and followed by an object- 
accusative, when the yerbs commonly used to render them in English are 
intransitive and followed by a preposition: 

ifiyvyai rohs ^to^s to swear hy the gods, c3 (kok&s) rouuf rohs iiy^p^ovs to 
do good (ill) to men, fiiyttv rwd to tcait for one, <p€iytuf riyd to fiee from one, 
XoM^^tiv rufd to escape the notice of one, 4»vXdrr€<r^at riya to guard (himself) 
against one (act. <pv\dTr€iy rivd to guard one), al8c(<r^ai, aicx^t^ff^^ai rhv varipa 
to feel ehcane before his father, ^ap&uy ram to rely on one, ^affieiv rks ftdxas to 
have no fear of the battles, nXtTy riiy ddXMrtray to sail over the sea, vikay fidxfiv 
(UmiVt yy^/jLtip) to be victorious in a battle (a lavhsuit, a resoltUion). 

b. Conversely, many Greek verbs are intransitive' and followed by 
a genitive or dative, when the verbs commonly used for them- in English 
are transitive : 

&f>X^^*' &y^p<l^»y to rule men, ivrtir^at rijs nip^iis to touch the hay, iuco^€Uf 
^opvfiov to hear a noise, T€\d((ty ry €ls69(fi to approach the entrance, iiffiiyeiy rois 
^iKois to aid /its friends, ^oycTf rois irKova'iots to envy the rich. 

c. In many cases, the Greek itself varies, using the same verb at dif- 
ferent times as transitive and intransitive : 

altr^dytff^al ri or rivos to perceive something^ iy^vfitTc^ai riyos, rt to consider 
something, iyox^f'^y rwa, riyi to trouble one, iirt<rTpaT€6€ty riyd, rivl to war against 
one (so too, other compounds of ^irQ, Je? jxol riyos J have need of something, 
poet. Set ixp^) fii riyos. Especially in poetry, verbs usually intransitive some- 
times take a direct object : irpo&alyuy rhv 'ir6Za to advance the foot, ^tr^tu or 
^dacrtiy {KeTa^i, inibay) riwoy rwd to sit {lie, leap) in a place, xopt^^eiy rhy My 
to celebrate the god by- choral dance, rohs tuirtfifTs i^eol MiffKoyras ov xc^P<>v0'< 
the gods rejoice not in tfie death of the pious. 

d. Many intransitive verbs become transitive from being compound* 
ed with a preposition : 

Ziafiaiytiy rhy irorafUy to cross the river, iK0aiy€ty r^y fiXtxtay to pass wU of 
the age, vapafiaiyeiy rohs ySfiovs to transgress the laws, iLvoB^^poKSres varifMS 
having run away from their fathers. 

e. In rare cases, an intransitive verb in connection with a verbal noun, 
forms a transitive phrase with an object-accusative : hrurHiftoyes ^tray rh wpoi- 
•flKoyra they were acquainted with tluir duties, tari rh fitr4o9pa ^poyrurHis he is 
a studetit of things above the earth, ^apyoy elyai r^v dlairay to reject the settle- 
ment, r€^ydyai ry ^6p<p rohs &f}fialovs to be mortally afraid of the TItebans, a\ 

^v^ifMs {iart) is Me to escape thee ; so, in poetry, ct 5/ /i* 58* &c2 Kllyois 

e^ripX^s if you always thus begun your addresses to me, 9€<nr6ray y6ois xardp^a 1 
will begin with lamentations for my master, 

545. Adverbs of Swearing. N^ and pM are followed by the accusative 
(perhaps on account of opLWiii understood) : vf^ is alvrays affirmative ; 
jLta, unless vat precedes it, is always connected with a negative, expressed 
or implied : vri Aia by Zeus, va\ fia Aia yea^ by Zeus, ov /xa Am no, by Zetts^ 
ua Tov-^ov (TV ye not you, by — (the name of tho god si^)pressed with 
humorous effect) : rarely is /xd omitted after the negative as in ov, ruvd* 
OXvpLTTov no, by this Olympus. 

The accusative is sometimes found in other exclamations: olrot^ 2> vi 
Toi y<nL there, ho ! you, I mean. 

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646. AocirsATivi: op Effect. Many transitive verbs have, 
as direct object, the thing effected or produced by their action : 
ypa^ct TT^v cirioToXiJv he writes the letter. But many verbs, not 
properly transitive, take an accusative of the effect, denoting 
that which is made to exist or appear by their action : 

rpco-^c^ciy tlftivriv to negotiate a peace (form a peace by acting as embass- 
ador), ZpKui r4ftyeuf/oedu8/erire (hOBtiam feriendo foedus efficere), xopnyovrra 
itoiffl Atotfiirta ceUHrating the Dtonyeia by furnishing a chorus of boys, poet. 
1j9« (ri &Mipxta) rpofwks Karaf^^yyvat this (anarchy, breaks defeats) causes defeats 
by breaking ranks. ' 

Closely connected with this use is the following : 

647. CoGNATE-AcccsATTVE. This Tcpcats the meaning of the 
verb in the form of a noun. It might be called the implied ob- 
ject, as being already contained in the verb. It is used with 
many intransitive verbs, and commonly has an attributive con- 
nected with it. Here belong 

a. AccusATiTS OF Kindred Formation: fidxn^ ifidxavro they were fighting* 
. a hattUf irofiv^y irtfiirtiy to conduct a procession, KOKiornv tovXtlay iMKtwre he 

became subject to a most teretehed servitude, ts tiM kpiarny fiov\iifr fi^vXe^erii who- 
ever may (counsel) give the best counsel, rifv iyavriatf y6<rov yotroviuv tee are (sick) 
suffering under the opposite disease, fieydkiiy riyh Kpttrtv Kpiverai fie is unaergo- 
ing a great trial, 

b. AccuBATiYE OF KiNDRED MEANING : ("i^creis fiiop updruTTOv you vfill lead 
the best life, irAiryj^y rlnrrtrai fiapvrdrriv he is struck a wry heavy blow, vdaas 
rSo'ovs Kdftyei he is sick with all diseases, ir6XMftoy iarpdrtv^ay rhy Upby KoAo^ftc- 
yoy they engaged in the so<dlled Sacred war, ypa^y Hi^Ktty to prosecute an twi- 
peachment, 4<may ydftovs to (entertain) give a wedding-feast. 

In many cases, the meaning of the verb is not actually repeated as a 
noun, but must be understood in connection with the accusative of an 
adjective or qualify ing substantive. Hence two more forms of the cognate- 
aocusatiye : 

c. Neuter Adjective. For the indeterminate subject, we may supply the 
repeated meaning of the verb : fiiya ^'c^trcu (= fiiya tfrcOSos ^c^Strai) he utters 
a great falsehocd, irivra ir^ltroiuu I shall obey in all things (render all acts of 
obedience), ravr& AuiroD/uu ical ravrk x^^tw rots iroAAoif J have the same pains 
and tfte same pleasures with the multitude, <r/uKp6y ri hwopS I am in sonne little 
perplexity, ri xp^^ofuu roin^ what use shall I make of this f poet, fftfu^hy fi\^weis 
you look grave, 

d. (^ALirriNo ScBSTANTiTE. This may be regarded as standing in defi- 
nitive apposition, its subject (understood) being the idea of the verb, repeated 
as a noun : iBymylCoyroi rdKipf they contend in (a contest, itiywya, viz.) wrestling, 
rothoy rhy rpowoy trpd^as having acted in this manner (of action), Hm. irvp o^oA- 
^ioiai B§dopK6s looking (a look of)Jire with their eyes, Hm. fi4yta icyttoyrts *Axaiol 
the Aehaeans breathing courage. Cf. 501-2, though the substantive there is less 
closely related to the verb of the sentence. 

548. The cognate-accusative is also used in connection with a^jceiives: 
mStakhs ifaffay KoxUty bad with all badness, iyadhs irturay iLprr^y good 'oith all ex^ 

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edlence ; especially the accusative of neuier adjectires (547 c) : b rdrra 

ffo^s iroiTirfis the poet wise in all things, iiya^hs rovro good in this particular 
(of goodness), ^ ir6Xis riii&y oMy dixota yiyoycy iKtlyois our city is not ai aU lik* 
them, Sffa fioi xp^ctfiol i<rr€ o78o / know for how many things (uses) ye are lu^ 
ful to me. Yet these constructions might be referred to the following head. 

549. Accusative of Specification, The accasative is loosely 
connected with predicate-words (verb, adjective, substantive), 
to specify the part, property, or circumstance, to which they 
apply. It is also, but less often, used with attributives. The 
accusative specifies 

a. a part of the subject : Kdfxyw r^y kc^oX^k / Iiave pain in my heady f9 
fxo/ici' rk fftafLora we are well in our bodies, poet. rv^Khs rd r' ^ra r6v tc vouk 
Tct T* iiiftar* cT you are blind in your ears, your mind, and your eyes, 

b. a property of the subject {nature, form, size, name, number, etc.) : irAij- 
^65 ri rijy ^Oo-iy iffrly ^ WAu the city is in its nature a multitude, irap^4vos 
KoX^ Tb ^Thos a maid beautiful in her form, vorofibs, KvSyos SvofiOj ^Ipos S^ 
T\4^p(ay a river, Cydnus by name, of two plethra in breadth, iireipot rh vA^dos 
iiifinite in their number, tiKcuos rhy rp6iroyjust in his character. 

c. a circumstance not belonging to the subject : rh ixtiyou fx^y cvrvxm 
fi4pos thou art fiappy, so far as he is concerned (as to his part), xett rh /wcpit 
ir€tpufJMt &irb ^t&y dpfiatr^ai even in little things, I endeavor to begin with the 
gods, 17 triXis ^tpiirny rk Ttpl riiy x^P^ ^7^^ l^ city enjoys peace in tilings re- 
lating to its territory, rh irar* ifi^ oiti^y iWdt^ei on my side there shall be no 

560. Accusative of Extent {Time and Space), The extent 
of time and space is put in the accusative. 

a. Time : iyrav^ Kvpos Hfittysy iifi^pas ir4yrt tliere Cyrus remained Jive 
days, td ciroyBeti iyuan-hy (aoyrai the truce will be for a year, SovAc^ovo-i rhy Xotwhy 
fiioy they are slaves all the rest of their life, 

b. Space : Kvpos ^|cAa<^ci Hth rrjs AvBtas ffra^fiohs rpus, mpcurdyyas ^Kom 
ffol 9^0 Cyrus advances through Lydia three days^ marches, twenty-two parasanas, 
Mtyapa &ir^x*< 'ivpaKOva'wy oCrs vXovy iro\hy oths My Afegara is not far ais* 
tantfrom Syracuse, either by sea or by land (no long voyage or journey). 

Rex. c. The accusative singular is used with an ordinal numeral, to show 
the number of days (months, years) since a particular event, including the day 
(month, year) of the event itself: ifi96fiyiy ^fi4pay ii ^vydrmp abr^ ^TereXcvr^icet 
his daughter had died the seventh day (L e. six days) before. The pronoun obrod 
is often added : ^(^Ado/Acy frot rovrl rpiroy 4s Udyaicroy we went out two years 
ago (this, as third year) to Panactum, 

561. Object of Motion. The poets often use the accusative without a pre- 
position, to denote the object towards which motion is directed : rh KoiXoy "Ap- 
70s fids having gone to the hollow (low-lying) Argos, rov k\4os obpatfhy Ticcc Am 
fam£ has reached to heaven, turnarrjpas i^iKtro we came to the suitors, trh rdV 
iXilKu^t Toy Kpdros this whole power has come to thee, 

y 662. Adverbial AocirsATrvs. The accusative is used in many 
^ words and phrases, with the force of an adverb. 

Digitized by 



This use may be explained, in most cases, by the principles already giTen 
(647-50, cf. 601-2). Thus rSy^t (rovrotf) rhy rpSroy in this manner (647 d), 
wdrra rp6iroy in every manner^ %v rp6vov in which manner, etc. Compare 
phrases in which 6My way is perhaps to be supplied (609 a) : r^y raxttrrriy r^ 
tr^fun-i x^^C^f*"^^ ^o grotifV ^he body in the quickest way. So (riiy) ipxh»^9 al- 
ways with a nei2;anTe : &pxV ^^ ^p^y qv rp4it€i riifi^ixaya it is not proper to 

chase impossibilities at all (not to make even a beginniog of it^ ; OKiuiiy 9i4- 

fimufoy they icere j-tut passing across (the acme of their crossing) ; and, in 

like manner, {rh) r4\jos at last (as^the end), vpouca and twpedif arcttis (as a free 
gift). Xipwfor the sake of (in favor of) takes a genitive, as also Sdcijv like (in 
the fashion of): kyytlov Ziicriy vrwKup&ardm to be filled like a pail, rov \jAyov 
X^<y/<T the sake of the disctusion, ifi^y xAp^* f^ ^V ^ake, 

a. Many neuter adjectives are used in this way : fi^yo, fieydXa^ greatly, 
voA^, w\^Af much, rh woX^, r& woAX^, for the most part, rpirtpoy before, rh 
vp^epoy the former time, tppmroy {ai) first, rb trp&roy the first time, rb Xonr6y 
for the rest, for the future (but rod Aonrov eU some time in the future), rvxiv per* 
hMS, TOffovToy so miuch, Zcoy as far as, r\ somewhat {iyy^s n pretty near), rl 
why {rl KAofcif why are you weeping /), towto, ravrUf therefore (avrk rovra yvw 
l^ofji^pfbr these very reasons are we now come), Cf. adverbs of the compar. and 
super!, degrees (228), and the cases of apposition in 602. 

For aocusative as subject of the infinitive, see 773. * 

For accusative absolute with a participle, see 792. 

Two Accusatives with One Verb. 

653. Double Object. Many transitive verbs may have a 
doable object, usually a person and a thing^ both in the accusa- 
tive. Thus verbs of asking^ teaching^ clothing^ hiding^ depriv- 
ing^ and others. 

Thus alT& to request {Kvpoy nKotd vessels of Cyrus), ipearm to inquire {robs 
abrofUXovs rh Ttcl r&y wo\tfiicty of the deserters as to the news from the enemy), 
btbdiriw to teach \rby vcuSa r^iy fiovffuthv the boy music\ rsl^ to persuade {pfias 
rhnanla you of the contrary), 4yiv» or hfiAi4yyvfu to dothe (riydt r^y xirdw one 
in tJie tunic), iMw to unclothe, strip (^/U r^v i^^nra me of the dress), Kpiwm 
to hide (fic rovro from me this thing), ii^povfuu or kroortoii to deprive {robs 
'EAXijyos r^y yiiy the Greeks of their land), ovXm to despoil, rpdrrofuu^ also 
frpdrrm or etrrpdrrm to exact {robs yrifft^as i^^iKoyra rikaana of the islanders 
sixty talents), hyofUfjtyfio'Kw to remind 

a. The passive of these verbs retains the aocusative of the thing : 
MdaKOfuu rriv fiovo'iKTiv lam taught music, a^^p/tfrai rby tmroy he has been 
deprived of the horse* 

Several of these cases, and of those in 666, might be explained by the prin* 
ciple, that 

664. Causativx Verbs, with the accusative of the person, take the case 
which belongs to the included verb. Thus Ayo^ow bitSa robs Kiy^^yovs J will 
cause you to remember the dangers. So, to ask is to make one give an answer ; 
to teach is to make one learn, etc. To the included verb may belong a genitive: 
yveuf ru^ rtfiiis to make one taste ofhonor^ fi^ fi' Aya^ops mutmy remind me 
not of evils. 


Digitized by 




656. Object and CoGNATB-AoctrsAHVE. Many transitive 
verbs may have, beside the object, a cognate-accusative : 

&pKMtray rovs trrpari^as rohs fitylffrovs BpKovs they made the solvere moear 
the greaieai oath,\ VliXiros lypi^ari fit r^y ypa/^v ravnfif Melitvs brought thU 
impeachtnent againet »w, Hm. iv Zeis ^iXmi murrolyip ^iXimtra fcr iehom Zeus 
feels all manner of love : ifi^ 6 iror^p riiy tvv iraitmf frpt^y my father reared 
me with tite training of the boySy Alax^tnis Krri<n^wTa ypoAifp irofKOf^fAmr cSiaMw 
Aeeehitua prosecuted Utesivhon on charge of an illegal resolution ; rf ris ri hyor 
b)iP % KOKhv 7rot'fi<rufv avriy if one should do him any good or evil^ woXXh iv ra 
Hx^t ^taKpdrriy iwaiy^oroA one would he able to bestow many praieea on BocroiM^ 
1lSuefiffa/i(y rovroy oMy we did this one no wrong. 

a. Such verbs in the passive may retain the oognate-accosative : 
Kpi'^TJvat, dfJi(f)OT€pas rar Kpiofit to undergo both the trials, rvTrrea^ai vevrff 
Kovra wXiTyap to be struck fifty blows, ov ffKa^jrorrai a(ia \6yov (547 c) they 
will not suffer injuries worth mentioning. 

656. Object AND PaEDiCATE-AccusATTVB. A predicate-noon, 
when it belongs to the object of a transitive verb, is put in the 
accusative. This occurs with verbs which mean to tnake^ show, 
choosif colly conaider^ and the like (c£ 490 c). 

trowvpMi riya ^tkov I make one my friend^ alpttadtd rira erparny^y to choose 
one as general^ irap^x^ ^fuunhy tinrttS^ I show myself ready to obey, 61 K6\Mt€5 
*Ak4^ap9poy ^€hy wy6fUL(oy his Haitertrs named Alexander a god^ ov re^s irXtftsra 
^X^^^ cu8atftoyeoY(irovs yofil^ot not those wfu) have most, do I consider as happiesty 

l\a/3e rovTo Bwpoy he took this <u a gift (but tovtq rh Iwpoy this gift). The 

predicate-accusative may be an interrogative pronoun : rl rovro wouits (as what 
are you doing this) what is tliis you are doing f rivas ro6s1f elsopHwho are these 
I behold i iro7a ravra Xiytis of what nature are these things which you are 
saying? of. 826 a. 

a. The predicate-accusative is often distinguished from the object 
by the absence of the article (535) : ra nepArra xp^H^ara vpayiMora cp^ovo*! 
they have their superfluous wealth for a vexation. 

b. In the passive construction, both of these accusatives become 
nominatives (540) : *AXcf ayd^or deor ^yopLd(tTo Alexander was named 
a god. ^ ^y : , t . ^' ' . 

"*" / ' D. GENITIVE. 

667. The genitive properly denotes, (a) that to which some- 
thing BELONGS ; also, (b) that fbom which something is sxpab- 
ATED. In the latter use, it corresponds to the Latin ablattvs. 

Genitive with Substantives. 

668. One substantive may have another depending on it in 
the genitive. 

Digitized by 




The two things, denoted bj the sabstantive and the depend- 
ent genitiye, may have a great variety of relations (expressed 
generally by English of). Thus the former may belong to the 

a. as a part of it: Genitive oftheWholCj or ff. Partitive. 

b. as composed of it : Genitive of Material 

c. as more definitely expressed by it : G. of Designation, 
(In a, b, c, the two things are more or less the same ; in the 

following, they are distinct :) 

d. as possessed by it : Genitive of Possession. 

e. as connected with it and pertaining to it, though not 
strictly in possession : Genitive of Uonnection. 

(The following may be regarded as special varieties of e:) 

f. as an aclion or attribute of which it is the subject : 
Genitive Sutjective. 

as an action of which it is the object : Gen. Objective. 
as produced or accounted for by it : Genitive of Cause. 
!• as measured by it in extent, duration, or value : 
Genitive of Measure. 
Rim. J. It is not intended here to give an exact analjsiB of the relations ex- 
pressed by the genitive with substantives ; but only to specify relations which 
the student may notice with advantage. 

It should always be remembered that the genidve does not express these 
relations dutinetly, but only the general idea of ^/on^in^/ which is common to 
all of them. Hence the same construction may sometimes be referred to dif- 
ferent heads, the two things having more than one relation to each other : 
thus in irS^os rod i»o^ay6ttros regret for the dead^ rov iiiFo^aySyros may be re- 
garded either as the caiMe of regret, or as the object regretted. 

659. Genitite Pastitivk. a. The part is most commonly expressed by a 
word of number or a superlative, the tohole by a genitive plural : iroAAol rci^ 
AbTpfolvr many of the Athenians^ trdrtftos r&p &5cA^«y tohieh of the two lyrothern^ 
vianrnv tpiaros beet of all men^ ol owovSaibi r&r woXjrAv the excellent among the 
citizenSf ruf^s r&y ^6poav some of the orators^ S^fMov hHip a man of tfie people^ 
/luephp ffiryov a little (portion of) sleepy Hm. Ka ^^dety divine among goddeseeSy 
^v fiiifw iitifyas it was the middle oft/ie day^ — fiiKrurros iavrov in his oest estate 
(lit. best of himself; the superUitive Preferring to the man in one condition, the 
genitive to the man in the sum of all his conditions). 

b. The genitive partitive is used (with the article) to denote the district or 
region to which a pUu^e belongs : Brjfiai r^i Bouartas Thebes in Boeotia, rris 
Xeptroy^o'ov iy 'ZKatovyri in Elaevs of the Cheirsonesus. 

c. The genitive partitive with neuter adjectives (496) often denotes de- 
gree : M fitia Svyd/Mws ix^PV^'^ ^^V advanced to a great {degree) ofpoufer^ 
clf rovro hyolas ^X^y to this {extent) of folly did they come^ iy ro&r^ r^i mpa' 
oTKev^s ^aay in this {state) of preparatton vfere they^ iy watrrl kokov in extremity 
of evil. 

d. If the word expressing part has the article, the genitive takes the po- 
sition of a predicate-adjective (585 b) : 6 rtraoTos rmy valZmy the fourth among 
the children, 'A^riwal^y 6 Sijfios the people of the Athenians (i. e. the democratic 
mass, opposed to the aristocracy ; but 6 ^A^yutmy S^/ms the whole people). 

Digitized by 


228 GENinvB WITH suDSTAimyES. [559 

c. Adjectives which have a partitive geniUve, usually conform to it in 
gender, bo as often to appear in the masc. or fern., where we might expect the 
neut. : 6 fifwrvs {6 \oiv6s, h wKtUrros) rov xp^yov the h(Uf{re8tj most part) ofihM 
time, iroXX^ r^r x^P^ {^^ ^^^^ "^^ X^P«*) »»wA of ^^^ country, 

560. Genitite of Material : y6fxurfut iipy&pou coin of tilver, Kpini ^S^t 
08aros a spring of sweet teatcr, fio&v &7/X17 a herd of caiile^ 'it\j\hQi ia^p^rmw a 
multitude ofmen^ ifitx^cu ffirov wagons (wagon-loads) of com, rpiaKScta rdXaurra 
^6pov three hundred talents of tribute, 8^0 kot^Xm oXvov a pint of wine. 

561. Genitite of Designation : rh Spot riis *lffr^s the mountain oflstcne^ 
u4ya xp^P^ ^f ^ (great affair) monster of a wild boar. This construction is 
chiefly poetic : Tpoiris vroTdt^poy city of Troy, ^aydrou r4Kos endofQiSe, L e.) 

662. Genitive of Possession : oUeta irarp6s a father's house, ol Krivot rw 
fiaari\4ws the gardens of the king, rk ^vty^icios fiaariKsta the palace ofSyennetis, 
rh Itphif rov *Aw6Wotifos the temple of Apollo. 

For the omission of a word in phrases such as ts 8c8airic(£\ov to the teaeher^s 

i house, school), iy^Aiiov in (the abode of) Hades, i^ 'Air6x\iBnfosfrom Apollo^ s 
temple), see 509 /3. 

668. Genitive of Connection : K^/iora t^j ^a>Jjaffri5 waves of the seti, 1^ 
KprtvU rov r^lxovs the foundation of the wall, ^ rod irtt^tiy rdxm ^ ort of per* 
suading, &pa iLpiarov time for breaifast. It is used especially with words which 

a. Connection in Family, Society, State, Army, etc. : 6 rris fiafftX^vs ywwr 
hbs &8eX^f the brother of the king's wife, olK^rris Arifioa'^4yovs a servant of De- 
mosthenes, iraipos Kifieovos a companion of Cimon, fiaa'i\€hs McuccSoyfof king of 
Macedonia^ ol iplKot{iro\4/juoi) K^oov tJie friends {etiemies) of Cyrus, ol KKsipxov 
arpari&rai the soldiers of Clearchus. 

For the frequent omission of vi6s in phrases like *A\4^atf9pos (6) ^thlmrov 
Alexander (the) son of Philip, see 509 fi. 

b. The genitive after the neuter article (with indeterminate subject, 496) 
is usually to be regarded as a genitive of connection, though sometimes denoting 
possession : rh rrjs ir6\ews the (affairs) of the city, rh riis r4xyris the {business) 
of the art, rh rris dXjyapxias the [constitution) of tJte oligarchy, rh rStv ^vpoKoaUtp 
the {resources) of the Syracusans^ &9ri\a rh r&v iro\4fi(oy uncertain are the {issues) 
of war, 864 ^4pety rh r&y dtuv tee must bear the (ordering) of the gods. In some 
such cases, the neuter article has little force : rh rrjs ^(vx^is (the soul with all 
that belongs to it) nearly the same as j^ ^x^. 

564. Genitivs Subjective : 6 ^60os r&y iroA.c/J«fr the fear of the enemy 
(which they feel), 6 ihraiyos rmy irptc$vr4pc9y praise of older persons (which they 
give), ii iroocfa rov /BotriA^wi the march of the king, ^ Kafiwp&rris rod orparf^fM' 
ros the brilliancy of the army, rh tZpos rod irorofiov the breadth of the river. 

665. Genitive Objective : 6 ^fios r&y iroKtfUwy the fear of the enemy 

i which is felt toward them), Jhcaufos r&y irpwfivr4pwy praise of older person* 
which is given to them), ^(^curif rwy 'lBJOJ\yvy a review of the Greeks, 6 ik^pos 
r&y arpariwr&y tite destruction of the soldiers. 

Otlier prepositions are often to be used in translating : ^t&y tbxal prayers 
to tfie gods, ij r&y Kp^uraSyuy 8ovXc(a servitude to the stronger, &^p/A^ ipyt»y oc* 
easionfor actions, tlfyota r&y ^iKuy affection for one's friends, ifiwtipia r&y wo- 
KepuK&y esmerience in the affairs of war, iyKpdrtta ^Soi^s moderation injpleatur; 
XiiTts ^aydrov release from death, hit6<rra(rts r&y 'Adrpfoimy revolt from^ the Athen' 

Digitized by 


672] OEKmTE WITH VBSB8. 229 

tmw, KpAros r^s doAiovqf power over the tea, kw^fictaa r^i yiis a deseetU upon 
the land, fil^ r&v woKerw (with violeDce toward the citizens) in spite of the J 
citizens, -^y 

566. Genitive or Cause : ypa^ KXarris an impeachment for thefty Uwo^v- 
ros *AM$aiiris Xenophon^s Anabasis (by Xen. as author), poet. Ndrov Kvyuara 
waves raised by the south wind, 

567. Genitive or Measure (Extent^ Duration, Value): trora/Ahs ^Zpos w\4- 
dpov a river of one plethrum in hreadth, rpiww tifitpwy 696s three days' Journey, 
/ua&hs rrrrdpmp lajiwv four months^ pay^ rptdKoiha rdKim»v oMa a property 
of thirty tatents, x<^v ZpajQiiip Mkii a suit for a thousand draehinae. 

668. The genitive or characteristic so frequent in Latin {vir summae prur 
dentiae) is rare in Greek prose, and scarcely found except as a predicate-geni- 
tive (572) : IflTi ro^ou rov Tp6irov, rris a&rris yy^fjtriSy rSv aantiv \iyuy he is of 
this eharaeter, of the same opinion, he uses the same language, poet. 6 riis ijau- 
Xias filoTOs a life of quiet = a quiet life, poet. rSjifiris irp6swwoy a front of 
audacity = an audacious front. 

569. Two Genitives with one Substantive. The Bame substantive 
may have two genitives depending on it, usually in different relations : 

T»y ky^pdnrtfiy 9ios rov ^aydrov (f and g) m^en^s fear of death, 9 A ri^y rod 
M/tov &irw<rty r&y yavaytoty (f and g) because the wifid drove the wrecks out 
to sea, Tmrov Zp6fios ^iiipas (f and i) a day's run for a horse, Aioy^o'ov irpeafixf 
r&y x^P^' (^ A^^ ^) ^ bionysiae chorus of old men, Ueyof&rros K6pov 'At^ifiaris 
(h and f ) XenophoiCs Expedition of Cyrus, 

Genitive with Yei'bs. 

570. The genitive sometimes appears to be connected with a verb, 
when it really belongs (as genitive of connection) to a neuter pronoun or 
a dependent sentence : 

rovro hiuSay fid\urra ^avftd(ofuy for this we most admire you (lit. this of you 
we most admire), rl tk X^ircoy ofc i but of horses, what think you f h St^icci Alir* 
X^i^i rov ^^lafiaros raxr^ iari the points which Aeschines impeaches in the 
decree, are these (lit. which points of the decree), ikyyoovftty &XA^XMy 8 ri kiyih 
fuy we misitnderstand each other's language, rov olxMe ifXov HitoKSirovy Sirp KOfw 
adiiaoyrag touching their homeward voyage, they were considering (this question) 
by what course they should return, 

571. Gbnittvb as SuBJKcrr. The genitive (used partitively) 
is sometimes found as the subject of an intransitive verb : 

o6 irport\Mi fioi rris ipxv^ I ^ve no part in the government (lit. to me be- 
longs not of the government), iy iXtyapxi^ ir4yri<riy oh /ifreori avyyy^fiJis in an 
oligarchy, poor men have no share ofin£dgence, obx hir4^ttyoy abrcty vXiiy cf rts 
bwh Teyeeermy there were not slain (any) of them except some one (slain) by the 
Tegeans, hrtfuyy^yai t^euray <r^y irpbs KapSo^x^' ^^^ ^^*^ ^^^ (some) of their 
number had intercourse with the Carduehians, In such cases the genitive might 
be regarded as depending on an omitted form of rlt. 

672. GwsmvK AS Predicate. With verbs of incomplete 
predication (490), the genitive is often used in place of a predi* 

Digitized by 


280 aENinyE with ybrbs. [57i 

cate-noun. The subject (or object) of the verb is thus brought 
into various relations with the genitive, — relations which cor- 
respond to those in 658. Thus we have the PKEDiCA^TE-GKNinvK 
ft. Partitive : ol Be<r<ra\o\ ruv 'EAA^ywy liaay the TheMolians (were of) 
belonged to the Helleneiy i^^v lEMKpiru rwy rptAKwra ytvicboi it wot in the 
power of EucrStee to become {one) of the thirty y tcrtv i^ n^Aoj riis VLwiriiviZos 
iror\ oivTit 7^1 Pylue belongs to what wm once the Meeeenian land. 

b. or Material: rh ruxos Afi^v irewolfirai the wall ia made ofetcne. 

c. OF Possession : ^ oixm rov crparvfov 4y4vrro the house beeame the gen- 
eroTe (property), iaurov tlyai (yiypeffSiai) to be (become) one^e own man = one*s 
own master. 

d. or Connection : rh woXXh &iro\wA.^y«u ri}s fifur^pas d^Xc/of &r rtt ^(ii 
SiKo/ws that many things are lost^ one might justly regard as {the fruit) of our 
neglecty rh vavruchv r^-xyns 4crl the navy is {a thing) of art. 

The predicate-genitive of connection is especially used to denote birth or 
origin : Aapttov ical TlapwrdrtBos yiyvorrai muScs 8^o of Darius and Parysatis 
are born two sons, Sovkv^I^jis ohtias ('K6Ktms) iJL^yiXus ^v Thucydides was of a 
great houu (city). 

e. Subjective: 6 K6yos AiifAOff^yovs iori the speech belongs to Demosthenes. 
The genitive in this use is often connected with an infinitive, and denotes one 
whose nature, habit ^ or duty^ it is to do something : iroXlrov hyvAov ro/jdCerai 
^af^fiy it ia considered {aa the part) of a good citizen to be courageous, rh rii 
ai<rxp^ eli6ra §u\afi(tv^ai ffo^v re Ktd tr^popos Mk^w^ to know and shun what 
ia ahamefid, lie judged {to be t/u part) of a wiae and discreet man, 

f. Objeciive : oit rvy K€Ucotpy»y oZicrof , &\\& riis 91k7is compassion is not 
for tlu evil-doer a^ but for justice, 

g. OF Cause : ^ ypa^h fcXor^s ^v the impeachment was for theft 

h. OF Measure {Extent, Duration, Value) : M rhy Eb^pdniy worafi6y^ iy- 
ra rh edpos rerrdp»y wA^idpwy to the river Euphrates, being (of) four plethra in 
breadth, Ijy irwy &$ rpiducoyra he toas (of) (tbout thirty years old, rh rlfiti/td ift' 
ri rh rijs x^P^^ k^oKisx^^v rakitrrmy the rateable property of the country is (of) 
six thousand talents. 

For the predicatc-gertlive of ciiaracteristic, see 568. 

Genitive as Object. 

573. Many verbs, which in Latin or English would take the accusa- 
tive, have the genitive in Greek, because the action is regarded as belong- 
ing to the object, rather than as falling directly upon it. Many verbs 
vary in their construction, see 544 c. 

The relations, expressed by the genitive with verbs, correspond, for 
the most part, to those of the genitive with substantives. 

674. The genitive is used with verbs whose action affects the 
object only in part (compare Genitive Partitive). Such are 
verbs of sharing (having, giving, or taking, part of something), 
touching Twhich affects only the surface), aiming (seeking to 
touch), enjoying (more or less of something), etc. Here then 

a. TsRBS OF SHABINO : ivbpdnrov ^x^ rov ^etov /ier4xei man^s soul has 
part in the divine (being) ; so /leraKeLftfidyw to receive part, fierailZv/u to giv€ 
part {riit Ketas riyt of the booty to some one), Kowmyiv to participate, and the like. 

Digitized by 




fi)l f^d^f KoLw^ai it is possible thai one touching fire should not he burned imme- 
diately ; 80 iwroiMif ^iv, to touchy tx"*!'^'* l<* ^^ ^^ l^i ^ ^^o*^ l^ ('>^' ir JAt«s 
the €ity)j iarr4xofJUUy ixtXafifidyofuu^ to take hold of^ &pxofuu to begin (r^j van- 
9€iaf the education). 

The Bame verb maj have an accusative of the person^ and a genitive of the 
part, touched : iXafioy riif i&mis rhv 'Op^ynjy tJtey took hold of Orontes by the 

S'rdie. So too, with verbs in which touching is only implied : iyei rris ^Wof rhy 
-woy he leads the horse by the bridle. The genitive of the part touched is seen 
also in Kwrwyivai (irvrrpifinpeu) r^s icc^oX^' lo ^o^e one*s head broken (bruised), 

c. Verbs of aiming, reaching, attaining : aroxi(ofuu to aim at (rov o-ko- 
»ov the m€ark)y 6p4yofMi to reach after (t«k &AAor/>W the property of others), i^- 
{i^)ucyovfuu to arrive at, attain (twk koXmp what is honoraole), rvyx^yw to hit 
upon, obtain {rtSy H^Xmy the prizes), Xayx^iyw to get by allotment, and in poetry 
Kvp4» to light upon. 

d. Verbs of enjoying : kvoXaiv to enjoy (ruy fieyiarwy iya^tSy the great- 
est advantages), svvxov rov KSyov feast on the discourse, iyhs iydphs td ^pori]- 
fforros ToXAoi hp hiroKav<F€uuF from one man who has thought loell, many might 
receive profit, 

e. Other Terbs, when their action affects the object only in part : rwy 
byMT^pvy iful 9i96yai to give me (some) of your property, Axtfi6yT(s rod $ap$apiKou 

arparrov having taken (part) of the barbarian army, i/plriirt rcSy atxiMK^wy he 
releases (some) of the prisoners, rtjs yris irefioy they ravaged (part) of the land, / ^ 
irlytty oTyoy to drink wine, but wty^iy oXyov to drink some wine, p 

676. The genitive is used with verbs which AgmSj fullneaa 
or tJie contrary (compare Genitive of Material), i. e. with 

Verbs of Plenty and Want : irlfiTXtiiu, irkfip6t0, to fill, irA^^w, y4ftM, to be 
full, 94ofuu (9fi fAoi) to want, rh, ^a iy4iFKri<ray 9atfju>ylas a-oipias they filled their 
ears with tUvine wisdom, ^iXanros xfiVf^rvy tuwSptt Philip had abundance of 
treasure, ov xpvo'lov irXovrfty, &\\& (»iis ityd^s to be rich, not in gold, but in a 
good life, cway fAtyos irXo^ov rify ^vx^^ having his soul glutted with wealth; 

voAAwjf iy4iti ain-^ he lacked much (provision), ol r(tpayyoi iwalvov oCiror§ 

avtty((rr€ you tyrants never have a scarcity of praise. ' 

Here belong eipressions such as ifit^a-^ri rov yitcrapos he became intoxicat' 
td with the nectar, 4 vir/^ ^ti fJuLKa ^XP^^ S^ros tfie spring runs with very cold 

a. The active 94», as a personal verb, is found only with genitives of quan- 
tity, iroXXov much, bklyov, fuxpov, little, roco^ov (also too'ovto) so much : toov^* 
rov 94et icara/ppoysty I am so far frofn despising ; also impersonally, iroWov Zet 
ofhwa fflnu it wants much of being so. >Vith omitted 9u, bxtyov and puitoov 
have the force of adverbs, meaning almost : irr»x^^* ^pi' ixlyov irJurras thou 
seest that nearly all are beggars. After a negative sentence, obV hxiyov Sci has 
the meaning, (nor does it want little) /ar/rom it; so ovZ\ woXXav 8ci (nor docs 
it want much, but rather every thing). For participle Z4tsy in designations of 
number, see 266. '" "^ 

576. The genitive is used with many verhs which sigfdfy an ' '' 
action of the senaes or the mind (compare Genitive of Conneo* 
tion) i. e. with 

Terbs of Sensation and Mental Action : htoUt, iucpodofjuu, to hear, ye^ 
fiat to taste (act to cause to taste), 6<r<ppalyo/uu to smell (for verbs of touching, 

Digitized by 



see 6t4 b), cdaddyofAM to perceive^ /u/Ay^mtofuu to rememher (act. to remind)^ iv^ 
Xav^difQfUu to/oTffet^ fi4XMt ftol tipos I am concerned for Momethiug^ iieruti4ku ftol 
Tiyos I repent of eomething^ hrifjitKofuu to take eare of, 4prp4wofim to refford^ 
ifi€\4» to neglect, 6Ktyttp£0 to think little of, 4pdm to love, iwtdvfjtdei to deeire, 
imyd» to hunger {xpfnv^'^^v for property), hv^£u to thirst {iKw^^as for freedom), 
mtpdofuu to make trial of, wwSldinfuu to be informed of (by inquiry) more comm. 
with the accusative. 

a. Manj of those verbs vary in construction : iiKoiw and iuepodo/uu to hear 
usually have the thing heard in the ace, the person heard in the gen. (perhaps 
gen. of source, 582) : iuco^tiy rhr 7<6yov to near the diecoursef but iuco^tw rw 
SiSfiuricitVov to hear the teacher, 

V 677. The genitive of cause (666) is used with 

a. Ykrbs of Emotion: ^v/ii(» tre r^s irw^povimis I admire thee for thy 
discretion, frvyxaipm r&v yty^yri/idtwif I share the joy for the things tehtch have 
occurred, rovrous (AicrelpM rijj 6yaif x^<*^' y6a-ou I pity these for their very 
severe sickness, &y iyt& coi ov ^droi^o'tf (for which things I shall not envy you) 
which I shall not grudge you, lira, x^l^*^^* yvyauc6s angry on account of a 

tooman, ^Here belong also hraum 'hxi^a^pow r^j elf rhv kraipov irlffrt^s I 

praise Alexander for his confidence in his friend, toD8* &v o&9ch MIkvs /lefi^^- 
t6 fun for this no one could justly blame me, cuScufioW^ciy ro^ r&r &7adwy to 
conaraiulate one on his advantages, avyyrfif^Ktuf airoTs xph ttis hrtdvfiias it is 
right to forgive them for the desire. 

b. Verbs or Judicial Action : KKowijs ypd^tc^ai aiirxp6p to be impeached 
for Vieft is disgraceftd, ^vw Zij&k€» to prosecute for murder ^ ^eiiyti mpajf6fjM» 
he is indicted for an illegal resolution, iirc^vyc iMK^rt^pUa he wu acquitted of 
slander, id?iM<raa^ trpoHoalas they were convicted of treason, ^oew 6^Ktiy to ineur 
a charge of bribery^ roW&y ol iraripts firi^urfiov ^ivarov Kariytwaeof our fathers 
passed sentence of death against many persons for favoring the Persians^ 

BardroVf used with such verbs, is a genitive of value, giving a measure of 
the judicial action : of'Zfopot rhif 2^o5^/ay bwijyor ^vfdrov the Ephori impeach^ 
ed Sphodrias on a capital charge. 

Rex. c. To these, add terbs of claiming or disputi^iq : firrawotovyreu kper^s 
they make pretensions to virtue, ovk iurrtwoio6fi^a PacriX^ rris ifx^t toe do not 
contend for the sovereignty against the king, ECfiokiros iifj^ur&irria'ty 'Zptx^'^ 
rrjs w6\€ws Eumolpus disputed with £reehtheus tJte possession nf the city. 

678. The genitive oi value (567) is used with 

a. Verbs of yalvino, butino, selling : 6 ^ov\ot wirre fu^r riftSxai the 
sUsve is valued at five minae, woKKev &wei<rhai to buy at a great price, raXjimov 
hirMo^ai to sell for a talent, <^la /a8' fiy&y broKUfA^yri a house moHgaged for 
44 minae, 

b. Sometimes with other verbs : XP^P^"^^^ iwucovptiy to help for *nonev, ol 
r^poMvot fuffhe^ ^^ikatens Ixovtf-' l^ tyrants have guards for pay, ir6<rov Md<rKu 
for how mueJi does he teach f wporhnrai rris wapavrlKa xfy^fos rh rijs T^Ketts 
irpdyfuira the interests of the city have been saerifieed for immediate popularity, 
r^F TopeunlKa ^Ar/Ba oOScv^f &\X^Trc<rdcu to exchange the hope of the moment 
for notliing. 

Rem. c. The thine rained is rarely put in the gen. (of cause) : ^UtKpdrjit 
oMra rfis avrovolashpyiptor Irpdrrero (668) Socrates for his society demanded 
. money of no one. 

Digitized by 


582] GENinVB WITH VERBS. 238 

579. The genitive is farther used (as an ablative caJ9e) to 

a. that FRO^ which something is separated: 

b. that FBOM which something is distinguished: 

c. that FROM which something proceeds. 
It is used, therefore, with 

580. 1. Vebbs of Skparation, i. e. verbs which implj removing^ restraining, 
rsieannffy eeoHnff, failing; also sparing (refraining from), yielding (receding 
from^, and many others : ^ yija'os ob iroKb tUx^t rijs iiirttpov the island is not 
far distant from the mainland, cl ^aXjirrris ^pyoirro if they should be excluded 
from the sea, fx^t robs iroXsfilous rijt tls rh irpStr^ty vap6Zov hi keeps the enemy 
from, advancing further, xp^^ iiKwd4pwr€ he freed (men) from debt, fiovXxtv 
hfjutprrifidreoy KaS!rap€iuv uiish to be clear from faults, tl KaraKvtuf irttpdirw^t rod' 
ray rijs ipx5* */ y* *^^' 'rV l^ P^ ^^»* *'*<*« out of his command, kw^ t^» 
Myrjs Koi yiyrtdt it rests from its pain and rejoices, ir^ti&ff^ rijs iXtrlios he was 
disappointed of his expectation, r£y iriai»dr»y h^tti^a'aprts $arri<raM rpAvaui 
having been unsparing of tJieir bodies, they set up trophies, rris ipyris iy4yrts 
resigning their anger, rijs ray 'EW^ywy i\€v^plets trapaxo^fnjcai ^cA/mry to 
surrender the freedom of the Greeks to Philip. 

a. Verbs of depriving sometimes take a gen, of separation (instead of the 
ace, 663) : rny AWooy h/^aipo^ii^yoi xf^fn^fa taking away property from the rest, 
ir6atsy hirwripfn^^; oby). ^mxios ; oh Uvkas: of how many things have you been 
bereft f of the Phocians, have you not? of Thermopylae f 

58 L 2. YiRBS OF Distinction, Superioritt and Inferiority : tta4>4p€t mfi- 
iroXh /ut^y /i^ fia^6yros one who has learned differs altogether from one who has 
not, 'EpfioKpdnis ^iytirty obdeyhs iKtlwero ffermocrdtes was (left awaj from) 
second to no one in understanding (in if &p«r^ rod irX^ovs rtpiylyyerai courage 
gets the better of numbers, cf ris Mpov irpo^4p(i liriariifiy if one is more advanced 
than another in knowledge, the gen. is probably owing to the preposition in the 
compound verbs). This construction is frequent with verbs derived from com- 
parative a^ectives : ri/uus roinwy iwKsoy^Krurt in honors you had the advantage 
over these men (but irA«oycirrc7y r&y rifi&y to have more of the honors, gen. part.), 
6ar€pl(ov«rt r&y wptey/tdrwy they are (later than) too late for their affairs, ijrra- 
ff^cu ray ix^9^^ (^^^ ^^ ^^'^ ix^f^^ ^^ '''^'' ^x^pois) to be worsted by their 
enemies ; yutaa^at to be vanquished has the same constructions as iirraar^tu. 

^Add farther 

a. YsRBS OF RULING AND LEADING: ^uoy rh i^€Xi6yrety fSkpx^^ it is divine to 
govern willing men, "'E.pns rSy ^mv /SmriXc^ct Love is Hna of the gods, UoAMKpd' 
rrjs "idfiov irvpdyyei PolycrHtes was tyrant of Samos, Aaxyit hrriwy iirrfwrflyti 
Laches was genercd of cavalry, Miytts rris ^akifftrns iicpdrrifff Minos became 
master of the sea, Xeiplffo^s rr/e'iro rov errpareifioTos Chirisophus led the army. ^ 
The gen. with these verbs is perhaps more properly explained by 563, 678. ^ ^ 

582. 3. Other Verbs, to denote the Source : ravra 94 troo rvx^yrss but ob- 
tainina these things of you, iaAS^s 94 fum ical rdBs but learn of me also these things, 
im/y^iyoyro ol 'ApmiSci r£y itfx^ Ueyo^yret, ri rh wpk Keawr$4auay the Area- 
dians sought to learn from those with Xenophon, why they extinguished the fires. 
In the above cases, the gen. might be regarded as depending, not on the verb, 
tut on the ace. or sentence which forms its direct object (570) ; in other cases, 
it might be taken as gen. absolute with a following participle (593): si yiyy^ 
enssis itiov ^bryyofUm if you understand from my statement. 

Digitized by 



a. la |)oetr7, the genitive of the source is sometimes used with passiTe 
participles and verbals, to denote the agent : c^etytU Ah/iirdw tUain by AtgU- 
thus, ^vrhs ijTOfnifi^yn deceived by a husband, Kttrris iUkucrd Uxughi by her, ^l\»9 
(UXovros unwept by friends, 

683. CoMPODi^D Verbs. Many verbs componnded with a 
preposition take the genitive, when the preposition, used bj 
Itself in the same sense, would have that case : 

irp^iccirai t^ j •ATTiiriyj ^pi| luydXa in front of Attica lie ffreat mcuntmns, 
^i/3w^€s rod r€lxovs having mounted the wall, 6ircp€^(in}^ar rod Ki^w thsyap- 
peared over the ridge, i^cpSuccar rod fuSyov to plead for the principle. Espe- 
cially many compounds of Kord, which have the sense of feehng or acting 
▲GAINST : xph M^ KarappovM rod rK'fi^ovs we should not contemn the multitude, 
rls ottK tuf KaraytXdtrtiw ityMV who would not deride you / Si' t-x^m woertB^MsiV' 
ral iMv through enmity they attack me with falsehood, AtMcpinis JcorryMiiccf 
a&Tod voo9§ZuK4yai riiv irar/>(8a LeocrHtes hoi convict^ himself of having be- 
trayed his country, r& rSov rpidicotrra ofutfrHifiara iftod icamrf6pow they charged 
on me the offences of the thirty, ivienf fhrsurw ifua iutpirtty ddawror jrarcB^^/- 
catr^ai they p^suaded you to pass sentence of death on 9ome persons without trial. 

/\L- Genitive with Adjectives and Adverbs. 

' 684. The genitive is used with adjectives which correspond, 
in derivation or meaning, to verbs that take the genitive ; espe- 
cially with adjectives 

a. OF SnARiNG : /imxos o-o^las partaking in wisdom, MfiotposrShf vorp^* 
wy having an equal part of the patrimony. 

b. OP Plemty or Want : iAtorhs KOic&y full of evils, vXjo^tos ^porfivsan 
rich in good sense, ir4yris xpVf^'rvr poor in property, Kwhs hnor^/iiif void of 
knowledge. So the adverb cUis enough. 

Many compounds of alpha privative takQ a genitive of the thing wanted : 
Atois ii^piwy md^v childless as to male children^ ttSw^f xprnfjuirw taking no 
bribes of money. 

c. OF Sensation or Mental Action. Thus compounds of &ico^, Mikoos 
xAytov KCLkmv listening to excellent discourses, Mikoos r&v yoviwif obedient to 

one's parents. rv^Xhs rod fjiixXoyros blind to the future, poet. 6y€vaTos irajrwy 

without taste of evils, hfitrftfiuy rwy KtMyttv unmindful o/" the dangers, iwtfuK^s 
(TfUKpSnf attentive to little things, &vtipos ypofifudrwy unskilled in Utters, zistp»s 
rQy iwSyrwy enamored of things absent. 

d. OF Accountability : curios ro^uy accountable for these things, tyoxos 
ZtOdas liable to a charge of coufardice, vr6Bucos ^yov subject to a trial for murder, 
Ov^^duros rris Itpxv^ bound to give account of his office, brortK^s 4>6pov subject to 
payment of tribute. 

e. OF Value : A^tos hralyov worthy of praise, iufd^tos rris irdKtus unworthy 
of the city, &yrirhs xp^A^Twy to be purehaseafor money. 

f. OF Separation : bp^payhs iy9p&y bereft of men, i\€^pos vdZods free from 
shame, ita^apbs irdyruy r&y KOK&y clear from ail things evil, yvfiyhs rod atiiuBTOs 
stripped of the body. Some of these might be referred to b. 

g. 07 Distinction : 9td<popos r&y <UA»jf differefU from the rest, IUaa rth 
iuca/^y ihrtgs other tlian the just, mpoy rh iiZh rod iirju^od the pleasant is dif 
ferentfrom tlte good. Here belong Adjectives 

Digitized by 



685. h. OP THB CoMPAEATivi: Degbee. The comparative de- 
gree takes the genitive : 

fitlCuy Tov idtK^ov greater than his brothery Strrepoi A^/irorro rijs fJLdxns 
they came (later than) too late for the battle (similarly r$ icrrepcd^ r^s M^X^' 
an the day after the batiU\ tout* &ff4fiji/ia iXofrrou rlvos i^etcr^c (as less than 
what, do you coofdder this impiety) vohat do you consider m a greater impiety 
than this f o^Scybs Ht^tpos second to no one, 5oicci cTyai KtuKoripa rov 6yTOs, rris 
^{nT9ws she appears to be fairer than (reality, nature) her real, natural com- 
piexiony Kctraitfffr4patf riiv 96^ay r^r i\vt9os IXa/3c the reputation he obtained 
came short of his expectation, B6^a Kptirrwy r&w ^^vo^vv a reputation (greater 
than the enyious) superior to envy, To^miffts ^uturtworipa Mp»y a proximity 
more dangerous than (the proximity of) otfier men for rris Mpuy irapouctio'tcts. 
i. Multiplicatives (in ■vKdo'ios and -irXovs) have the same construction: 
&AAo» voXXairX€urlois ifiQy iwo^tfi-fia'afAey Vie engaged in tear u/ith otJurs many 
times mare numerous than you. 

586. a. When fj than follows the comparative, both objects compared 
are usually in the same case : xpht"""^ ^^P^ nktiovos not(7a^at fj <f>l\ovs to 
consider money as of more valtie than friends; — ^yet not always : dvdpog 
dwaruntpov fj eyo> viop son of a man more powerful than I (am). For If 
between two comparatiyes, see 660 b. 

b. The genitive is freely used in cases where ff, if inserted, would be fol- 
lowed by a nom. or ace. ; much less freely, where ff would be followed by some 
other case or by a preposition : k^\i(ir9p4v iari ft^ 6yiovs adfiaros (= fj /i^ 
iytti ff6fULri) /i^ lyut ^vxv iwoixtiv it is more toretched to live with a diseased 
soul than (with) a diseased body^ 0\4xtiv els t^f ifiiretplaif fjM\\oif rris iipenis 
(= ^ €lf rV itperfiv) to look at skill more than (at) courage, 

c. The superUUive sometimes takes a genitiTe of distinction, like the com- 
parative : /i4yurros r&y &AA«y (greatest in distinction from the others, = fieiCuw 
r&y &\Xuy greater than the others), more properly /liyurros wdyrttr greatest of 
all. Similarly fiSvos r&v ixXotv = fi6vos iriarmv alone of all. 

587. The genitive is also used 

a. with adjectives of transitivk action, where the corresponding verbs 
would have the accusative : i^ifia^s ttjs itHuclas late in learning injustice (/taa^ 
ddyetr r^v ibHuclay), KOKovpyos r&v liXXuy doing evil to the others {Kojeovpytiy rohs 
iXXovs), ^tXpyaXuToi r&v hXXorpienf ready to spend the property of others, ff^f*' 
^^l^s (Toi ro^ou rov y6ftov associated with thee in voting for this law : especially 

b. with adjectives of Oapacitt in mSs : mLpaa-KcvaariKhs ray els rhy ir6\€fioy 
qualified to provide the {requisites) for the war, 8i8ao'icaAiicbf ypaiiiMriKris fitted 
to teaeh grammar. 

c with adjectives of possession, to denote the possessor (562) : Koiyhs rwy 
rpuSy belonging in common to the three, fSiof (oIkcTos) ifiov belonging to me alone, 
Uphs rov *Ax6?i2imyos sacred to Apollo, 

d. with some adjectives of connection (568) : ^vyyfyijs rod Kipov akin to 
CyruSy ix6\ovba itXk-fiXwy consistent with one another, dfti^yvfjias ^ZvKpdrovs a 
namesake of Socrates. 

c. witn some adjectives pxriysd frok substantites, where the genitive 
may be rcc^arded as depending on the included substantive : &paia ydfiov ripe for 
marriage (&paydfAOv age for marricufe), r4\etos rris hperrts perfect in virtue (tcAos 
hperrfs perfection of virtue), poet, tvpuifrvw iv6<rreyot (= ivh ariyiiy tkojidTup) 
under cover of houses. 

Digitized by 


286 asMcnvE with advebbs. [587 

t with some ac|jectiTes of placs (589), but Beldom in Attic prose : Hm. 
iyturrloi tcrw 'Axfuup they stood opposiU to the Greeks, Hd. iwucapirlas rod Il^r- 
Tov cU right angles to the Pontus. 

Genitive with Adverbs. 

588. Adverbs derived from the foregoing adjectives, may 
have the genitive : di'a^ccos t^s irdXeois in a manner unworthy of 
the city, 8ta^€f)ovTa)s rwv o[AA(i>v av&punrtov differently from the rest 
of men, 

589. The genitive is also used with other adverbs, especially 
those of place. 

It is generally to be explained from the uses in 590, 591, 559 ; but some- 
times from the ablative use of this case (579). rod yrjs where on earth? ol 
wpotK-fiKv^tp iurfkytlas Ai^^petwos to what a pitch o/profligaci/ the man has come, 
irrhs {iKT6s) rtav iposv ffiewe he remained inside {outside) of the boundaries, cflrw 
(^(00) Tov rtlxovs i?i^ov they came within (without) the wall, irKticlov {JlY^ds, poet. 
&7X') '^^^ ifCfiMTTipiov near tlie prison, iFp6ff^ey^ (fiwpoff^€v (Jirttrd^cy) rod trrpa' 
row49ou in front (rear) of the camp, i^i/^oriftt^tv (kKaripto^tVf Mty Ktd Ity^ev) 
riis 6S0V on both sides (each side, this side and tliat) of the way, &iw trorofiiy up 
stream^ ev^ rrjs ^euHi\iSos straight towards PhaseUs, fi^xp^ Scvpo rod liiAyov to 

this point of the discussion, ir6pp« covins fJKtt he is far advanced in wisdotn, 

VTjyiKa rris rifi4pas at what time of the day ? h^\ t^ j &pas late in the hour, 

w&s ^x^ts rrjs yy^fitis in what state of mind are you? kKOhxuriea^ <pwicr4oy &t Ix*' 
voS&y txatrros i^t&y we must fee from license, cu fast as we can, each one of us 
(according to that condition of feet in which he is^, UaySs itriarfi/iiis c|e< he 

will be well enough off for knowledge, ^x^P^' '^^^ ci^uaros apart from the hody, 

iKe^^pos ob^sis iffrt irkiiy Ai6s no one is free except Zeus, Kpv^ r»y 'Adriwalvy 
(in concealment from) without knowledge of the Athenians. 

Genitive in Looser Relations. 

590. Genitive of Place. The genitive is used in poetry to denote 
the place 

a. TO which an action belokgs. The action is regarded, not as covering 
the whole extent of space, but as occupying more or less of it : yi^i ost ^aiyero 
wdnis yalris no cloud appeared over (any part of) the whole land, 1(€ roixou rod 
Mpoto he was sitting by the other wall, ^ obx "Apytos Ijey 'AxauKod was he not 
(any where) in Achaean Argos / l^ciy wcS/oio to run on the plain. 

In prose, this construction appears only in the adverbs of place which end 
in ov\ irod where, etc (248), tdnod there, Sfjuod (in the same place) together; and 
in a few phrases : iwerdixvyoy riis &9od they were hurrying ihtm on the way, 
iwop€6oyro rod rp4ffte they toere proceeding forward, 

b. TROK which something is SEPARATEn: Xffrair^fid^pvy stand off from the 
steps, intirfew rrjs ^8o0 to withdraw from the way. 

691. Genitivb of Time. The genitive is used to denote the 
time to which an action belongs. 

The action is regarded, not ae covering the whole extent of time, but as 
occnpying more or less of it : ^fUpas by day (at some time in the course of iho 

Digitized by 


595] GEMrnvE m looses belahons. 237 

day), riMCf^s 6y nighty roH abrov x«A^'^' ^ fame totnteTy n4p<nu ohx li^own 
Scica h-&p the Peniaiu viU noi come (any time in) for ten yearty offr^ ris ^ivos 
it^iKTcu xp^'^ov tntxyov nor luu any stranger come within a iot^ timey rpia itfUr 
9ap€ueiL rov fi7ir6s three half-darics each month (627 e), liraorov iravs annually, 
xov Xoarov (at any time) in the future, but rh }ijMr6v for the future (for all fu- 
ture time). 

592. GjExrrivE of Cause. The gen. of cause is used 

a. in EXCLAMATIONS (with or without inteijectionsV to show the cause of 
the feeling : ^D rov iu^p6s aloe for the man I 2 /uucdpioi c^ t^t ^woiuurnit 
piff^ms happy you for your toonderful nature I & n^ciSoy, ^tty&y \6yvr 
Poeeidon, u>hat fearful worda I rfjs r^xn* my {byW) fortune I 

b. in the ikpinitite with neuter article rov^ to show the purpose of an 
action : Mliws rh Kporixhy ita^ptt 4k t^s ^aXjiiraiiSy rov rhs irpbs^ovi fioAAoy 
Upai air^ Minos uhu sweeping piracy from the sea, for the better coming in to 
him of Ms revenues. See 781a. 

593. GmnnvB Absolute. The genitive is used with a par- 
ticiple to denote timey meansy cattse, condition^ or concession. 
For examples, see 790. 


594. The dative is used to denote 

a. that TO which something is done (not the direct object) : 

Dative o^ Influence. 

b. that FOB which something is, or is done : 

Dative of Interest. 

c. that WITH which something is, or is done : 

Dative of Association and Likeness. 

d. that BY which something is, or is done : 

Dative of Instrument^ MeanSy Manner^ Cause, . 

e. that IN which something is, or is done : 

Dative of Place and Time. 
The dative thus, beside its proper use, to denote the indirect object, 
has the uses of an instrumental and a locative case, which in Latin be- 
long mostly to the ablative. The dative of the indirect object is most 

commonly a ^tfr«^ or a thing regarded as a person. 

Dative of Influence, 

595. The dative is used to denote that to which something 
is done (not the direct object, 544) : thus 

a. with THAirsiTrvE verbs. The direct object stands at the same 
time in the accasative. But if the passive is used, the direct object of 
the action becomes the subject of the verb, while the dative remains un- 

Digitized by 



/utrdhy 9i8^yai {hrurxi^ur^Mf rdrrtiy) roTs ^rpartArms to ffive ( promtMej ap- 
poitU) pay to the toldiers, hay4fitiy x^furra roTs iroAiraa to distriStUe treature 
to the citizens^ ha^dK^uuf ircLptx^iy rois ^/Xou to afford safety to one^a friends, 
iTtrp4T€Uf rh irfftyfiara rots ifiwupordrois to entrust the affairs to the most ex- 
periencedf xf>^M<rra iroAAoxs ^^c^Aciy to owe money to many (persons), fiolt^ioM 
irifiiTfiy BoMTOis to send aid to the Boeotians, \4ytiv (Scirycii^i^eu, iyyiKKsv, 
6w€i9l(ety) T^ fioffiKu t& wnrpayyiiva to tell {relate, announce, cast up {la a re- 
proach) to the king vohat had been done. ^\Vith the passive : fio^wm hr4^l^^^ 

BotuTOis aid was sent to the Boeotians, rh iravpayftiya r^ /BoiriAc? iLyy4?ijiMTm 
what had been done is announced to the king. 

(a) In some instances, the indirect object of the action becomes the sub* 
ject of the passive verb, while the accusative remains unchanged : o/ iwrrwrpoftr 
fiivoi r^v <pvXMciiv those entrusted with the guard (for iKutnn oTs iwerirpeanm ^ 
^uAoic^), &XAo Ti ftt7(oy 4viTax^a'€a-^ ye vdll have some other greater ccmmand 
imposed on you (for iUXo rt fittCoy iwtrax^a'ercu). 

b. with INTRANSITIVE YEfiBs. Maoj of theso express actions whleh 
in English are viewed as transitive, and connected with a direct object 
(544 b). 

t^x^f^^^ '''ots &€ots to pray to the gods, cfxciy rois Kfftirroin to yield to the 
more powerful, 9ovAc(/«iy iHopois to be a slave to pleasure, JFti^tar^at rois Apxo^n 
to obeu those who rule, fioifduy rots <^ikois to render aid to one^s friends, rphm 
{wposiiKft) /loi \4ytty it becomes {belongs to) me to speak, iLpdoKtiy {awap4aK€iy) 
rois &AA011 to please {displease) the others, rurrtiuy {ivurr^Ty) rois A^ois to trust 
{distrust) the words. Especiallj with verbs denoting disposition toward an ob- 
ject : xa^^roffeiy {6pyi(§<r&atj ^fioikr^ai) if ir6\tt to be angry toward the city, 
^oyuy roTs ir\otMr(ots to envy the rich, Mvyotiy r^ 8«<nr^rp to be weH'Offected 
toward his master. 

c. with many adjectives, especially those denoting dispoBition to- 
ward an object : 

(hroxos rois ^€OiS subject to the gods, &ir/>fir^s arparny^ unbecoming to a 
general, iyayrios rois y6fjuns in opposition to the laws, !pi\os r^ ifyai^ a friend 
to the good man, ^usfiwiararos ry ir^Aci most hostile to the city, xoAcvif roiir 
hZucovat severe toward wrong-doers, htuciy^vyos train dangerous to all, Ixayhs rois 
a^poffi sufficient to the toise, 

d. sometimes with substantives expressing action : rh, rap* rjfxay B4^ 
ro7s ^oTs the gifts from us to the gods, if ifi^ r^ d-c^ ^miptcla my sei'vice to the 
divinity. The same substantive may have also a genitive, denoting either the 
subject or the direct object of the action : iTovdurrao'is fA4povs riyhs ry SAy r^f 
r^vxvs an insurrection of some part of the soul against the whole, Karaio^XMVts 
ray 'EKk^yw rois ^Adriyaiois subjugation of the Greeks to the Athenians. 

Dative of Interest. 

696. The dative is used to denote that for which something 
is, or is done. It is connected, in this use, with verbs and ad- 
jectives ; sometimes even with substantives. A thing or action 
may be regarded as subsisting /or a person, 

a. when it tends to his advantage or disadvantage, 

b. when it belongs to him in possession. 

Digitized by 


601] dahyb of cnxBEsr. 989 

o. when he merely feels an mterest in it {ethical interest). 

d. when it is the result of his agency, 

e. when his interest is Uss definite than the foregoing. 

597. 1. Datitx of Aotantaok or Disaoyantaoe (dativos commodlf in- 
commodi): cjcoorof ywyiyrrrai if irorpfSi each one is homfvr hit country ^ X6\9ov 
*A&nyaiois v6pL0vs Cdryicff Scion made laws for the Atheman^j ffrttpayovff^ai r^ 
d«y to be eroumed in honor of the god, fi^ydXwy troayfUrwy Koipol Tpoumai rj 
ir6\tt opportunitiee for greai affairs have been thrown away for (to the detri- 
ment otjthe city, — —ai to7s 9€<rw6rats iiroK^tfieyai fid\ayot the dates reserved for 
the tncutersy ffo6bs lavrf wise for himself xp^^'M^^ iuf^p^ois useful for men^ 

fiKafiepbs ry friyMn hurtful for the body, ineividav rpo^risroTs iroWois they 

were in want of provision for the most, iKxldct lxc< trwniplas ry if6\mi he has hope 
of safety for the city, 

698. 2. Datits of the Posssssor. This is used with tlfil, yiyvofuu, and 
gihiilar verbs : oitK ton xp^M^tra 4iiu¥ we have no treasure, Tpoyiimv futpiiditf 
Udar^ ywySpoffi every man hoe had myriads of ancestors, tirdpx^i roTs irapovci 
rk r»y kicSwrenf the possessions of the absent belong to those who are present. 
The verb may be omitted: r^ wa/rpi nvptkdfiinis iyofta (sc. itrrlt the fatner has 
Pyrilampes as his name) the father's name is Pyrilampes. 

a. The possessor is more properly expressed by the genitive (562, 5*72 c): 
the dative denotes rather one who has something for his use and service. 

b. The dative, in this use, is sometimes found in connection with substan" 
lives : Hd. oX c^i fiSes their cattle, ol &y^p»wot $r tAv KTriyuirwy rots 3co<f slirt 
men are one of the possessions belonging to the gods. 

599. 3. Ethical Datite. The personal pronouns are thus used in the dative : 
ro^^ vdm fiot irpos^xrrt rhy yovy to this attend carefully (for me) I pray you, 
ri ffoi fuMi^oftM (what shall I learn for you) what would you have me Uam f 
iLfunfO'6r€poi yty^ffoyrcu itfuy ol y4oi the young will become ruder for you (you will 
find them becoming so). 

600. 4. Dative of the Aoent. With passive verbs, the agent is sometimes 
expressed by thd dative (usually by {nr6 with the gen.). In Attic prose, the 
only passive tenses often used with a dat. of the agent, are the perfect and plu- 
perfect: T^ <rol trtTpayfi^ya the things done by thee, ^rciS^ irapcirKf^eurro rois 
Kopiv&lots when preparation had been made by the Corinthians, poet. riL^rt^h iy- 
bpf^ifoitriy ohx eiplaKerat tJie truth is not found by men. 

With verbals in r4ost the agent is regularly expressed by the dative, see 805. 

601. 5. Dative of Interest in looser relations: ^uKpdrris 4Z6ku Ttfirjs 
&^ufs eJyat ry ir6\u Socrates seemed to be vHjrthy of honor (in relation to) from 
the city, r&yifjC ^V^ iciXax is he long dead for you / Hm. rourtir &ytarn (for 
them) among them he rose up. Thus the dative may denote one in whose case 
something is true : biro\afLfidy€iy 5c( r^ roio^^ Zri sh4\^s icrrl in the ease of 
such a man, one must suppose that he is simple; — or one in whose view some- 
thing is true : poet. 6 iah\hs evyey^is iftol y iiy^p in my view, the good man is 

a. In these constructions, a participle in the dative is frequently used, 
and often with omitted subject : rift4pa liy trifiirm hrntXiowri ro7s 'A^yalois it 
was the fifth day for the Athenians making their expedition, ovy^\6yri (or wf 
tnfyt?ij6yrt) tiirtiy to say it briefly (lit. for one to say it, having brought the 
matter to a point). The participle may denote the condition under which some- 
thing mauifestfl itself: i 9mfidyn t^ worofiby vpbs ^ffr4pap Ms the route toward 

Digitized by 



the toMf (as it presents itself to one) after hamng croeeed ike rt«0r ;^-or ihtfiel' 
ing with which something is regarded : yiywerai rovro iful fiovK»fUt^ thie taJtee 
pCate aeeordifuf to my wuh^ ^arAdw/icr, cf ffoi ifio/i€tr^ itrri let u» go back^ if 
ft U your pleeuvre to do <o. 

Dative of A&wcicUian and Likeness. 

y * . 602. The dative is used to denote that with which some- 
thing is, or is done : thus 

1. with WORDS OF ASSOCIATION OR OPPOSITION : 6iu>M To«t Kwtois to eueo- 
date fffith the evil^ KaraXXdrrtty w6\uf ir6\u to reconcile city with city^ Koummuf 
tfAXoif leStmr to participate with others in toile^ 6fio\oy€iy Axx^Aou to agree with 
one another, wkrictd(9ty r^ r6fr^ to approach the place^ hmr^at r^ ifftiUvi to 
foUow the guide^ hnurrw r^ Uepo^&m to tneet with Xenopkom^ hrrvyx^^ "^^ 
ToX^fiiots to fall in witJi the enemy, titaX^ywdat r^ BiSacriciXy to conoeru with 

the teacher, ictpd/fui riir Kp4inir tHiy to minale the epring with wine^ AjtAov- 

^os ry ^^ci consieteni with nature, Koumna to7s kya^ts partidptiion with the 

good, ftdx^o'^tu r^pcp to fight with fortune, ipi(tof (&/t^i9in'e<>» 9taywiCi^at) 

aXX^Aou to quarrel QieptUe, contend) with one another, Zuupipwiai rots ironf^Zr 
to he at variance with the bad. 

a. So with PHRASES : 'Adipniois 9ih wo\4ftMf Uwai to carry on war with the 
Athenians, els \6yous ixeipas) fyx*^^ ^"^'^ ^^ ^^"^^ ^^ words {bhws) with any one, 

b. Here belong the apyirbs tifta at the same time, 6fA0v together, d^t^^s 
next in order : ifia r^ ^f-fy^ o>t day-break, rh dnp Mvero Sfiov r^ -niX^ the 
water teas drunk along with the mud, rh ro^nois ^^{^s hiuv Xtieriov we must say 
what comes next to these things. 

608. 2. with words of likjbness or unlicemess. These are chiefly a^jectires, 
or words derived from adjectives : ol woprjpol iJJJiKtHS 5ftoioi the bad are like 
one another, ob Set ttror rohs KOKohs rots hya^ois ix^w the evil mnut not have 
equality with the good, iatrXuriiipoi iiratr rots aurots K^py 5irAo(f they were armed 
with the same weapons as Cyrus, rovro xapavx4iai6y iari rf 'A^rrvdlraieri, jcal 
llouc€y *EXXrivtKo7s ravra rh 6v6fiara this (name) is sifnUar to Astyanax, and 
these resemble Greek names, 6 rirros re Koi dfi^wftos ifioi my grandfather, and 
of the same name with me, o^fu^ri^s iifuv «T yoti are voting with us, rh dfiotovr 
iavrhp iXX^ /ufUiffd^ fori to make one^s self like to another is to imitate, ^o- 
fwlws hXXiiXots in a manner unlike one another. 

a. In such cases, the form of expression is often abridged (881) : bfioUof 
rais Mxais t7x« r^r ier^^a (for Sfiotatf ry rwv ^ovXSov ta^^i) she had her dress 
like (the dress of) the female slaves, 

604. 3. with other words, as Dative of Accompaniment : ^A^is iced Tnroii 
rois Zwarmrirois icol Mpdo'i wopev^fxeda let us go with horses the most powerful 
and leith men, ol AoxcSoifi^yuM ry rt xarh yriv crparr^ irpos4fiaXXjey ry retxfe'fun'i 
Koi reus yawrly &fia the Lacedaemonians attacked the fortification with their land- 
army and their ships at the same time. This occurs chiefly in military expres- 
sions. The intensive a^6s is often used with this dative : 6 'Imtias reyraKoai- 
ovs hnrias itXAfity aibroTs rois 5irXoir ffippias took 600 horsemen with their arms 
(the arms themselves, arms and all). 

606. Dativk with Compound Vkbbs. Many verbs com- 
pounded with a preposition tsJce a dative, depenmng, either on 

Digitized by 



the separate force of the preposition, or on the general meaning 
of the compound ; especially verbs compounded with iv, avvy 
hrif — ^less often with wpos, vaLpd, ir€pi, xnro l 

hrurHifiTiv ifiirot§iy ry ^^vj(S ^ produce knowledge in the aoul, c^fyyvn^l /jlm 
foraive me (lit. judge with me, in my favor), Mxtuno rots woKtftlots they press- 
ed hard upon the enemy ^ % ftAAoif hririfi&fup that which we bring against others 
as (ground of) censure, irposUyeu rf 9^/iv ^ ^^^^"^ be/ore the people, waplp-Toar^at 
(vopcZnu) r^ ia^dpi to stand by (be present mth) the man, wepiwhrrftw ro7s KaxoTt 
to (fall about) be involved in evils, iwoKwr^w, rf &i>x*»^i lo ^ nU^fect to the ruler. 
a. Many of these yerba take also the accusative (544 c) ; or use a preposi- 
tion (often the same preposition repeated) before the object. 

Dative of Instrumentj Means^ Manner^ Cause. 

606. The dative is used to denote that by which something 
is, or is done. Hence the means or instrument by (use of) 
\fhich, the manner by (way of) which, the cause by (reason of) 
which, something is, or is done, are put in the dative. 

607. Dativs of Mkans or Instrujuht : oi^^U ihnuvo¥ ii^ovtus iterierofro no 
one has gained praise by pleasures, rh lUhXovra Kpimfisw roTs wpoyeyejnifkivois 
we judge of the future by the past, iyy^^a-ay rg o'ksvQ r&y 5ir\wy t/iey were re- 
cognized by the fashion of their arms, ^ap/AdK^ Av^doyc he died by poison, Cn/U' 
ouc^at ^w6r^ to be punished by death, is4xorro a^ohs t§ ir6\€i they received 
them (by) in the city, fidWtiy ru& Xi^ts to throw at one with stones, 6p&fji€y rois 
b^aXfioh we see with our eyes, Hm. rlctiay Aayaol ifik Zdnpva trolo't fidXeccaf 
may the Greeks by thy arrows (be made to) atone for my tears, 

a. Hence the dative is found with XP^P^ ^o ^^ (i* g* ^o serve one's self) 
as in Lat. the ablative with utor. A predicate-noun is oflen added in the same 
case : ro^retv rurl <p6?ia^ty ^xp^o he used some of them as guards, 

608. Dative of Manner : 9p6/i^ It^tiyorro they hastened (by running) on a 
run, toptI rp6fr^ reipcurSfie^ we vfill try (by) in every way, r6xp ^ya^H Karap- 
X^w let him begin with good fortune, iroAA.^ icpavyp Matn tliey advance with 
Toud outcry, & t§ r/iq? hM^arriaair they retired with their victory incomplete. 
So fii^ by force, forcibly, ciyg silently, airovSj} hastily, earnestly, y^yu^lEWriy a 
Greek by descent, ^iaei koms evil by nature, edy^oKos 6y6ftaTt Thapsacus by 
twine ;— and many forms with omitted subject (509 a) : ra{nxi (iKtlyp,ji,ir^) 
in this {that, which, v)hat) way or munner, tSlif (trjfuxri^, Kotyf) by individual 
[public^ common) action or expense. Often with the idea of according to : nj 
ifiy yyiftp according to my judgment, *ro(n^ ry 7\Aytp according to this statAnent^ 
tJ AXir&ei^ in truth, ry itm in reality, Hpytp in act, in fact, \6ytp in word, in 
profession, wpo^dursi in pretence, 

609. Dative of Resfect. The dative of manner is used to show in what 
particular point or respect something is true : tut^pew {irpo4x^iv, ktlwta^ai) 
irX^« (jttty/dfi, xp</i«ri, <t>poy^<ru) to be distinguished (tfuperior, inferior) in 
number {size, property, sense), icx^ttw ry a^/ueri to be strong in body, reus ^w- 
Xous iffMfi€P€(rrepot firmer in their spirit, rh wpdrrtw rov K4ytty Carepoy ^y rg 
rd^ti irp6repoy ry Svydptei iarl action, though after speech in order, is before it 
in power. 


Digitized by 



610. Datiti ov Degree ov DinrERiHCE. The dative of manner is used 
^Bbiefly with the eomparativt) to show the degree by which one thing differa 
from another : 

rhrapat fumis iXarrrw lest by four minae^ rp irt^aX^ /utC^r (greater bj the 
head) a head iaUtr^ woAAcus ytwuSs Sertpoir rw Tpmie&p many peneraHons iaUr 
than the Drojan toar, dcica frtct wph t^ 4w SoAofuw fidxyis ten yean before the 
battle at SaiamU, So, very often, the dative of neuter adjectives : «oXX^ by 
much, fuucp^ by far, iidy^ by little, etc., woXX^ X*^P^ {^^ *'o^ X^P^^t ^^^) 
much i0or«e, r# vorrl Kfeimw (better by all odds) infinitely better, w6a^ /iBX- 
\op tU^ fuffour^e how much more wndd you be hated f roffoOr^ ^9»p (A l^y wXetm 
KiienifUA I live more pUaeanUy (by that degree, by which) in proportion ae J 
poeseee more : and with the superlative, fuucpf H^itfrot beet by far. 

Rem. a. In many instances, the same dative may be regarded indifferently 
as expressing, either the manner of an action, or the means of its performance : 
wopffX^f IF obK ^p 0i^ it wu not possible to yet past in a violent manner, or by 
means of violence, 

611. Dative of Cause : woAAd(ic» iyvot^ i^^ftafrdpo/uy we often err by rea- 
son of ignorance, p6fiv &T^Ai^r they departed Arimgh fear, oMis oMtr wewif 
Bpdtrti on account of poverty no one will do anything* « 

a. Many verbs or rsELiNO take a dative of the cause : o^Scrl o9rw x^^^' 
its ^iXois hya^ois you delight in nothing so much as in good friends, 6 ^eht llpyois 
rois Hucedois IjHerat the divinity is pleased with just actions, &x<^*^<^*2' '''9 ^u«^,^ 
vexed at the delay, r^ 'tMarmrvft^ xaXMeteabforres rois elpmiima angry witSi 
HeeaUmymMS for what he said, eitrxfivoiuu reus wp^epov StfMfnlaiS lam ashamed 
of the former errors, ^fyhrta» rj eromipl^ they were contented ivith their safety, 
XoXcirdf ^eptt rots vapov^t frpdy/tatrt I am distressed at the present affairs, 

• DcUwe of Place and Time. 

612. Datite of Place. In poetry, the dative is often used without 
a preposition, to denote the place in wiuch something is, or is done : 

'EAAi9i rcd»r dwelling in Hellas, TLv^iouri vai»p dwelling (in) among the Py- 
lians, riir r* oiipwi riieropts Mpes i^4raftop which builders felled on the moun- 
tains, cSSc M^Xy tcXwirfs he was sleeping in the recess of the tent, r4C A/uturip 
ixmf having the bow on his shoulders, hypoT&i rvyx^t he happens {to be) in the 
country, 6^is on tlu way. 

a. Seldom thus in prose (mostly in reference to Attic demes) : tHeXlTp at 
Melite^ rk rp6iwa»a rd re Mapad&pt icol XeiXafuyi iced UXarajuus Uiie trophies at 
Marathon, Salamis, and Plataea, 

613. DATiy£ OF Tike. The dative is used to denote the 
tinie*in (at) which something is, or is done. 

Tliis applies to words for day, night, month, year : r^ ahr^ Wp? the same 
day, r$Sc t$ wieri UMiight, ry vtrrepai^ on the following Jay, r^ hnim firipi in 
the coming month, rrrdpr^ Irci (itnaur^) in the fourth year; — also to Apf : 
XtMtdyot &p^ in time ofmnter; — ^further to festival times : roTs 'OXvfiwiots at 
thi Olympic pames. To other words, iy is usually added : iy ro^np r^ xp^r^ 
(leaip^) at this time (occasion), ip r^ wapdpri at the present time, ip r^ r^f at 
that time. When time is designated by words denotmg circumstance or event, 
ip is rarely omitted: ry irporipa iKitKfiai^ (for ip rf etc.) at the time of the 
former assembly : cf. poet, x'^fttpl^ rrfry eU the Hme of the wintry sntuh-wind. 

Digitized by 


fiflS] FRBFOSOnOKS AND CA8B8. 24d 


614. The prepositioxis have a twofold use : a. In eompantion with 

verbs, they define the action of the verb, in respect to its direction. 

b. Ab teparate words, connected with particular cases, they show the 
relations of words in a sentence, more distinctly than the cases alone 
could do it. 

The name prepoHtion (npo^tais) is derived from the former use. Such 
words, therefore, as Sytv without^ irX^v except^ €V€Ka on account of^ etc., 
which have the latter use only, not being compounded with verbs, mav 
be called improper prepositions. They all take the genitive (cf. 589), 
except o)r, which takes the accusative. 

615. All the prepoffitions were orlginallj adverbs. Many of them are still 
used as such in poetry, especially in Hm. : w€pl round about, and, with ana- 
strophe, Wpi exetidingly ; trhv 94 and therewith, Hd. has M, hi and thereupon, 
fitrh 94 and next^ 4p 94 or 4w 9k 94 ond among the number ; also wpbs 8^ neX 
vp6Sf and besides^ which occur even in Attic prose. 

• a. The preposition, in its adverbial use, may belong to a v^rb understood, 
and may thus stand for a compound verb : so, even in Attic prose, lyi for fy 
eerri it is possible ; in Attic poetry, wAm for irdptifu to be present, Hm. has also 
Iri, ftfro, for ixeari^ fi4re<rTt, etc. : similar is the imperative &ya up I (= i^d- 
crii^). For retraction of the accent {anastrophe) in this case, see 102 a. 

616. On account of this origin, the prepositions in Hm. are very free as re- 
gards their position, being often separated from the verbs (tmesis^ 477} or sub- 
stantives to which they belong : iy 8* avr^f i96irero p^powa xuXjk^ ana he him- 
self put on the shining brass^ &/a^1 9k x^voi A/jlois hifferoyrat and round their 
shoulders wave the manes. In Attic prose, the preposition is separated from 
its substantive only by words that qualify the substantive (487, 492) : but par- 
ticles such as /Di^y, 9^, 7/, r^,- ydp, tAp^ may be interposed after the prepositionj 
other words, very rarely : waph ykp olfuu robs p6fiovs for contrary^ I suppose^ 
to the laws. 

For anastrophe when the preposition follows the word it belongs to, see 
102 D b. In prose, this is confined to wept with the genitive. 

Use of different cases with the prepositions. General EemarJcs. 

617. The acGusati'ee is used with prepositions, to denote the object 
tawurds which motion is directed (551) ; or, in general, the object to^ on, 
or over which an action extends (544). 

The genitive is used to denote the object from which an action pro- 
ceeds (579), in expressions of departure, separation, or distinction : also, 
to denote the object to which an action belongs (compare genitive with 
adverbs, 589 ; and see 573). 

The dative is used to denote the object in, by, or with which an action 
takes place. 

618. The dative is properly used with prepositions, to express being, 
or remaining^ in a particular situation ; for coming to the situation, the 
a<yusati^ is used ; for passing from it, the genitive : tievti wapa t^ ^atri- 
Xct Tie remains (by the side of) in the presence of the Icing ^ rjictt -trap avrop 
he is come to his presence, oixcrai wap* avrov he i% gone from hin presence. 

Digitized by 



a. Yerbe of motion aometimes have a prepodtion wilh the dative, to de« 
note a state of rest following the action of the verb : 4p r^ worofi^ Irccroy they 
fell (into, and were) in ths river. So too, in place of a dative denoting rest, 
we sometimes hare an accusative or genitive, in reference to a following or 
preceding state of motion ; ^rdb tls fi4irop (lit. standing into the midst) coming 
into the midst and standing there^ roTs iic TU\ov Kti^^un to those taken (in, and 
brought^ /ram FyluSy ol ix r^w kyopat K»rdKar6trrss rjk £wa 4^vyoif those in the 
market left their goods andjled (from it). 

General View of the Prepaeitions. 

610. Prepositions used with only onb case, viz. 
I. the Accusative : cis, 019. 
n. the Genitive : Airi, dird, i(, irpo, also dv€v, axpt» I'-^Xfi^ 

hf€Ka, ttXi/v (614). 
in. the Dative : h, avv. 
Prepositions used with two cases, viz. 
IV. the Accusative and Genitive : hid, Kara, wrip. 
V. the Accusative and Dative : dvo. 
Prepositions used with three cases, viz. 
VL the Accusative, Genitive, and Dative: &fi^t, hrl, iierd, 
irapd, 'TTcp^ irpo^f wro, 

. j L Preposttions with the Accusative only. 

620. 1. fir (also ii) into, to; properly to a position in somethii^ 
(= Lat. in with the aoc.), opposed to c£ out of. It is used 

a. ofPLACfi: lucskiAiClra\iaf Ziifirimaf els llucehiev the Sieiili passed over 
from Italy into Sicily, elf ZucturHifMoy slsiiyai to (enter into) come before a cowrt 
(of dicasts or jurors), TiSyovs woifurdcu cl» rlv 9ii/JLoy to make an address to the 
people, sis AifZpas iyipd/^w to enrol among men (write into the list of men). 

b. of time: sis u(ncra (to) ^7/ night, els liftas to our time, is rt (to what 
time) how longf sis i^uunitf (to the end of a year) for a whole year, poet. Iros 
els Krosfrom year to year. An action may be thought of as taking place when 
a certain time is come to; hence els is also used for the time when (618): 466- 
Ksi yiip sis rhy ^orspaLav ^^suf fiaaiX4a for it was thought that on the fiext day 
the king would arrive, sis itaipSr in good time, is riKos finally. 

c. of MEASURS and number : sis Zteucoaiovs to the ntanhcr of 200, about 200, 
sis rirrapas to (the depth of) four men, /our deep, sis 96yafMf to (the extent of 
one^s) power, according to one's power. 

d. of AIM or purpose : xpn^^l'^^ <^' f^^ v6\sfjLor useful (toward) for the 
war^ els riZs fiKoitw (to this end) /or this are we eome. 

In COMPOSITION : into, in, to. 

Note. In Attic prose, sis is the common form : only Thncydides (like Hd.) 
has is almost always. The poets use either form at pleasure. 

621. 2. its (cf. 614) to, only with persons : 

Hm. old rhr tiinXw $.ysi bths i»s rhw 6fAoUp a god always brings like to like. 

Digitized by 


625J PBEFOsmoNS and cases. 245 

n. With the Genitive only. 

622. 1. avri (compare £p. 2yra, oin^y; also am-ucpv), as a separate pre- 
position, lost its original meaning overagairut^ opposite to (cf. cVamrt-or) ; 
but this gave the idea of count^part, mbstitute, and hence the common 
meaning; instead of, for : 

Hm. Arrl KatnyrfiTOv |c<K^f d^ Uirris rf rirvKreu in place of a brother (equal- 
ly esteemed and aided) is a stranger and suppliant^ iirl ^yirrov tr^futros &My- 
aroy 94^w iiXXd^affduifor a mortal hody^ to gain in exchange immortal glory. 

In COMPOSITION : against^ in opposition^ in return, 

623. 2. ano (Lat. a J, a, Eng. off) from^ offfrom^ away from; prop- 
tAjfrom a position on somethmg : 

a. of PLACE : Ilm. &^' tnrȴ 2xro x^V^C< from the (horses) ear he sprang 
to the ground^ h^ Imrov ftdxetr^at to fight (from a horse) on horseback, 

b. of TiiCE : &«^ iKtimis rris ^/i^pas (from) since that day. 

c. of CAUSE : vbr6»oiJMs kwh r^f wlp^rns independent (from) in consequence 
of the peace, iarh iurdifiaros Iiku he is come by aareemcnt. 

Phrases : iiri okotov away from the marlcj teilhout aim, hrh raurofidrov 
(from self-moYcd action) voithout occasion^ of itself kwh trritueros \4ynr to speak 
(from mouth, not from a thinking mind) by rote^ ol iiwh cientnis (those who act 
from the stage) the players. 

In COMPOSITION : from, away, 

624. 3. t^ (before consonants ««c : Lat. ex, e) from^ out of; properly 
from a position in something (627) : 

a. of PLACE : ^jc :Swdprrfs 6<^i he is banished from Sparta. 

b. of TIME : Ik waiHtty (from children, Lat a pueris) since childhood 
Hence of immediate succession : \Syor ix Kiyov Kfyety to make one speech after 
another, Hm. ttoKhv ix kokov evil after evil, 

c. of orioin: iie waralbs "xpn^rov iyewrro he earns of a worthy father. 
Hence with passive verbs (instead of ^6 with the gen.) : rifuur^u Ijc rtros to 
be honored by some one : the agent is then viewed as the source of the action ; 
this construction is rare in Att., but frequent in other dialects. 

d. of iNrKRENCE : iic rmw itaUrrmr (judging from) according to the presetU 
circumstances, in rAv 6/iokoyovfUimy ifwl re jced ffol according to the truths ad- 
mitted both by me and by thee. 

Phrases : ix Be^tas on the right hand^ i^ low (from equal ground) on an 
equality^ B^trai (KptfUam) rt Ik riyof to bind (hang) one thing on another. 
In composition : out of, from, away. 

625. 4. irpo (Lsit, pro) before: 

a. of place: wob ^vp&r before the door. 

b. of time: wpd r^s i^dxns before the battle. 

c. of PREFERENCE : wpb ro^»» Ttdvdroi /ioAXoy ttr f Aoiro before these things 
he would rather choose death, 

d. of PROTECTION (for one*s safety, interest), a less frequent use : Tph wai" 
Sflfy ijJix^ffbai to fight for one^s children (prop, in front of them). 

Phrases : wpb voAXov wotuffben (to esteem in preference to much) to eon* 
sider as valuable^ important, Hm. irpb ilBov further on the way. 
In COMPOSITION : before^ forward, forth. 

Digitized by 


846 prepositions and cases. [620 

626. Impbopeb Pbepositions (614). 

5. &HV (pootic Srtp) mthaut^ Lat sine. 

6. irX^ir except; often used as a conjanction, see Bern. r. 

7. axph t**XPh ^ntil; often used as conjunctions (877, 8). 

8. cWjca (also t¥€Ktv^ tivtKCLy poet. ovv€Ka) has two meanings : 

a. <m account of^ for the take of {ytiih. gen. of the motire, Lat. eouad): 
r^f tji^ioi €ptKa xpt^f^f^ r^ tarpf/or the ecuce of health, we employ the phyei- 
eian (cf. 9id with ace, 680 b). 

b. (u regards : hlr^aXAs ^Cv* cirni yt r&r mnto^arrSh he lived in etrfety^ eo 
far aa the eyeophante teere concerned (without danger from them). 

Rem. r. The adverbs fitra^C between, d(xa And x^P^* apart (from), are often 

used as improper prepositions. On the other hano, irXi)y except is often used 

without a genitive, as a conjunction : poet, obx 2ip* 'Axauns Mpes eM wXiiv Sdc 
(with the same meaning as wXV roS8f ) have the Achaeane no men but thi^ one f 

III. With the Dative only. 

627. 1. cV (Hm. cV/, cV) in^ = Lat tn with the ablative : 

a. of plack: h ^rriprfu *'^ Sparta: ^with a word implying number, it 

has the sense of among : iy tovtois among then, Iv 9^1^^ \iytty to epeak (among) 
before the people. 

b. of TIME : iy rolr^ r^ irei in this year. 

c. of OTHER relations: iy r^ ^e^ rh rris ndxrit riXos (in the power of) 
with Ood is the issue of the battle, iy wapaaicwvj clrai to be in (ti course or state 
of) preparation. 

Phrases : iy tvXois cTyai to be (in) under coTns, iy edrt^ ^X^u^ ^<^ {^ ^^^^ 
one in blame) to blame one, iy 6pyg ^X*"^ '''"^ ^ ^ <ingry with one, vttpdaoftai 
iy Koipf o'oi fflroi I will try to be (in good time) uuful to you, iy wposd^mff fiip9i 

in the (part) character of an aadition, as an addition : ^^so iy re^s, rarely 

used to strengthen the superlative : iy ro7s voSaros ^h^ he came first of all 
(i. e. iy rols i^^ova'i among those who came), cf. 605 a. For iy with verbs of 
motion {iy x^P^^ ri^4yai to put in oner's hanas), see 618 a. 

In composition: in, on* 

Note. Rare poetic forms are ely^ elyi, 

628. 2. ovv ( $vv, = Lat. eum) toith^ u e. in company with, in 
connection with (cf. fierd with the gen., 644) : 

iwai9€6eTO <rhy r^ &8cX^ he was educated with his brother, oiry *Aw6?Oimyt 
iylKTio'e he gained the victory with {the help of) Apollo^ irby y6ii^ {in conformity) 
with law (opposed to wapi with ace, 648 e). 

In composition : with, together. 

IV. With the Accusative and Oenitive. 

629. 1. dia through (connected with dvo two, di-xa in two, aparty 
Lat. di-, dii', anmder : prop, through the space which separates two oh*- 

9td with the oekittvb : 
a. of place : Hm. 9tit /iky iurw(9os ^AJ^ ^attv^f Hfiptfioy fyxoj thnrugh f%« 
shining shield paused the stout spear. 

Digitized by 


683] FBEPoamoMs akd oabeb. 847 


b. of nm : 3i& tnNer6t through the nigM^ 9i& mrrbs rov fiiw iiiiifxpantuf to 
he mthoui rttauree through hU whoU life. 

c. of MSAK8 : 8i& rwr 6^daX(tw¥ 6pS/up we see (through) btf meane of the 
eyte^ 8i' ipfuiP^ xiy^tr to npeak by an interpreter, 

d. of a STATE of action or feeling : aWois Zth wo\4fiov Urcu to proceed (in 
the way of war) in a hoetiie manner toward them^ 9th ^$»p yfyreo^at to come 
to be in a state of alarm. 

PiiBABXs : M orSfMTos fx**^ ^ ^^^ **^ <^^^' mouth (passing through the 
mouth), bth x^^^ ^X^^ ^^ ^^' ^^ hand, 9ih rvxiwf (by quick ways) quickly, 

5(& r^Aovi completely, Aid with the gen. often denotes, not the space or 

time of the action itself, but that which separates it from something else : Si& 
fiaxpou after a long interval, VkeaiHiytpt Zih rerpoKooictv ir&r fA4xXowri KetroiKiittr 
they are about to, occupy Jfeesene after (an exile of) 400 yeare, hk woWw ^ifie- 
pwy ^ov at a distance of many daye'Joumeyf Zth 9iKa irdxi^emif wiffyoi feray at 
intervale of ten battlements^ there ioere towers, 

680. 9ii with the accusative : 

a. through, during^ mostly poetic : Hm. 9th 96is»ra through the halls^ 9th 
r^cra during the night. 

b. regularly, on account of (with accus. of the efficient cause, cf. &cjca, 
626 a] : 5<l r^y pSoof x^A^da r^ Uerpf on account of the sickness, we employ 
the pkysician. 

PuRASES : avrhs 9f iwrlv by and for himself, 9ih ri why, wherefore f 
In composition : through^ also apart (Lat. £-, die-) : 9tui^p«t = differo. 

631. 2. Kara (of. adv. Kara) lelwD) originally down (opposed U ava), 
Ktvrd with the genitive: 

a. down from : Hm. fiij 9\ iror^ Obxifiweto Kop^ywr he went down from the 
heights of Olympus, rh, xarh, 79' <^< which is (down from) under around, 

b. down towards, down upon : Hm. ir«r* b^&oXft&r xexvr* ix>MS a mist 
settled down upon his eyes, ^ps Kark x*^P^' ^^P bring water {to pour) on the 
hands. Sence towards : (hratyos Kord rivot praise {directed'S towards one ; but 
usually in a hostile sense, against : f^Msc^ai (jcoKk Xtyety^ lUprvpas mpixwhai) 
Kard rtyos to lie {speak evil, produce witnesses) against one. 

Phrases : ir^Xiy jcaT* ixpas iKeiy to take a city completely (from its highest 
point down), gark nirov in the rear (of an army). 

682. Kord with the accusative, down along; passing otvr, through, or un- 
to; pertaining to, according to: 

a. of PLACE : Karh fovy down etream, Kurii yrjr Koi ^dkaooay (over) by land 
and by sea, Hm. Zsbs tfin Kvrh 8a7ra Zeus came down to the feast. 

b. of time : jroT* iKuror rhr XP^rop at that time^ jtarJk rijp slpi^nip during 
the peace, ol tta!b* 4ffuis our contemporaries, 

c. of OTHER relations : jcora rwTop rbp rpif^op (according to) in this man^ 
ner, icarh wdrra in all respects, jcord 96pafup aeeording to ability, xarh to'js pS^ 
/lovt according to the laws, kot* i/U as regards me^ Ko/rh nip^hpop, dptrrop i9mp 
according to Pindar, water is best (of all things). 

d. in distributive expressions : Hm. Korii ^v\a according to elanSf each 
cUn by itself, Korh rpus by threes, three by three, mtS^ hfUpap day by dau, daily. 

In ooMPoaiTiON: down, against. Often it serves only to strengthen the 
meaning of the simple verb, and in many such cases it cannot be translated. 

633. 3. vtTMp (Hm. also vwc cp) over = Lat. super. 
Mp with the genitive : 

Digitized by 


248 PBEPosmoNS and cases. [6U 

a. of PLACE : 6 ffXios ^ip i/uip wopvUrtu th$ 9unjowney$ aboiM m. 

b. in derived Benf!e,/or, in behalf of: /odxitrQtu 6r4p runs tfi fight for ons 

!orig. orer him, standing over to defend), 6 dirip r^s varp/Sos icii^wof the 
peril) ttrttgale for the fatherland; also in plcux of: fyd^ Mp crow kirticM' 

vovfuu I mil afietoer in thy stead; and on account of: drip r^s iXw^tplas 

ipJas eviauftopl(» I eongratulale you on account ofyour freedom. uw4p in the 

sense otw^pi coneeming is rarely fonnd before Demosthenes: r^r ^ep rov «»- 
\4fiav yp^paiv rota^nip ^x^^ ^^ ^^^'^ ^*^^ ^^ opinion concerning the VKor* 

634. ^4p with the accusatite, over, beyond, of place and measure : Hm. 
Mp ovShv ikh^vro he pawed over the thresholtl, Mp Himiuw beyond one^e ability. 

In COMPOSITION : over^ beyond^ exceedingly^ in behalf of 

V. With the Accusative and Dative. 

635. avd (cC adv. awa above) originally up (opposed to luxra). 

&m( with the DATiTX, only in Epic and lyric poetry, up on : hfk Tapydp^ 
Axp^ on the twnmit of Gargarue^ xfi^tri^ iufit fficitwrp^ upon a golden tee^tre. 

636. kA with the accusatite, up along ; pasang over, through, or unto 
{ct Kord with ace., 632): 

a. of PLACE : &i^ povif up etreamj &i^ voottr r^r T^r over the whole land^ 
Hm. &i^ <rrpafr6p through the camp. 

b. of TixE : &i^ irmroy r^r iiyApar (oyer) through the entire day. 

c. in DiSTRiBtrriYB expressions : hik rirrapas byfoure. 

Phrases : h^ itpdros (up to his power) tnth cJl hu might, Ml XAyw (up to) 
according to proportion, Ml 0x6/^ Kx^ty to have in one'e mouthj to talk oboui 
(cf. Ill, 629). 

In COMPOSITION : up, back, agedn. 

VL With the Accusative^ Genitive^ and Dative. 

Rem. The proper meaning of the preposition is, in general, most 
dearly seen with the datiye. 

637. 1. a^<^t (Lat. amb') connected with ^/i^ both : properly on 
both tides of; hence dbimt (cf. irrpt, 649). 

&fi^( with the DATIYE, only Ionic and poetic, about, and hence concerning, 
on account of: Hm. IZpivet reXofjAv &/ti^l irrlf^artn tlu ehield-etrap unll noeat 
about hie bre(ut, Hd. itfi^ hv6Btp r$ ift^ wtiffofud roi concerning my departure, 1 
will obey you, poet. &/i^ ^0^ on account of fear. 

688. h/A^i with the oenitive, about, concerning : Hd. hfi^ ra^s riis viXtos 
(about) in the neighborhood of this city, tia^peff^ai hfi^l rivos to quarrel about 

689. hfi^i with the accusatiye, about, of place, time, measure, occupation : 
iLfi^l rh Bpia (about) close to the boundaries, hft^l rovror rhr xp^>v about this 
tima, hyu^X rh i^4\Koyra about sixty (Lat. circiter sexaginta), hp/^ 9uvpo¥ worwip 
to be busy about the supper. 

Phrases : ol hfipt rum a person with those about him, hisfristids, followers, 
soldiers, etc. ; hence even ol hii^l Uhdrwa Plato, as head of a philosophic school. 
In covposTTiOH : about, on both sides. 

Digitized by 


645] FSEFOsmoNS and cases. 249 

640. 2, Mtn^ upon. 
M with the datite r 

a. of PLACX : Hm. M x^orl ffirop ISovrcf eatififf bread up<m th$ earthy M 
rff daXdfftrp oIku¥ to live (close upon) by the eea, 

b. of Tin : iw\ rodrois after these things, thereupon, 

c. in OTHEA KSLATiOMS : iwl rois vpdy/uurtp tlnu to be (orer) at the head of 
affaire, M rots woXtfdois eXrai to be (dependent upon) in the power of the enemy, 

M raft x'^P**^ ^ rejoice (on the ground of) on account of something; espe- 

ciallj of the aim, on which an action proceeds: M veuScff rovro H/ut^s in 

order to an education hast thou learned this ; and the condition, on which 

an action depends : M r6Kois 9aifei(sty to lend on interest, iw\ roirtf on this 

641. M with the genititx : 

a. of SPACE, ^to denote the place where : Kvpos vpoh^yero i^* Spfwrot 

Cyrtis appeared upon a chariot, M rov ebe^y^ftov (sc. xifHts) on the left Jwing), 

M fiapTvptffr in the preeence ofwitnessee; or the place whither: M "XiiMv 

wKeof to sail (upon^ toward Samos, 

b. of time : m KpoUrov i^oyros whi^e Croesus reigned, i^ iifuip in our 
time, M Kt¥9iyov in time of danger. 

c in other eelations: Mrijs hpxrif /Jt4v«ty to remain in the office, Kiyew 
iwl riyof to speak (upon) with reference to some one, i^ lovrov olKsir to live by 
himself (hpsat from others), iw^ hidyvp reray/iipoi drawn up with little depth 
(few men in depth). 

642. M with the accusatxys, to (a position) upon, unto: iufofialveiy i^' Tv- 
woy to mount on horseback, iwl 9«|ii toward the right. 

Phrases : iwl wo\t6 to a great distance, &s iwl rh woKitfor the most part, rb 
h^ ifU so far as lam concerned. 

In COMPOSITION : upon, over, after, toward, unto. Often it onlj marks the 
action as going forth upon the object, and in manj such cases cannot well be 

643. 3. furd (akin to fita-os medius) Ormid^ among, 

fierd with the datite, poetic, chiefly Epic : Hm. ''Eieropa hs ^ehs Hones /irr* 
Mpdtri Hefior who woe a god among men. 

644. /isrd with the oenitite, vnth, implying participation (cf. <r^, 628) : 
fisrh r&y ^vfifjtdxstr KtvZvrs^w to meet the dangers of battle (in common) with 
the allies, fierh hoKphov with (amid) tears, yripas fisrh wsidas old age along with 

64o. /lerd with the accusatite : 

a. to (a position) among or along with, poetic : Hm. lifyfierh idyos iraipmp 
going amona the multitude of his friends, Hm. (&r ^evpi yjtp^ AbrofUSorra fiefiiiKu 
he went with his spear after (in pursuit of) Automeaon. 

b. after (so as to be witn something, and obtain or secure it), poetic : Hm. 
finrai furh warrpbs immiliv to go after (in quest of) tidings of a father, Hm. w^\e- 
/ior iiira ^piao'orro they were arming for war. 

c. after, in time or order : fisrh rhy IteXowoyytiffuuchy w6\efioy after the Pe- 
loponnesian war, /isrh ^ohs 4^4 ^i6raToy (after) nezt to the gods, the soul is 
(a thing) most divine. 

FuRASss: /urh xcifMu tx'"^ ^^ ^^ ^^ hand (prop, to take between the 
hands and hold there), fisS^ hl^^poof by day (after day comes, begins). 

Digitized by 



In covMfiiTiOH : with (of sharing), aanonffy between, afteryfrom Gneplaee to 
mnother (jttrart^iyeu to put in <f new place), 

646. 4. vapd (Hm. also trdp, vapcu) alongside of, by, near. 

wapd with the datitb : Hm. wapk mfv^ Kopcn4<n fUfiwdC*"^ to remain by (the 
fiide of) the curved ehipe, tctd m^* iftai ra i/aretpia itrrl with me too (u it were, 
at tnj side) is some experience, 

647. wo/mC with the oxnitite, from beside, from, with yerbs of motion and 
those which imply receiving (outwardly or inwardly) : Hm. bxovooreuf iraph 
rri&p to return from the ships (from a position by or near them), Ka/Afidyev Quty 
dtCrf ly, itKoi€ty) xapd rtyos to take (learn, hear) from aame one. Very rarely, 
and only in poetry, without the meaning ** from " : raunh^ wop* *hrfi4irov ^ttdptfr 
dwelling by the currents oflsmenus. 

C48. wapd with the ACCtrsATirs, to (a position) beside, unio ; also along by : 

a. of PLACE : Hm. r^ 8* aZra Xrjpf itapik k^os but they two went again to the 
ships (to be by or near them), Hm. /3^ 8* &x^wy vop^ hTya ^aJJuraiis he went 
sorrowing along the seorshore, 

b. of TIME : wop* %Ko¥ rhv $top (along by) during his whole life. 

c of COMPARISON : 8ci T^ wpd4^u ^^* iJjJi?ias tA4iw, we must put the ac' 
tions beside each oth^r, compare them, fnuiiv ri xapk rovro somewhat larger in 
comparison with this. 

d. of CAUSE : wap& r^y iiptripaaf ifi^Xtuu^ ^Ihnnros aS^erat on account of 
our neglect Philip is becoming great (prop, by it, in connection with it). 

e. of EXCEPTION or OPPOSITION : fx^M^ ri vop^ rovra HaXa hiyeu^ beside 
this we lutve another thing to 9ay, wapiL r^ rifiet^ contrary to the law (prop, pan- 
ing by or beyond it, tranfr-gressing it) the oppoate of md with aec. (682 c). 

Phrases : Topit pMcp6p by little, within a little, «ap& /utepbp ^Ad«r Avo9ay«& 
Icame near dyinJg, irap& woKb mror to be (victorioiis by much) completely vietori' 
ous, wop* oMp voiet&iM to esteem as naught. 

In COMPOSITION: beside, along by or past, aside, amiss. 

649. 5. nf pi around (on all sides, cf. d^i 637). 
wepl with the datiye, not frequent in Attio prose : 

a. of PLACE : Hm. Mups wwpl or^eenn x'^^'"^ ^ P^ l^ maU-eoat around 
his breast, Hm. wcpl inipi (about the heart) at heart, heartily. 

b. of cause: Hm. wcpl otoi fiaxeU/iepof Kredreovt fighting (about) in de- 
fence of his possessions, iUtea^ vcpl rf x*^^T l^ became alarmed for the place, 

650. V9pl with the oenitite : 

a. chiefly in derived sense, about, concerning (Lat. de) : /SovXct^oyroi wepX 
rov wo\4/Aov they are taking counsel about the war, rtpa 96^ap fx*^ *^^ roOrmp 
what opinion hast thou concemina these things f 

b. in Hm. (surrounding, and hence) sttrpassing, more than: xepi Tdrrwp 
ififiepat 2UA«y to be superior to all others. Hence, in prose, such phrases as 
wcpl voAAov woifto'dai to consider as (mor^ than much) very important, desirable, 
Tspl ovZsphs ^yei&^ai to esteem (Just above nothing) very low, think little of, 

661. irapf with the accusative, nearly the same as iip^t (689) : Ttpl AXyinr- 
TOP about JBgypt, in the region of Egypt ; and in derived sense, wepX ^iXooe^plaf 
awoM(fip to be busily engaged about philosophy. 

In composition : around, (remaining) over, surpassing (with a^fectivea =3 
Lat^oer in permagnus). 

For Hm. w4pi as adverb exceedingly, see 616. 

Digitized by 



652. 6. ffp^ (Hm. also irporfc, nort) at or by (the front of, cL vapdy 
646), akin to irp6. 

Tp6s with the datitx : 
^ <U : 6 Kvpof ^y wpbs BafivK&n Cyrt» woM at Babylon, Also with verba 
of motion (618 a) : Hnu wtrX tk aiaprrpw $dX9 Tofp htU he threw the etaffon the 
ground (eo as to be, Ue, there) ; and in deihred sense : rhr wavv irposix^Te 

b. in adaition to : wphs robots in addition to these things^ furthermore^ 
rpb J rots &AX0iT beside all the rest, 

653. rp6s with the oiNinyB : 

a. t» front of looking towards : wphs 9p^f Kw^oi to be situated over 
against Thrace, ro wpbs karipas rcTxof the westward wall, cf. vp6s with ace. ; 

similarly in swearing : rpbs ^Am before the gods, by the gods. So vplbs ira- 

rp6s (jAirrp6s) on the father's (mother's) side, vpSs no9nay6pov elvai to be on the 
side ^Protagoras, wp6s rtyos Kiytuf to speak on ones side, in one's favor. Urn. 
irphs yhp At6s eWi iuvoifor stranaers are (on the side of) under the care of Zeus, 
Often, to express what is natural ov appropriate on the part of some one : wphs 
Uvrpov ioTi it is the way of a physician^ ohic ^v wp/bs rov K^pov rpiwov it was not 
according to the character of Cyrus, 

b. from (prop, from Defore, cf. wopi, 647) : 6\fios wphs de&v prosperity 

from the gods; sometimes used with passive verbs (instead of bwS, 656 b) : 

wp6s rtros ^ikntobai to be loved by some one (cf. ^ir, 624 c). 

654. wp6s with the acousatite : 

a. to (propw to the front of) : ipxorrai wphs ripMs wpiafitis embassadors come 
to us, wphs rhy Sq/uor iryope6ew to speak to (before) the people, 

b. towards : wobs Bo/I^ay towards the north ; especially of disposition 

or BKLATION toward some one : wtarAs Sioiccurdcu wp6s ram to be faithfully dis- 
posed towards one, wphs fioffiXia awoMs woisia^ai to make a truce with the king, 
tUtcdCw^ai wp6s riMi to carry on a laHhsuit against one, 

c. with a view to, in reference to : wphs rb jaur^ (rvpt^ooy in order to his 
own advantage, wphs ri fie ravr* 4pwr§s (to what end) for what do you ask me 
this f wphs raSra (in view of these things) theirefore, Zuupipetr wphs kperfir to 
differ in respect to virtue, rh, wphs rby w6\Mfiop the thinge pertaining to the war, 
wphs rb ipyipioy rj^y M9upu}plar xpiyeir to judge of happiness (bj reference to) 
according to money, 

Phbasis : wphs ^^j^k, x^^ ^^'^^ <* ^^^ ^^ please, gratify (onc^s self or an> 
otherX wphs filar by (resort to) force, forcibly, wpbs hprii\v in anger, angrily, oMv 
wphs i/U it is nothing tome. 

In COMPOSITION : to, towards, in addition, 

655. 7. vjr6 (Hm. also virai) under = Lat iub. 

iw6 with the oativx : bwb r^ oupar^ under the heavens, bwb r^ 6pei at the 
foot of the mountain, W 'AdiiyaUu slim to be under (the power of) the Athe- 
nians, poetic in Hna x^^ ^* iftsT^fV^ty akowra (Troy) conquered (under) by 
our hands. 

656. bw6 with the obnititb : 

a. of PLACE : bwb yris under the earth; Whence in some expresaons of 

DEPENDENCE : bw* avKttrStv x'^P^o' ^ ^^'"^^ ^""^^ (^ ^^^ 9f) fl^t*^l<'y^9. 
But much oftener, under the working of a oauae or agent : hence 

b. of AOENCT, with PASSIVE VERBS OF thooo of passive meaning: riiMobai 
vwb r&r wokerAv to be honored by the eiUzens, i wfyas Hher bwb rmv 'EAX^Miv the 

Digitized by 



eity toos iaken by the Oreekij voAXol -iard^ayop tvh rmw fiapfidptn^ many dM 
(were slain) by the barbarians, 

c. of CAU8X : imh y^fws iur^€piit t(y he was weak by reaeon of old age, 

657. br6 with the accusatiye : 

a. of PULCE, prop, to (a position) under : Hm. 6irh w6vTor Maero mftaipow 
ra he dived under the surging sea; used also in expressions denoting rest (618 
a) : bich rh 6pos rfb\i(oyTO they were passing the niglU at the foot of the mountain. 
Hence, in derived sense, of subjection : w6\Mtt re ical $dinii b^* kurrohs wotuadat 
to bring cities and nations under their power, 

b. of TiicE (under a time either impending or in progress) : bwh yvKrajust 
before night (Lat sub noctem) ; bwh riiy r^jcra durina the night. 

In COMPOSITION : under ^ secretly, slightly^ gradually. It is sometimes used 
where the idea under is foreign to our conceptions, and m many such casea 
can hardly be translated. 


658. For attribntiye and predicate-adjectiYe, see 488. For agreement 
of adjective and substantive, see 498. For omitted subject, and use of 
adjective as substantive, see 509. For peculiarities in number and gen- 
der, see 511-23. For use of adjective as adverb, see 226, 228. For neuter 
adjective used as cognate-accusative, see 547 c. 

Degrees of Co^nparison, 

659. Positive for Comparative. The positive may express a quality 
as disproportioned to the circumstances of the case, and may thus nave a 
comparative force : 

ri x^P^ Cfwcpii 8^ ^| Ucunis Karat the territory^ from being sufficient, will be^ 
come small (i. e. too small, smaller than its inhabitants require). In most cases 
of the kind, an infinitive follows, usuaUy with &s or &st9 : b?dyoi iir/ikr &f 
iyKparels etyai aur&if we are too few to have possession of them, 

660. CoMPABATiYE. The comparative degree may be follow- 
ed by a genitive, or by ^ than (see 686-6). 

a. The genitive is always used, when the comparative is followed by a re- 
flexive pronoun : Stay iv run Ku^bypp £iri, toXXS xcTpor laimvr \4r^^i whenever 
they are in any danger^ they speak much worse (than themselves, i. e. than they 
do under other circumstances) than they usually do. Compare fi4\rurros 4av- 
rov (best of himself, better than in any other state) in his best estate (659 a). 

b. 4 is always used, when the two objects of comparison are adjectives : 
both of these are then put in the comparative : arpaTtrfoi TKelopss fi fieXriores 
generals more numerous than goody cvrrofAiirepov ^ aapiarepw 8iaX<x^'^ '^ 
discourse more briefly than dearly, 

0. ff is used after the comparative, when the quality is represented as die- 
proportioned to something : thus % Kord with the ace., ^orli&sorli ftsrc with 
the infin. : po/uA4ms fieXrimp ^ jror^ ftydpcMror a lawgiver better (than according 
to man) than consisU with man's nature, /m({W 4 Kork ^dxpua vnr^i'darc they 

Digitized by 



hmv0 tufered things too grwt for ieart, fitkrlws 1^ tuh 9^pmy wmrphna^tu too 
good to he udueod by gi/Uy 4?Jrr» h^rofiuf ix^t ^ ftsrf robs ^lAovs &^€\w lie 
haa too little power to serve hiefriende, 

d. f^ is sometimes irregularly omitted, when itTUop (irAciy) nwre or txmrop 
(fuiiop) Use is followed by a numeral not in the genitive : inroKrtlyovfft rSop &r* 
5/)fiy eh fuloy T^yrwcoatous they kill not le$8 {than) COO of the men. The same 
adrerbs, with or without f^, may be used for any case or number of the adjec- 
tire: thus in the last example, fiuoy = fi9tovas\ M^wop ohx fXwrrov (= ixdr' 
rorff) r&v rfico<n there fell not len Vuin 20, ^r wA/or (= -wXioatv) ^ luucoclois 
irwi in more than 200 years, 

661. Instead of the genitiye or the particle fj^ other forms are some- 
times used with the comparative : 

alpeT^9o6s ierri h Kokhs ^diwros iirrX rov alaxpov $io» a noble death ie more 
to he denred than (lit. instead of) a shameful Ixfe^ fofiky wcpl mXeiwot woiov wp^ 
rov Zutaioo consider nothing as of more account than (lit. before) /tM^iee, x*^¥^^ 
fuiCw wop^ 'Hip Ke&etrniKvidp &pap a cold more Severe than (lit. in comparison 
with) the ordinary seaeony wobs iMapras rahs AXkevt ol XvooKSeruH vXelcf iwopl- 
erapTo the Syracusans provided more than (lit. in relation to) all the rest^ 6 w^Ac- 
fios ohx StXmp rh t\4op dAA^ Zawdpfis tear is not a thing of arms so much as of 
expense (lit not of arms more, but of expense). 

662. The comparatire is often used absoltttblt, i. e. without any ob- 
ject depending on it. Such an object may then be understood from the 
connection : 

alper^epop rh abrapKiffrepop the more independent position is more desirable 
j[than another less independent), fi'li rt pe^epop iiTayyihXMis do you report any- 
thing newer (than we know already)? 6fieaf6p i<m hwh ^elov jcol ^poplfMv Kpx<* 

0dcu it is better to be governed by a divine and intelligent being, ^Thus the 

comparative may signify more than others, more than is usual or proper, 
and may be rendered sometimes by the positive with too, quite, tsrt : ol tro» 
^^epoi iJu wiser, men of superior wistjofn^ el koJL yeXoiArepop ehteip though it is 
rather a funny tiling to say, 

663. SuPERLATiYE. The superlatire represents a Quality as belonging 
to itff subject in a higher d^;ree than to an^ other individual of the same 
class. This class is most commonly designated by a genitiycpartitiye 
(559 a), which may often be understood where there is none expressed. 
But the superlative is also used without definite reference to a class, to 
represent a quality as belonging to its subject in a very high degree : 
aptfp (To(fiv>raxoi a tery toiM man, 

664. Strengthened Forms, The superlative is strengthened by Tarious 
additions, especially by a prefixed a>f or ort, less often g (in poetry also 
on-tff ) : 

&f iXaxi^rmp Zeiffbai to have the very smallest wants, 8ri fid\iara <u much as 
possible, Sri ip fipaxvrdr^ in the shortest possible space, $ ^ara in th£ easiest 
manner. Sometimes &s and trt are used together: 4f»i &s tri fi4\riarop ytp4- 
tfdoi that I should become as good as may be. The adj. pron. otos has a similar 
use : 6pm rk rpdyfufra ohx om $ikrtara 6pTa I see thai our affairs are not in the 
very best candiHon, twros wdtyov ^Ibv Scawrirov thwe being a froa ofextremi 

Digitized by 



ft. These forms of ezpressioa ftppear to bare ftrisen by inoorpomtioii ftnd 
attrftotion(810>ll): oSrMf 9t7&datf As ixAxurrd 4vrt to wani {thinoM) in tkat 
foaify in which they (the things wanted) are least, iw ro^r^ 8 rt fipax6ruT6y iart 
in that space tohich is shortest, iftk &s rovro 8 ri jB^ArMT^r itrri ytirMm that I 
should become as that tohich is best, Tdtyov roiodrov olof 9taf6Tar6s iari a frost of 
that sort which is most severe, 

b. In such expressions, words denoting possxbilitt are sometimes found 
(but not with 8ri) : Ztnyfierotuu its hw ^^tmftat 8i& fiftaxordrttp IwiU state in the 
briefest terms lam able, oJ AoiccSaifi^yioi air^ } kintirrhv fMrptatrdr^ Tp4^otfn the 
Lacedaemonians support life wiUi an amount of bread as moderate as possible, 
^ arparihf Zariv vKtiffrtiv ii^twro he led as large an army as he coula. 

665. a. The superlatire is also strengthened by 94 annexed : fiffiaros H 
the very ffreatest. For ip rots with superl., see 627. X negative form of ex- 
pression may bo used with emphasis : oifx ixdx*ffTos not least = very great 
(an example of /ttdfox).— »The superlatiye may receive emphasis from the 
numeral ets : irAciora eXs &i^p Svi^i/Acyos it^\ei¥ being able to render most aid 
(as one man, i. e.) beyond any other one man. 

b. Sometimes ftdUurra is added to the superlaUve : 8i& robs rS/iovs lUXiara 
/iilytaToi iirre through the laws ye are piost of all greatest. So /uiAAoy is some- 
times found with the comparatiye : alrxvrnipSTepos /ioAAor rou iiorros bashful 
more than he ought to be» 

666. The participles never form a comparative and saperlative, bnt 
take /ioXXoi', iifiXtara instead. This is the case also with many verbals 
in rot, and with some other adjectives. It is sometimes the case even 
with adjectives which usually form the comparative and superlative. 


667. The Personal PBONOuire, when they stand in the 
nominative, are emphatic ; otherwise they would be omitted 
(604 a): 

icol ob trifrci abT6if thou also wilt see him (thou as well as others). Yet they 
have little emphasis in some phrases, such as &s ^ iucoim [mnMrofuUf o7f»w) 
ae I hear {learn^ think), 

668. The pronoun ol, oT, etc, of the third person, is in Attic always 
reflexive (671 a) ; instead'of it, avr6s is used as a |Mr8^2 pronoun : this 
also, when it stands in the nom., is emphatic : eldov aMfv I taw her, avrhf 
€(f)rj (ipse dixit) he hivMelf (the master) eaid it, 

669. Intensive Pbonoun. a. Autos, in agreement with a 
substantive, is intensive or emphatio (= Lat. ipse) : 6 dv^ avros 
or avros 6 avT^p the man himsdf (538 b). 

So with various shades of meaning: iwurrfifvn oMi knowledge in itself (ia 
its own nature) ; ^ yetepyia wdKJJi ical aMi ZtMaitei etgrieulture itself also (as 
weU as other pursuits) chords much instruction ; iryovftui rifp fi/iertMOf w^JUy 
oMir wokb KpeUrtrm eliw I believe our eiiy by s^m/^ (alone) to be much euperier 
in strength ; drrol bpyt(6fMm o/ erparimrai the soldiers being angry ofthemedeu 

Digitized by 


671] bbvubuvb fsonoxtns. 255 

(aiide from the infinenoe of oth«n) ; h^ oMts rots tHyiakins on the toMU them- 
8sUma ( jusfe upon, close upon, the coaats) ; Tempos rovf Kxafiw afrrotr Mpdtn 
thtijf tookfimr Mps, enw$ and all (604). It is used, bj a peculiar idiom, with 
OSDIXAL numerals : i<rro9irtrrMi Vudas rplrot ahT6s Nieias imm general with ttoo 
--'1 (being himselt third and chief). 

b. It is often emphatic when it stands by itself (in agreement 
with a word understood) ; in the nom. it is always so (668), and 
sometimes in the oblique cases : 

Bfwoidcw r$ OcffVtt\dr 7^ xed aJbroh (sc. rtns %wff.) sixos ^p BraAdae was a 
friend to the country of the Theeioliane and to {the p^opie) themeelvee, v^Mwrriov 
(sc. 6fuy) eU riis rpiiifMis abrois 4/ifiaffi (ffou) muet sot/, htmna yourtelve* gone 
on hoard o^ the triremee^ oitx oiirre hiM>^ wMif $irrm (so. rin() fiAAovf wotup In- 
fuKns it te impossible (for one) who is careless himself to hums others careful, 

c. But usually, when standing by itself in an oblique case, 
it serves as a personal pronoun (668), or a weak demonstrative, 
referring to a person or thing previously mentioned (491 b) : 

K^Mi vapntroM eU iic XlcXosviv^irsv pneSt ffol h^ tdtrms Tlvday6pas the ships 
frcm JPdoponnesus joined Cyrus^ and PythtuHras in command of them, o^s 9h 
/lil etpi^KoPf Ktporiputp ahrots ^oincatf eueh as they did not Jindj they made a 
cenotaph for them. / 

For 6 edn6s the samCf see 58S b. ^^ 

670. The Reflbxivb Pbonouxs refer to the subject of the 
sentence : ra apurra jSovXcueo-'^c Ifuv axrroU take the best counsel 
far yourselves. 

' a. When connected with a dependent verb (finite. infiniti?e, or par- 
ticiple), they refer to the subject, not of the dependent, but of the prir^ 
eipal verb ; and are then said to be indirect beflkxites : 

rh poudyiOf Zaa rpihs ry iatrr&p (yy) ^p, hptiXoPTO they took up the wrecks^ as 
many as were close to their own (land)^ 6 r^poppos pofd(ei robs ToxSras 6iniprrt7p 
iavr^ the tyrant thinks that tlte citizens are servants to him (lit. to himself), 
ro^Mf ^p|c Kvpos ovx iavr$ dfJUfyKt&rrvp tpr»p Cyrus becamemruler of these, 
though they were not of the same tongue with him. 

b. Sometimes, however, the reflexire pronouns refer, not to the principal 
subject, but to a dependent word : htrh ffaurov ve 9iid^vfrom yourself I will in- 
etrvet you, (riKovre robs ftifiip kokSp a^trip ahrots ovpeiSSras emulate those who 
arsconseious (with themselves) in their own minds of no m/, rhp KctfidoxriP 4x^^ 
Uepo^Skp ieyefp wphs robs lavrov oUiras Xenophon went conducting the governor 
of the village to his own people (the governor's, not Xenophon^s). 

671. The personal pronouns are sometimes used instead of the ro- 
flezive : 

BoK& fun obK iarapdtrKwos cTkoi /(seem to myself to be) think that lam not 

without preparation; especially for the indireot reflexives: obx «l«*f ' « 

Xphvecrbe air^ PopdCsi he thinks that you will not know what to do with him. 

a. The personal pronouns of the third person ( 0?, of, etc.) are in Attic 
always used as indirect reflexives ; bnt oS and ? are rare in Attic prose, and oT 
Is seldom emphatic : ^yxX^/iara iwotovrro, hr»s c^lctp tri fityUmi wpS^a^ts Ati 
ToD inkspu^p they were bringing charges, that they might have the greatest poa* 

Digitized by 


256 FOfiSESsnrs fbonodxb. [671 

n6/« color for making icar, X^yrrat 'At^Mmf Mttptu Mapff6am ipiCovrd ol vtpk 
iro^las Apollo is said to have flayed Marsyas, when contending with him (Apollo) 
in respect to skill. 

b. Id Hm.f o5, of, etc., are freely used as personal pronouns (= Att avrov^ 
-j^f , etc.) : airr6fien'os U ol ^X^ McWAops but Menelaus of his own accord eam€ 
to him ;— yet they are often reflexive : ywn^p iK4\€v9% to firftaaur^ai ia^yiep 
the stomach requires one perforce to think of it, 

6*72. a. ThQ reflexive pronoun of the third person is sometimes used for that 
of the first and second : 9«« ^fjuis hvtpia^ai iavTo6s toe must question ourselves. 
— -In Hm., the possessive pronoun is {i6s) has a similar use : ov yiLp ^^ywyc 
f s (for ifiris) yairfs Hiyoftag yKuMp^spov $XKo IXier^au for lean look on nothing 
sweeter than {mine) own land. 

b. The reflexive pronoun, in the plural forms, is often used for the recipro- 
cal (Axx^Awr, itX\4iKins9 etc.) : 8ic\c7^/Mda iffiTy eirots toe were comursing (with 
ourselves) with one another. 

673. The forms c/ic avT6v^ avrov fis^ o-c avnSi^, airrov o-€, and the like, 
are emphatic only, not refleziye : 

robs weuBas robs ifuhs Kor^ax'nfs irol ifi^ aMp he insulted my children and 
me myself poet, abrf ravrd trot SfSvfu to thee thyself do I^ive thUe things. In- 
stead of I abr^y, etc., in the tliird person, aibr6if alone is used : Kufifidafovaw 
airrhp Kol ywaUa they take the man himself and his wife. In the plural, ^/unf 
ahr&y, etc., may be cither reflexive or emphatic ; aArw ij/Mvr, etc., emphatic 
only : but ir^v abr&y \a only reflexive, and avrSy a^wf is never used. 

' a. But fh Hm., to whom the compound reflexives are unknown (235 D), 
such forms as I aMv^ oTatrrft ^o\ o^r^, etc., are sometimes reflexive and some- 
times emphatic. 

674. The reflexive pronoun may be made to receiye emphasis bj pre- 
fixing avTos to it : 

aitr6s in this use agrees, not with the reflexive itself, but with the subject 
to which it refers: abrhs abrhy inr4Krstv€ he (himself) killed himself rhy ero^y 
ainhy eJnf fidjsjffra 9sT ero^y elyai the wise man must be wise especially for him- 
self The two pronouns are separated by a preposidon : rit /Uy aMi Zt* a&r^s 
il ^rvx^ iruntorti some things the soul surveys by itself ; but not, usually, by the 
article : Kara\^\tricc rijy aSrhs a&rov 9vyairrsitty he has overthrown his own dth 

675. PossKSsivB Pronouns. The article is often used instead 
of an (unemphatic) possessive pronoun (527 d). (For the article 
with a possessive pronoun, see 638 c.) 

a. The genitive of the personal pronoun is very commonly used in- 
stead of the possessive : aov 6 vios or 6 vl6s a-ov (for the position, see 538 a). 
For the 3d person, the Attic prose always has avrov, -rjs his, ner, its (in- 
stead of Of) ; and avrw their (instead of v<t>*Tepos). <r<f>fTepo£ in Attic 

prose is always reflexive : Ss or ecJf is only poetic. 

b. The possessive, being thus nearly equivalent to the genitive of a per- 
sonal pronoun, may have an at^ective or appositive connected with it in the 
genitive (cf. 628 b) : i^ ifxer^pa r&y tro^f/ffr&y r^xrii hnJi4}k»KS the art of you the 
sophists has advanced^ poet, ritfik 9v<rr^yov Mucd the iUs of me, unhappy ons, 
Hm. IfjJrtpQS ar §1 fi\y ^fibs yefualCerat aurHy if your (own) mind is oginded. 

Digitized by 


680] DEM0M8TRATIVB FR0M0U1C8. 257 

67d. The posseasiye pronouns often have a reflexiye use : 

rmw XP^I*^^* ^^* '''^^ ^/i»y itixpflfu I lend to thee of my own property : as to 
&^4r9poSf see 675 a. In this use, 4ifi4T§poSf ifiirtpos commoQly take ain&p 
(675 b) : ^fi4r9pa abruy tpya oh \4yofity our own (letione we do not meak ; for 
tr^ertpos aJbrSav^ thQ genitive kaan&v is frequent :, rcb atpirtpa wr&v (or rcb iav 
r&v) c? rf^cirdtu to manage well their own affaire. The forms ifths tdnov (-i}s), 
ahs ovrov {j%s) are poetic : the genitives iftaurov (-nj)» treavrov (-^f) are used in- 
stead ; and in the third person, iaurov (-^f )• 

677. A possessive pronoun is sometimes equivalent to an ol>jective genitive : 
€ffpota ri ifiii good-will to ma (not my good-wili to another) ; so tr^p j^uf (as a 
favor to thee) for thy sake, 

678. Dbmonstbativb Pbonquns. The ordinary demonstra- 
tive is ovTos this^ that. 'OSc this (here) is used of something near 
OT present; cicctvos that (yonder), of something remote, 

a. These pronouns, and especially ode, are sometimes used almost as 
adverbs of place : 

cdfrioy Xoupt^p 59e Chaerephon here ie to blame for it, poet. 6p& T/iyV ix 
96/imy artlxownuf *UKdaTnp I eee Joeaete coming hither from the house, /mrcZr 
odroi vo\4fuoi ^aiyoyrai there are seen horsemen of the enemy (** those horse- 
men " would be expressed by ol hntus oSroi), yrjes iKtofoi iirtx\4ov<ri yonder 
are ships sailing towards us, ^ 

670. In referring to an object already mentioned, olrot is generally 
used ; but ode, in reference to an object yet to bo mentioned : IXc (ov ravra 
they said these things (before stated), tke^av rabe they said these things 
(which follow). The same distinction exists also between roiovros 9uch^ 
Toa-oxfTOi so much, manyy rrjXiKovros so old^ large^ — and the corresponding 
forms in dc, rocdrdf, To<rifdc, nyXtKordf. 

a. Yet otros is sometimes used— especiaUj the neuter rovro—^ reference 
to a word or sentence following in apposition : oh rovro lUvop iyyoothrrai, ri irc(- 
troyrai they think not of this alone, what they shall suffer. More rarely, 99t is 
used in reference to something before mentioned. 

b. *EK€iyos is also used in referring to an object before mentioned, even 
when mentioned immediately before, if the object is thought of as remote, 
or is otherwise especially distinguished : Kvpos Kodop^ fieuriMa Kcd rh iift^* iKtt- 
vw urt^s Cyrus observes the king and the hand around him (some way off, as 
leader of the opposite armyV ^EKttyos may even refer to a word or sentence 
following in apposition : ire^>a Utlvmy^ olfteu, vaph r&y firiitvort woKt/iltfy from 
those, I think, (Yiz,)from such cls neater were hostile. 

680. OvTot sometimes repeats the subject or object of a sentence with 
emphatic force : 

6 rh awfyfM wapatrxiiiyf otros r&y ^Cyrcoy ciCrios the one who furnished the 
feed, he is responsible for what grew from it. So ahrSs, but without emphasis: 
vttpdtrofuu TV -rdn^f Kpdrwros i^y hrv§6f, ovfiftaxtiy ofrry to my gr<mdfather^ 
Twill try, being a first-rate horseman, to act as an ally to him. 

For iced ravra and that with omitted yerb, see 508 b. 
a. Olros is sometimes used in addressmg a person: oSrof, rlmietsyou 
there, what are you doing (678 a). * 

Digitized by 



681. Relative PROKOfTNS. For agreement of relattve tad antecedent, 
see 503. For peculiarities of relative sentences, see 807-23. 

a. The ordinary relatives (or, oo-of, otof, etc) are often used where 
the antecedent is indefinite : nti^ovrai ots hv (= ovtrwag 3w) nyAvrai /3eX- 
TicTTovs €ipai they obey (those, any) wh&m they may think to Ve tot 

b. Bat the indefinite relatives (on-cr, 6frc$aror, 6irocoff, etc.) are not 
used where the antecedent is definite or particular. Where the antecedent 
is apparently of this nature, an indefinite idea is really connected with it : 
Hd. cVffdvfimrff noXvieparca dtroXccnu, dc* ovrwa kok&s 1fttav99 he derired 
to deetroy Polyerdtes^ (as being a person) en fohoae aeeount he wa$ iU 
epoken of. Yet in late writers, omr, etc., are sometimes used without 
any indefinite idea. 

For indefinite relatives used as (dependent) interrogatives, see 68^ 
825 : as indefinites, see 816 a. 

682. Inter ROGATivEs, A question may be— 1. one which the 
speaker himself asks {direct question) : re ^vKtaUt what do you toant f 

or 2. one which he describes as being asked {indirect or dependeiU 

question) : r^pwra rl povkoivro he aaied what they wanted. 

The interrogatives (pronouns and adverbs, 247-8) are used in both 
kinds of questions. But in dependent questions, the indefinite relatives 
are more common: ffpara B ri fiov\oivTo\ in direct questions, they are 
never found. 

For peculiarities of interrogative sentences, see 824-31. 

"^ \ 
>. \ 683. Indefinite Pronouns. The pronoun ret, ti, may express m- 

definiteness, not in respect to the particular object, but m regard to its 

nature or gtLalUy : 

6 ao^urr^s ir4^airral ns Kfivepos the eophitt hoe been ehown to be (not sodie 

one who trades, but one who pursues some trade) a eori of trader. In this 

sense, it is often connected with adiectives : /i^ ^\ti(| ru koI liki^es y4tn$fiM 

lest lehoiUd come to be a sort of dull and simple fellow (not some one who is 

dull, but one who has some dullness) : so rouun' ftrra (not some things of that 

kind, but) things of aome such kindf fxiyas ns of some magnitudej /r ^pox'^'i ran 

Xp6p9» in a pretty short time^ rptdKotrrd runs &ir^jcreiyciy they killed {name thirty) 

about thirty^ 6\lyoi rtyes some few, 

a. So rl with adverbs : ax^^Sy ri pretty near^ fitfiip ri vdmf ZuMc6fiam 
scarcely pursued at all (lit. a sort of none at all). 

b. Uas ris, Sfirmrr^s rir, denote every one, each onCy taken at pleasure. Tlr 
is sometimes used in the sing., when several must be thought of: xph 9c<vyc7y 
5 T« TI5 lx«« whatever one (and another) has^ he (they) must make a supper of it, 

c. tis is sometimes used with an implied notion of importance : poet 
V^X**' ^^^ ^^"^ y*^ pretended to be somebody (of consequence), xiy^uf n to say 
eometmng (worth while) : so ohZ\¥ \4ytitf to say nothing (worth wlule). 

Digitized by 


688] TQIGE8, AGTIYS, UDDLE. t59 



684. The active voice represents the suhject as acting. It 
is transitive when the action passes over to a airect object, other- 
wise intransitive. 

a. The active voice of some verbs has both a transitive and an in- 
transitive meaning: 

iXairfaf tr. to drive^ intr. to nde, march ; wpirrtw tr. to doj intr. cS (jroxSt) 
wpdTT€iF to (do, L e.) tueeeed toell (ill) ; fx'uf tr. to have, hold, iotr. Ix« H (hold) 
ttop now, Ix* ^P^ff'h i^f^xS (hold) keep still, koK&s Hx^i Lat. bene so habet, it it 

veil. In English, this is still more common, as in the verbs to move, turn, 

break, melt, inerecue, etc. 

In some verbs, the two meanings belong to different tenses, see 416-7. 

685. Some transitive verbs have an intransitive meaning only when 
compounded with a preposition : 

fidkXtof to throw, ixrrafiiMyiaf (to throw from one place to another^ to ekanff§ 
tr. and intr., cls^cUXciy and ififidfikeuf to make an invasion, also (of rivers) to 
empty; M6rat to give, MMyai to give in, nsrrender tr. and intr., i^iHiHipoi to 
advance, improve; K^my to cut, wpoxSwrea^ to make progress ; ^4ptiy to bear^ 
^M^petM to differ. 

For intransitive verbs which become transitive in composition, see 644 d. 

686. A subject is often described by the active as doing what it only 
causes another to do (caxuative use) : 6 Kvpor Karttcavae rh jSuriXcia Oyrtu 
burnt the palace, i. e. caused it to be burnt. 


687. The middle voice represents the subject as acting on 
itself, that is, as a£fected by its own action. 

It is, therefore, reflexive in meaning, the action, as it were, turning 
back upon the agent. Like the active, it is transitive when it takes a 

direct object: wpdnea^ai xp^fw^a ^ ff^^ ^w^* self money ; otherwise, 

intransitive: aTrc^ca^ac (to hold one's self awav) to abstain. 

The subject may be variously affected by the action. Hence we dis- 
tinguish the following uses of the middle : 

688. 1. The Direct Middle, ^in which the subject of the 

action is at the same time its direct object : 

Xo6ta^cu to toash (one^s self), rphtea^at to turn (one^s self), irMxrvir^eu 
to show one's self, taraa-^at to set one's self, ica\^«T«o'dai to cover one's self. In« 
Btcad of the reflexive form, an intransitive verb is often to be used in Eng. : 
vaituf to make cease, ra^a^ai (to make one^s self cease) to cease; ^rciy to 
show, ^ycirdcu (to show one's self) to appear; we£^iy to persuade (cause to 
believe), veidtffdai (to make one's self believe) to trust, comply. 

Digitized by 


860 lODDLB TQICB. [68d 

A. The direct middle is mnob less frequent than the indirect : instead of 
it, the active Toice is generally used with a reflexiye pronoun. Even with the 
middle Toice a reflexiTe pronoun is sometimes used for the sake of clearness 
or emphasis : ^^^orrai ^ KOKwrtu ijias il afas avrchs fitfiat^itraff^ai they will 
get the start either in harming ve orin securing themselves, 

689. 2. The Indirectt Middlb, in which the subject of 

the action is at the same time its indirect object, most commonljr 
as dative of interest, foe one'« self: 

iroplCti^ to procure^ iropi(fa^tu (xpiifittTa) to procure (money) for oneU sel/f 
trKwr^M rh H<pos to draw (for oneVself ) one's own sword, iywSat ywnuma to 
take a wife (to one^s own bouse), fifraxifixofud rum I send after one (that be 
may come to me), Hm. ahrhs ip4\ic€rai Mpa ai^ripos the iron itself Sraws tks 
man to it. Thus too, 6 rofw^irns ri^tri tifutus the lawgiver makes laws (for 
others), but 6 Hrjftos rl^rrai vS^ovs the people makes laws for itself. 

a. It may be for the interest of the subject that something should be re- 
moTcd raoM it: dfi^ycirdai Kivtwop to ward of danger (for one's self, I. e,)from 
one''s self rp€w6fU^ rohs voKt/xlovs we turn the enemy from ourselves, put them 
to flighty &iro8^ir3cu vaut^ to sell a ship (prop, to give it from and for one's seU^ 
for value received). 

b. In some verbs, the indirect middle has a causatite use (686) : 
Zi^da-KOfuu rhy vl6y I procure instruction for my son (make others teach him 

for me), wapart^^ftat 8c<iryoy / have a meal served up to mt (make others serve 
it for me) ; 9aif€lC» I lend, 9awtiCofuu (I make one lend to me^ I borrow; fuff^6» 
I let for hire, fwr^ovfuu (I make one let to me) I hire; ^ucdCn Igivejudgmtni, 
huei(ofuu (I make one give Judgment for me, in my case) I maintain a siat at 

690. 3. The SuBJBonvE Middle, ^in which the subject is 

thought of as acting in his own sphere, with his own means and 
powers : 

vap^xety to furnish in any way, 'wapix*^^^ lo afford from oneU <Aon property ; 
Totnv wdKefAoy to make war simply, woiCi<r3ai ir6Keiut9 to make war with veWs 
own resources; kofifidyety ri to take something, Kofifidyta^ tufos to take hold 
of someVdng with one's own hand; aimwuv to view, iricoTeurdeu to take one's own 
view, consider in his mind, 

a. Hence some intransitive verbs form a middle, which gives special pro- 
minence to the subject, as acting in his own sphere : fiouKe^ety to take couns^, 
^ov\c^elr3al to take one's own counsel, form his own plan; woArrc^ciy to he a 
citizen, act as such, woXxTc^ffo-doi to perform one's civic Adies (espec public 
duties), to conduct public affairs; wpc<r^c^civ to be an embassador, negotiator, 
vp€a$e^€a^at (used of the state) to conduct its negotiations (by sending embas- 

691. The following verbs may be added to those already given, as showing 
various and important differences of meaning between active and middle : alpety 
to take, alptiff^ai to choose; iirrttp to fasten, iTrea-^at (to fasten one's self to) 
to touch; I'xeu' to hold, ^x*^^^ l*^ holaofi to, hence to be close to; riftMp^ty run 
to act as avenger or helper to a person, rifiMpeurM. rura to avenge one^s self on a 
person ; Apxn I begin (in advance of otJiers, opposed to bartpS am behind), 
ApxofMi I begin (my own work, without reference to others, opposed to m^/ioi 

Digitized by 


694] PASSIVE VOICE. 261 

Teean); 6 Herttp ypdi^ p6/mp th& oratcr (writes) proposeM a 2a», 4 ttar^yopos 
ypd^ertu rhif iZucfi<rarra the plaintiff IringB his wit (indiotment) againsi the 

a. The same verb may have different uses of the middle Toice : thus Si- 
^dcKOfuu indirect middle with causatiTc meaning (689 b) ; but also as direct 
middle, I teach mysel/y Uam, 

602. Deponent Verbs show the same uses of the middle voice, and 
differ from the verbs already given only in having no active : 

thus, Direct Middle, ^ifx^cM'deu (to hold one^s self under) to undertake, 
prcmite; Indirect, 94x*if^ai to receive (to one's self), ktSc^oi to acquire (for 
one's self), iamfiiAffaa&eu causative, to (make live again) reanimate ; Subjective, 
d^yw^Ceaiai to eoniend (with one's own powers), oTc^dai to think (in one's own 
mind). For passive deponents, see 418. 

For future middle used in passive sense, see 412 b. 


693. The passive voice represents the subject as acted on, 
or suffering an action. 

Hence the object of the active verb becomes the subject of the pas- 
sive. The subject of the active verb (the agent) is variously expressed 
with the passive ; sometimes by the dative (600) : usually by vno with 
the genitive ; rarely by other prepositions (624 c, 653 b). 

694. The passive is used in Greek more freelyHhan in Latin, espe- 
cially in these particulars : 

a. Many verbs form a passive voice, which in the active take their object 
in the genitive or dative (not in the accusative) : jrom^pord riyos I despise some 
one, Korai^poyeTral rts W ^/u»0; wiore^ouori rf fituriku they trust tne king, 4 
/ScuriAcirs irurre^M 6^ axnwv. 

b. Neuter passive participles are formed from verbs wholly intransitive : 
T& orpaTev6fiepa the things done in making war, military operations, rh iroX wc- 
iroXtrevfJra thy political course or conduct, 

c. Deponent verbs (though properly middle, 413) are sometimes used with 
passive meaning : in this use, the aorist and future take the passive form : fiiJi- 
ieerdm to do viwenee, Aor. fitiffaff^ai ; but also pass, to suffer violence, Aor. $tar 
a^poi (cC 416). So too in other verbs, a passive meaning may arise from that 
of tbe middle: alpw to take; Mid. a/pcurdai, Aor. iA./o'dai, to choose; Pass, 
ci/pccirdcu, Aor. d^Md^nu, to he taken, also to be chosen. 

Riic. d. On the other hand, the Latin impersonal passive from intransitive 
verbs (currUur, ventum est, etc.) is unknown to the Greek. 
For Aor. Pass, with middle sense, see 414^ 

Digitized by 






695, The tenses of the verb dbtingaish the action 1. in 

relation to its own progress : 2. in relation to the time of 

speaking. Hence 

1, The tenses represent the AcnoN as continued^ completed, 
or indefinite. 

a. Ill the indefinite tenses, the action is Tiewed at the outset of its pro- 
gress, as introduced into being, hntught to pau^ without reference to conUnu- 
aiice or completion. In the continued tenses, it is viewed in the coubsb of 
its progress, as going on, without reference to introduction or completion. In 
the complete tenses, it is viewed at the close of its progress, as eonduded, with- 
out reference to introduction or continuance. 

696. 2. The tenses of the indicative also express time, present^ 
pasty and/wiure. Thus 

Fut. Perf. 





at the present time 

at a past <' 

at a past " 

at a future ^ 

at the present ^^ 

at a past ^ 

at a future ^ 

ypd<t>tB am ftriting 
iypaipov fooi writing 
Kypa'^ra wrote 
ypd^ta sJiaU write 
yfypa^a ha/ce written 
iy€ypd<f)tiy had written 
y€ypdyjtofjuu shall hate 

\heen written 

a. It will be obseryed that the above scheme has no form for action 
brought to pass at the present time, or action continued at a future time. 
But these deficiencies are usually supplied by the present and the future : 
thus vpa0fi> / am writing, but also / write ; ypayira I shall write, also 
I shall he writing, 

b. The other modes of the present, jperfect, and aorist represent the 
action as continued, completed, or indefinite, without reference to the 
time of speaking. But as regards the optative, infinitive, and participle, 
of the aorist, see 717 : for the same modes of the future, see 718. 


607. Uniyebsal Truths. A proposition which is dlwayi 
true, is generally expressed by the present, as being true n(yu) : 

iffTi Ms there is a god, 4i ixfi^tut hrucfwrtt irimwf truth prevails over all 

things. But sometimes it is expressed by the pxafsct or the futurk, as 

that which has been or will be true : woAAol 9ik 96^ar fisydka Kcuch iwr^iacn 
many on account of alory have suffered great evils, ha^ hmu^s ianXivea n 
P^ffra oXfffi a reasonable man, when he has lost anything, vnll bear U wry eoMy, 
Fnr a similar use of the aorist, see 707. 

Digitized by 



698. Pbessnt fob Pebfbct. The present of some verbs 
may be used to express an action which belongs to the past, but 
has results that continue in the present : 

iueo^9t I hear, also I (have beard and so) am informed; ¥utd» I conquer , or 
(have conquered) am fnctorioua; ^cvyw /^M, or (have fled) am in exile; &9i- 
k/w / do vorong^ or (have done wrong) ofn a wnrng-doer. The presents f^tm 1 
am come, dlxofuu lam gone, are onlj used in this way. 

699. Pbbsknt fob Past ob Putube. In vivid narration, a 
past event is often thought of and expressed as present. 

The tense in this use of it is called bistoucju. presknt; it is freely inter- 
changed with the historical tenses (263) : Aa^c/ov jeoI Ua^wrdxAos voiSci yiy 
porrcu 8^ of Dariue and Paryeatia are horn two 9ont, iirtl iiytire 'ApxtiofMi 
M rohf woKtfdoutf imS^ eZroi obK i94^arro, AXX* iyicXipwaiiiien Arehidamtta 
was leading against the enemy, these did not abide the attack, Imt turn to flee, 

a. Eren a ruruBi event, when thought of as immediate or certain, may 
be expressed by the present : fuiepk ehr^ Ifhi Korafialiw after having said a 
Utde, lam alreadg earning down. This is the general use of cF/u /(am going, 
l,^)am about to go (406 a). 

700. Fjur roR pREsniT. Sometimes fespeoially in letters) a writer puts 
himself in the position of the reader, and views the moment of writing as a 
past time : lylaerv lun^ ^AprafidCov, tp aoi he^iu^ negotiate with Artabazus, whotn 
/(sent) send to thee. 

a. A past tense is sometimes used, where a present fact or truth is thought 
of as perceived (or not perceived) at a past time : ob toW ^¥ evSaifAorla kokov 
ianXXaerfi this—deliverance from evil — is not hafpinees (as we before supposed 
it to be). ^The future also may be used in a similar way. 


701. The imperfect is used especially where different past 
actions are conceived as going on at the same time. It is used 
also in reference to past actions frequently repeated^ and in re- 
ference to past states or conditions : 

Hm. 6^pa /Uv ^e^f ^y xai iJ^ero Uf^v 9/Mp, r6^pa fid^^ hti^orfyotv $i\§* Ijx- 
rrro, irtwre 8^ \a6s as long as it teas morning and the sacred dag was increasing, 
so long were the weapons of both parties clashing^ and the people were falling, 
ofhrore fUiov hit^arparar^lovro ol $dpfiapoi rAv 'EAX^iwy iHKorra otmIwp the 
barbarians never encamped (in their repeated encampments) €U a less distance 
from the Greeks than sixty stades, rohs iwt6pKovs ical HIkovs &s cS inrkifffi^yovs 
4^fiuTo the perjured and unjust he was afraid of as (thinking them) well armed. 

702. IicPEBFECT OF ATTEMFTBD ACTION. The imperfect often 
represents an action as attempted merely, not accomplished : 

KX^cLpxos Tohs OT/Mtru^af ifitd{ero Uyui • ol Z\ abrhv f/SoXXor, #ircl ^plcero 
iro9(<W CUarehus (was forcing) attempted to force his soldiers to march ; but 

they were throwing stones at him, when he began to go forward, As this use 

grows out of the idea of eontinued aoticMi, it is sometimes found in the present : 
thus ^9wfu lam (proposing to give) offering, Hm. rimrrss wkows iucaxA/ie' 
wov a6n M dvpn^ ripmro endeaiforing to amuse (AchsUes) in Ms grievous afflic 
turn ; but he was by no means ammedin spirit. 

Digitized by 



703. Verbs of obligation are ofied in the imperfect, to express that 
which ought to be, but is not : 

l^ci Tohs \4yovras ftftr* wpht Ix^pov TOicccrdcu rhy K6yop fiifrt Tfibs X^^ ^^ 
tpeakera ouffht not to make their cUaeottrse with any reference eitJier to enmity cr 
to favor (L e. they do speak with partiality, but were under prior obligation 
not to do so). Thus also x^r it were proper^ elKhs ^v it were fitting, 

704. The imperfect is sometimes used with a»^ to express a eu9U>mary 
past action (action which took place, if occasion served, at Tarious past 

iamXofifidifenf ohr&v rh voi^iutra ZvupArritp hv ri \4yetaf taking up thnr poemt^ 
/(would be asking) woe often asking them (the authors) what they meanL"-^^ 
The AORiST iNDiCATXTE with &y has a similar use, but without the idea of con- 
tinued action which belongs to the Impf. : IXc{cy &y he (would say) was ae- 
custom^ to say, 


705. The aorist is used in narrating past actions, when 
thought of merely as events or single facts^ without reference to 
the tune they occupied, or to other actions going on at the same 

roliK^iv KoX larpu^v kc^ fuun'u^p *A.'w6xx»» h^vpig ApoUo invented archery 
and medicine and divination^ Hm. riip 8i To\b irp&ros Y9c Tfi\4fjMxof i^cid^s, 
$n 9* l^s irpo^poiOf pe/i€irfrfibfi S* 4y\ ^fjif (cu^y 9ii^ ^pjfaiy i^ardfitrf iy- 
yi^t 8i arks x«V ^^< H^^n-^piiw Kt^ iH^^aro xf^^^ ^hoC^' ^ ^^^ff before others^ 
godlike Telemachue saw her^ and went straight toward the door-way^ and wa» 
vexed in his spirit that a stranger should stand long at the dooTy and standing 
near he took her right hand and received the brazen spear, 

706. AoBisT FOB Perfect or Pluperfect. The aorist in- 
dicative is often used in Greek where the perfect or pluperfect 
might be used with more exactness : 

r&v oUerwy ob94ya KwriXxwtVy Axx' &rayras v^vpaats of his servants he (left) 
has left no one, but has sold them all, Aaptios Ki;poy>traWfiT€raf (699) i-wh riif 
kpj^s ^f aMy trwrpdrny htolitce Darius sends for Cyrus from the government 
of which he (made) had made him satrap. The aorist is thus used with the 
temporal conjunctions, iirtt, &s, Src, when, as in Latin the perfect with post- 
guam, ubi, ut: ifs 6 Kvpos ^^ero rris KpauyriSf hywiHi^nffwy M rhy Imroy when 
Cyrus (had) perceived tne outcry, he leaped upon his horse. 

101. Gnomic Aorist. General fects, established by experi- 
ence, are often expressed by the aorist indicative, referring to 
past instances in which the iact appeared. 

The aorist, in this use, is freely interchanged with the present ; and the 
English present indefinite is naturally used in rendering it: r^ XP^'^ V 9iini 
ircUrtff j(Ad^ it'woTurafi4yii with time Justice always (came) comes inflicting retri* 
InttUm, rks r&y ^(thMp avyovertas 6xiyos xp^rof 8i<Av<rc the associations of the 
bad a little time (is wont to) dissolve. It is called gnomic aorist, as being espe- 
cially frequent in proyerbs or maxims (yy&fuu). By Hm. it is often used in 
similes or com^risons. . 

Digitized by 


711]- A0BI8T AND FDTUBE. 265 

Y08. Ii^fepnvB AoRiST. In many verbs, the present of wliich 
denotes a continued state, the aorist expresses the inception of 
that state (695 a) : 

ipX*^ io exercise dominion, &o^cu to attain dotninion; i$turi\€V€ hewaskinff^ 
i$aai\eiHrt he became king ; Urxv^uf to be strong, laxwrtu to grow strong ; myav 
to be silent, frfrpiaiu to become silent; Ixctv to hold, possess, ax^'^y to take hold of, 
get possession of; ^pw^mi to appear, be evident, ^oi^vax lo become evident ; 
KOfZvptdfUf to be in danger, Kuf9vma'ai to incur danger ; vocuy to be sick, yoarj- 
fl-oi to be taken sick. This use is foand in all the modes of the aorlat. 

709. The aorist is sometimes nsed, especially in the 1 Sing., to denote an 
action which began to be, just before the moment of speaking : iyikaffa I carCt 
help laughing (was made to laugh by something jost seen or heard), poet, iw- 
^^ tpyov Ka2 irp6¥0w» %¥ fyou I praise the work, and the forethought which you 

For the aorist indicatiTe with &r, see 704. 


710. a. The second person of the future ia used as a softened 
form of command (Future for Imperative) : 

oSt99s eZv irovhavre xol ir^l^ta^ /tot (thus then ye will do) do thus and obey me. 
With negatives, it expresses prohibition : odx iwioptc^trtis thou (wilt) shall not 
swear falsely. But in negative questions, it forms a lively expression for urgent 
denuuid: oif ir^pifi^ytTs wit thou not waxtf oA fiii XaXliaeis, k\X* hcoXovdiiafis 
ifjLoi (won^t you not Udk) dorit talk, butfoUow me. 

b. With the future indicative, &y (Hm. k4v) is sometimes used to mark the 
future event as contingent: eb oTStt Src Afffuvos &y wphs Mpa oTos ah c7 &iraAAa- 
y^aerai I know well that he will gladly be reconciled (should opportunity be 
given^ to a man such as thou art, Hm. 6 94 Kty K€Xo\(&crrrMf ty Key Xxufuu but 
he will be angry, to whom Imay come (= if I come to any one, he will be angry). 

c. In relative Bentences, the future indicativo is often used to express 
purpose: ov yhp fxofi€v Srov airov a>vr)a'6fi€^a for toe have nothing with 

fohieh (we shall buy) to buy com. For oir«£ with Fut. Ind. used in 

this way, see 756. 

711. Peeiphbastic Futube. To represent a future action 
as inmiediately expected or intended, the verb fic\X<o is used 
with the infinitive of the present or future, or (more rarely) the 

ft^AXv byuas Ayeiy {i^eiy, &7ayc7y) els *Aaiay (in Asiam vos ducturus sum) / 

am about to lead you into Asia. Other tenses of /icAAw are used in a similar 

way : irKriaioy Ijiri Ijy 6 ard^fthSf fy^a l/AcAAor KaraKOaeuf the station w<m near, 
where they were about to sU^ for the night. Cf. Lat. ducturus eram, ero, etc. 

The phrase ir&s (r() ov /liKKu — ; has a peculiar meaning, how {why) should 

I not — / TTwr ov fi4W€i rh aop^epoy xdxxioy ^alyea^ai why sltould not that which 
i» wiser appear nobler? 


Digitized by 




712. Perfect with present heaxing. Several perfects ex- 
press a continued state, 'the result of a completed action, and 
thus have a present meaning: 

fjJfjL^fuu (from fu/i^CKu: I haTe recalled to mind, and hence^ Irtmember^ 
Lat memini ; KikKiuuu (from Koxiv : I have received a name ana still bear it) 
lamcalUd; K4icnifMi (from jcriofuu: I have acquired) //Nttaetf; ^/i^fcvyuu 
(frt)m iifiptiyyvfui I have dressed myself) lam dreued; v^oidv /(hare put 
confidence) have confidence in; w4^Ka /(have been produced) am btf nature; 
iffrriKa /(have set myself) stand; fidfiviica I (have stepped) sUrnd fattj also / 
am gone; tfX«Xa /(have suffered destruction) am ryinid. Here belong abo 
the perfects olSa hnoWf Uuta am like, cXiida am accuttomed, 949outm am ajraidy 
K4Kpaya (Pres. KO(iC» rare) cry, and several others: though it may be doubted 
whether some oi these ever expressed completed action. 

a. In these verbs, the j>luper/eet has the meaning of an imperfect : 

eMKTriiirjv I wu in poaseuion of, iarriKeiv I fooB itanding ; and the 

future perfect has the meaning of a simple future : lufunia^ofuu lehaU 

For the aorist used instead of the perfect or pluperfect, see 706. 


713. This tense is formed only in the middle voice (264 b), though 
usually with passive meaning. In the active, its place is supplied bj using 
the perfect participle with the future of €t/<t tohe: hw ravr eld&fitw^ rS 
diovra ttr6fi*^a iywuo&Tfs if we hnow these thingSj we ehaU haoe reeognieed 
our chligations. 


714. Present. The other modes of the present represent the action 
as CONTINUED, whether in present, past, or future time: 

fuuy^/Mda vcCrrct, ^wSray 6pyt(^fi^a we are all intane, as often as we are 
angry ^ KKryop rf EudvS^/uy Sri mbrcs trotfuu cfffr ftaw^dreuf they said to ^Euthy- 
demus that they were all ready io learn, oSrm irot^<r» Smts &y ah iccXc^f Twill 
act as you may command (be commanding) Lat. sic agam ut tu me agere jube- 
bis, oCk i^iXowrt (jJ^eXov, i^^kfioovtrt) fUxf<r^at they are not {were not, will not 
be) williny to fight, (rvxoy iy ry inyop^ Ko^^ioyres they happened to be sleeping 
in the- market-place, 

715. Perfect. The other modes of the perfect represent the action 
as COMPLETED, whethcF in present, past, or future time: 

^yofiai (i<l>dvrjy, ^aviifrofiat) oui^y KaK6y at trewotriKt&s /appear {appeared, 
shall appear) to have done thee no wrong^ ov fiovKt^tcr^ai eSiia, iSSiik fiefiovktvc^oi 
it is time, not to be consulting, but to have consulted (finished and decided), 
E/^i;t &s Ir^ero rhy 'ZXKfiairorrov iC*vx^^9 ^ponyw ix r&y Xdpitny when Xer- 
xes learned that the Hellespont uxu bridged over (already, thi fCevKTo)^ he led 
forward from Sardis, ^xcv S.yysXj»s \4ymy tri tviyyvris KsKoi'^its cfi| rk tuepa 
there came a messenger saying that Syennesis had left the heights, obHtfUa rapal" 
peats Uwyehs vorcur voi^irci, V fi^ irp6a^tw ^latejiic&res fttri no exhortatiim will 
make [men) abU to endmre toil, wdess they haee kadpremoue exerdm. 

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716. AoRiST. The other modes of the forist represent the action a» 
BBOUOHT TO PASS, whether m present, past, or future time : 

0^ fioi kir6Kpunu do thou answer tne^ fi^ ^av/^Junrref iky wapdJ^^ov cfrw ri be 
not amaaed, if I say something surprising^ ol rpidKotna irpostra^auf iwcpyayuy 
tiiorroj V kwo^dvoi ihs thirty gave orders to lead away Leon^ that he might he 
put to death, irtdyfiel (^ircdo/ACi, iwi^fi'^trei) iXXSytfun ywie^tu he desires {de- 
sired, will desire) to become famous. 

8. It is often difficult to express the difference between these modes as 
used in the present and in the aorist. In general, the present is used when 
eofttinuanee is naturally thought of; otherwise, the aorist, especially in refer- 
ence to single or transient actions : Ya\cirby rh iroicti^, rh 8i jccA.cvo'ai /^Stof it 
is difficult to execute (in continued action), to command (a single, transient act) 
is easy ; <f «1l fy^^s &rriA^iy, ArrfXeyt * el 9\ /i^, travcai voAAaius X^twi' rhy aJb- 
rhiy xiyoy if thou hast any answer to make, answer (in continued discourse) ; 
but if not, cease (at once) repeating the same statement, Yet the briefest ac- 
tion may be viewed as going on, and thus expressed by the present ; while the 
longest action may be viewed without reference to its length, simply as brought 
to pass, and thus expressed by the aorist. 

For the aorist used (in all modes) to express an incipient state, see 708. 

717. The AORIST pabticiple, however, represents the action as prior 
to that of the principal verb in the same sentence : 

Vipouros 'AXvy Zmfihs iisyd\iiy kpxhy Kara\^ff€i Croesus having croesed the 
Halyts will destroy a great empire, wa^i^y 94 re rfywios iyy» (707) by (previous) 
s^ering even a fool becomes wise, 

a. Properly, the Aor. Fart, represents the action only as introduced 
n>ronght to pass) before that of the principal verb ; in its continuance, the 
former may coincide with the latter : Hm. Zeieras S* iK ^p6you di\ro koI fax* and 
(having become afraid) in fear he sprang from his throne and cried Thus the 
Aor. Papt, when joined to a principal verb in the aorist, may denote the means 
or manner : eZ ye iirolri<ras iyofirfiiras fit thou didst well in reminding me, 

b. The aorist optativs and infinitits, used in dependent assertions (784), 
may represent the action as prior to that of the principal verb with which they 
are connected : ol 'lyUol HKe^ay Sri wifjo^ete tr^ 6 *ly9my fiartKe^ (Indie Sri 
iwe/jo^) the Indians said that the king of the Indians had sent them, K^KXwres 
jjyorrai iy SixcXif oU^at the Cyclopes are said to have lived in Sicily, 

718. Future. The future optative, infinitive, and participle represent 
the action as posterior to that of the principal yerb with which they are 
connected : 

5 rt Si voi'ia'ot, ob Sico^/i^ye but what hs would do, he did not indicate, hZl- 
para irpd^tiy bwurxvevyrai they promise (that they will perform) to perform im- 
possible things, ^wjiecay fiovKewri/ityot they came togeth^for consultation (about 
to consult, cf. 789 d). 

a. The tuture perfect in the same modes has a similar use, representing 
the completed action as posterior to that of the principal verb. 

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719. The iNDicATivB represents the action of the verb as 
real; the subjuxctive and oPTAxnTB, as possible ; the ihfe&a- 
TiVB, as willed by the speaker. 

The Indicativk expresses that which w, was, or wiU be. It 
is used when the reality of the action is a^rmed^ denied^ or 
questioned: "He went ; he did not stay; will he return?" 

Rem. a. Reality must be distinguished from certainty. Thus the 
sentenoe, ^' perhaps he will not return," asserts a future reality, '^ he will 
not return," but expresses it as uncertain. 

For the indicative in hjrpothetical sentences (with or without 3»)^ see 
745-6 ; in expressions of wishing, see 721 b. For the Ind. (Impfl or Aor.) 
with av to denote customary action, see 704. 

720. The Subjunctivb expresses that which may he. It re- 
presents the action as possible^ with some present eapectcUion 
of its being realized. Hence it is used 

a. to express something demanded or requested: this use is nearly 
confined to the first person : tafiev (eamus) tet u$ go, <^€pt d^, ras fuxftTv- 
pias vfxlv avayvSi cofne now, let me read you the testimonies. 

b. with jjLtiy to express something prohibited or deprecated (723 a) : 
fuf tovro noi^ajft (ne hoc feceris) do not do this, 

c. in questions as to what may be done with propriety or advantage 
(Subjunctive op Deliberation). 

Thus chiefly in the first person : rl ^u what shall I say ? (not " what am I 
going to say '* as a future fact, but ** what had I best say '*), Si^wb^ ht^^t % 
Mufiw will you receive tu, or shcUl we go awayf Hm. iras rls rot rrp6^pny fhrtirtv 
ireC&ijT« 'Axoitfv how shall any one ofiht Aehaeans willingly obey thy words? 

d. with fi-fif in expressions of anxiety or apprehension : fi^ iypouc^rtpoy § 
rh hkri^h elirciv I am afraid it may be too rude to say wliat is true. (In strict- 
ness, the sentence here expresses something desired, may it not be too rude, 

I hope it may not be, though I fear it is.) If the object of apprehension is 
negative, /t^ oh is used : Hm. fiii v6 roi ov xP^^Ftl ^fcriwrphy itai irrdfifta dmuo 
{there is dinger) indeed tJuU tlu staff And wreath of the god may not avail tlue. 

e. In Hm., the subjunctive is sometimes used to denote future evonts, 
nearly like the future indicative : oh ydp irw rolovt tioy iaf4pas, ov8i YSw^tiu far 
never yet saw I such men, nor (may I hereafter) shaU I see them. To the Subj. 
in this use, Jky is sometimes added : o^k &y roi xP^^t'-V ^^P* *A^po9inis the gifts 
of Aphrodite (may probably) wUl avail thee nothing, Cf. 710 b. 

721. The Optativb expresses that which might be. It re- 
presents the action sa possible^ but without present expectation 
of its being realized. Thus 

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1. Optativb of Wishing. The optative is used without av, 
to express a wish (that something might be) : 

ol dcol hrorlaouyro may the gods requite (would that they might do so). 
From this use comes the name optative, 

a. Particles which sen-e to introduce a wish are c2 (Hm. ol), dC^c (Hm. 
oC^), €i ydpf &t : c£^ vh tplXos iifuy yivout that thou wnUdst become a friend 
to us (!. e. *Mf thou wouldst do so", I should rejoice), Hm. ws fyis &«-^Xoito 
would that strife might perish (lit. how might it perisn, for a way in which 
it might perish). 

b. Wish viewed as unattainable. When a wish is recognized as 
inconsistent with a known reality, it is expressed by a past tense of the 
indicative with «i3€, ci yap (746). The imperfect^ aorist^ or pluperfect is 
nsed, according as the contrary reality would be expressed by & present, 
an aoristj or a perfect : 

el 7^ rocairnv 96yafuy elxoy that I had so much power (but I do not have 
it), da^ aot r6T€ tntprftv6ii'ii» O that J had been with thee tlien (as I was not). 
Such wishes are expressed also by A^^Kov {ought) with the present or aorist in* 

finitiTC : tf^Xc /i^w Kvpos (rjp that Cyrus were living : the particles of 

wishing may be prefixed, d^ ^f^cXoir, el yiip At^Xor. 

722. 2. Potential Optativb. The optative is used with av 
iu assertions and questions : 

rovTO TcVoir* &y this might take plaee^ woAAAs &y ^potf fitixayds thou eouldst 
find many contrivances^ oIk tuf if>i^e/iyy / would not deny t/, wov 8^ hf cTcr 
ol l4roi tihere^ ^J^ay^ might the strangers bef 

a. This use of the potential optative is not essentially different from that 
in the conclusion of a conditional sentence (748). In the cases here described, 
the condition on which the event depends is left indeterminate, not being ex- 
pressed, nor indeed distinctly thought of. Thus *Hhis might take place'* (if 
circumstances should favor), "you could find'' (should you wish), "I would not 
deny it" (if I could), "where might the strangers be" (i. e. be found, if one 
should seek them). 

b. The potential optative is often used, where the indicative might 
stand. A known reality is modestly or cautiously expressed as some- 
thing possible. 

Thus olrtt ^v Kiyoifti I would not say (non dixerim, for "I will not say"), 
fiouXoififiy iy I should like (velim, for " I wish "), &pa &k (rwrKtv^dtv^ai ttri it 
might be (for " it probably is ") time to pack up for starting. Sometimes it ap- 
proaches the imperative, expressing a command as a permission : \4yois &y £)f 
rdxvrra (you might speak) speak at once, 

c. In poetry, the potential optative is also used without Ay : Hm. j5cm( ^6f 
y* 4d4hMy Koi Tn^6^9y iyipa caicai a divinity willing {to do so) could easily 
bring a man in safety even from far. This is rarely the case in prose. 

723. The liiPKRATivK expresses that which must be (by the 
toiU of the speaker). It represents the action as commanded, 
or, with negative words, sa prohibited. 

a. For the second person, there are onl^ two ways of expressing 
prohibition : — ^by firi with the present imperative, if the action is thought 

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of as continued : /x^ )^a\(naivf do not he offended; — othennse, by fiff with 
the aorUt subjunctive : fxri x«^f»r^n7^ ^ ^o^ ^^^ offence (720 b), ravrd 
fioi npa$op^ Tiiofov^ Koi fin jSpddwc, fjoj^ imnvpa^ijs tht Tpoiar do this /of 
mCy child, and donH he lingering, nor mention Troy any more. 

b. For the third person, /i^i can be used also with the aorist imperative : 
&XA& yhp fiii ^fniv6v ris rovroy rhp XAyoy yofAurdm but let not any one regard tkU 
discourse as being a lamentation. 

For the inilDitiye instead of an imperative, see 784. For the imperative 
in the conclusion of a hypothetical sentence, see 745, 747 : for imperative used 
in expressing the condition, 761. 


724. Subordination. A sentence may enter as a subordi- 
nate part into another sentence. The whole is then called a 
compound sentence : it consists of a principal^ and a dependent 
or subordinate, sentence : 

ol Z\ hrtKpivwro (principal sentence) trri oIk 4mavha efn (dependent sen- 
tence) but they atiswered that he was not there ; rh¥ Kcuchy dc7 icoAi^ciy (principal), 
7j^ iifitlyay J (dependent) we mtat punish the bad many that he may be better; tl 
^€ol rt ^pwaiy alffxp^y (dependent), odKtlffly &(o( (principal) if gods do anything 
shameftdy they are not gods. 

a. Co-ordination. On the other hand, connected sentences %re said 
to be co-ordmate, when they are nmtnally independent : 

Koiy^ ii rirxyif koX rh fi4K?ioy hjiparop fortune is fickle, and the future is un- 
seen, Tovro iyiit ofh^ ^prixa oirrs xiyoifu &y this /neither have said nor would 
say. For different conjunctions used with co-ordinate and subordinate sen- 
tences, see 853 a. 

b. The same thought may often be expressed either by two co-ordinate 
sentences or by one compound sentence : firfieyi ^fi^opiuf iyeiBltrps, Kou/ii yitp 

^ T^X** reproach no one vfith misfortune, for fortune isjickle ; or iwtl ^ rixn 

Koarff iori, fi-n^eyl avfi^piw ^vciSfo^s etnee fortune t» fickle, reproach no one 

with misfortune. The co-ordinate arrangement prevails especially in the 

Homeric language. 

725. A dependent sentence may have another sentence depending on 
it, to which it stands as principal. 

Thus in the compound sentence 1ip6firip "A^ofioy cT rtres vof^trw Jh^ ivcA^ft- 
/So^ff r^v irpouca I asked Apftobus whether any persons were present wJien ?ie re- 
ceived the dowry, 0t* iwtKiififiaye riiv irpoiKa depends on ef riyts vapiiiray, and 
this agun depends on iip6ftriy''A^fioy, So too an infinitive or participle may 
have a sentence depending on it : oXoftat adrhy ipely in JSLKvp6y iori rh ^^^urim 
I suppose he will say that the decree is without force, iKyovrrts fi^ A^pcdcio^ 
r^ Ac^/mr^f \4yown fearing that they might be deprived {of them) they speak to 

726. A substantive which properly belongs to the dependent sentence, 
IS oflen transferred (usually with change of case) to the principal sentence. 
The object is to give it a more emphatic position. When the substantive 

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is thus brought in before its proper place, the arrangement u called 
Prolepsis (npokrp^is antieijpatum). 

Thus Kol fi9i rhp vlhp •M^ W fitfjJdiiK€ r^y r4j(inip (= ica/ /xoi tM cl 6 vJhs 
fi9fAddiiK€ T^ir rijonip) and tell me whether my ton has learned his art^ Hm. Tv 
8ff(9i|ir V odK &K ymifis iror4pouri fiertlfi you cotUd not dietinguieh to tokich party 
TytUdes htlongea^ jca2 rwp fiapfidpotv ivtfitKuro &s voKtfitiy IkopoI fff^oy he took 
care also that the barbarians should be in condition to make ^oar. On the other 
hand, a substantive may be transferred from a^rincipal to a dependent sentence : 
Hm. /iCT& 8* fdrcrrrai 9iP rSi^ hrri^ocfy Ko^fnjy Bpur^os and among them shall be 
the daughter of Briseua, whom I then took away. Cf. 809. 

General Use of the Modes in Dependent Sentencss. 

727. 1. The indicative in dependent sentences (expresses a 
reality as conceived or assumed^ not asserted, by the speaker. 

Thus in the sentences, 4yyy/AJ^ tri M4yapa kp4<miKe it was announced thai 
Megara was in revolt, «i ^eeH cl^fy, Hari imI Hpya de&y if there are aods, tliere 
are also works of gods, ravra hrolovr fUxpt a'K6Tos iyeyrro these things they 
were doing until darkness came on, — the (reported) "revolt of Megara," and the 
(supposed) " existence of gods " are not asserted, nor is it clear that they are 
believed, to be real: even the "coming on of darkness," though clearly be- 
lieved, is not asserted by the sentence. Indeed it is sometimes implied that 
the reality which the speaker would assert is directly contrary to that which 
he assumes: tws &y &v^3ayoy, tl /i)i ii r&y rptdKoyra &/>x^ icarfXi^ IsfunUd 
perhaps have been put to death, if the government of the thirty had not been over- 
thrown (but it was overthrown, and I was not put to death). 

728. 2. The subjunctive expresses possibility with present 
expectation — ^that which may be realized in present or future 

Thus in final sentences: ««pcuca\fi larpo^s, ivt^s /i^ hro^dyif he calls in 

physicians, that he may not die; ^in conditional sentences: 4iLy fx^A^ 

Xp^itiaS^f S^«/ier ^(Xovf if we have property, toe shall have friends ; in rela- 

TTVX sentences : firf* &y iroi ^almtrai fi4KTurra, ravra iirn4\§t whatever things 

may appear to thee best, these execute ; also Subjunctive of Deliberation in 

DEPENDENT QUESTIONS : iwofw rov (244) vp&roy fJLyria^& I a»n in doubt what I 
should mention first, 

729. 3. The OPTATIVE often expresses possibility with past 
expectation — ^that which could be looked for, as a thing that 
might be realized, at some past time. 

In this use, it corresponds to the subjunctive in dependent sentences: 
the ntbjunctive being used, if the principal verb denotes present or future 
time i the optative, u it denotes past time. 

Thus in final sentences : wopfjcdUffo-cy larpe^s,twmf fiii inro^^ot he called 

in physicians^ that he might not die; in rslatitb sentences : irra $4\Tiara 

^Foiro, raSra Irer^Kei whatever things might appear best, these he was execut- 

i^ : Optative for Subj, of Delib, in dependent questions: 1iw6povy rou 

wfmrov funi^Mtiy I was in doubt what I should mention first. 

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a. Very often, however, pcut expectation is expressed by the sub- 
juTietive, the past time being lost sight of: 

^jSovXc^oKTO cl Korcuca^ffwri robs tofJipas they vfere consulting whether they 
rshall) shotdd bum the tnen^ %i^ ol &\\oi rww hucaimv rix^^h ^^ ifi^^p* ttdrw 
irn^iffKert that the others (may) migfU obtmn their Just rights^ you expended 
your oum resources. 

b. In conditional and relative sentences, the optative is much used 
to express indefinite frequencifoi past action ; that which occurred often 
being thought of as liable to occur — ^as something to be expected — at 
any time: 

cT Tis &i^ckoi, €&^i TtMiMi if any one opposed (as happened from time to 
time), he was immediately put to deaths Ur^fjore ravra oXs ^er^U r^oi he was 
sending (occasionallj) those things with which he happened to be pleased, hr&l^ 
ri ifipdyoity, hrltrramo koX hroptvoyro as soon €U they had eaten something (one 
company after anothei^, they got up and continued the marcK 

730. 4. The optativk is ofken used to express mere possibilitt/ 
without expectation^ — ^that which might be realized in present or 
future time. 

This is the prevailing use of the optative in conditional sentences : ri ^ 
Hx^is ciirciy, €J 94oi ffs Xty^tv what would you have to say, if it should be neces- 
sary for you to speak? It occurs likewise in htpothetical relative sentences, 
see 760 d. And here belongs the potential optative with $y (722), when it stands 
in an indirect sentence : htc^Kplvaro KAecIya»p tri irpSa^tv tty iiTo^dvoup ^ t^ 
BirKa TopaSoicy Cleanor answered that they would sooner die than surrender their 
arma (direct rp6ff^ey tw &irod((Kot/icy, etc.) 

731. 6. The OPTATTVE is often used in place of the indicatiye 
in repeating past conceptions or expressions (oratio obliqua, 
734) : 

t6t€ iyp(&<r^ Zri ol fidpfiapoi rhw $w^pwrop iivoir4fii^€y then it was under- 
stood that the barbarians had sent the man^ hvfipovro Zsris cfi; they inquired who 
he 1009, ol *k^v€uoi UtptK\4a iKdKiCovj Iht errpvniybs &y ovk itrt^dyoi inl robs 
vokffiious tlie Athenians were speaking ill of Pericles, because (as they said), 
though a general, he did not lead out against the enemy, cf rts irdMs M 7r6Kur 
arrpare^troii M ra{ni\v f^ Uvai he said that if any city should tnake war against 
(ajiotlier) city, he would go against it. 

a. In all such cases, the indicative may also be used : but the opta- 
tive shows more distinctly that the speaker is not responsible for the 
thought which he repeats, since he gives it only as what might be. 

b. The subjunctive has no analogous use in reference to the present 
or future : fifi fi av^prj rU tlfxt (never ris ^ do not ask me who lam^ Lat. 
nc me interroges quis suvi. 

732. Protasis, Apodosis. These are grammatical terms correspond- 
ing to each other: protasis, applied to the dependent sentence, final, con- 
ditional, or relative (but not to the indirect) ; apoddns, to the principal 
sendee on which it depends. 

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I. Modes in Indirect Sentences. 

733. Indirect ctssertions are intFoduced by an or &9 that : 
indirect questions^ hj ct wheth^r^ Trortpov . . . ^ whether ...or^ and 
other interrogatives (682). The indirect sentence is the object 
of the principal verb ; or, if that is passive or intransitive, its 

734. Okatio Obuqua, When the words or thoughts of an- 
other are stated in a dependent form, they are said to stand in 
oratio obliqua (indirect discourse) : in distinction from this, the 
origmal, independent form ia called oratio recta (direct discourse). 

Thus or. obi. ol 8i &wfKplyayro Uri obx c/ScTcir but they answered thai they did 
not know, or. recta oifK Xcfiw we do not know; or, obi. ohn iwou ri irc/irercu he 
doe» not consider what he shall suffer, or. recta ri irsUrofuu what shall I suffer f 

a. A speaker may state his own words or tho^igfats, like those of 
another, in the oratio obliqua: 

^p6/irip''A^fioy ff rtvts vo^fror / asked Aphobus whether there were any 
present, or. recta 2pa Tap^<rcly rtvss toere any presents rovro yiyy^CKw, Zri rSk- 
fjL'g Sucoifa xal ^hs avXXofifidyei this I perceive, that with righteous daring a di- 
innity also co-operates. 

b. In many cases, the forms proper to the oratio obliqua do not differ 
from those of the oratio recta : thus in the example last given, the direct 
sentence would read roX/xi; diicaia koI ^e6s crvAXa/x/Savrc. But often, where 
the proper forms would be different, we find those of the oratio recta used 
in dependent sentences, instead of those proper to the obliqua: 

ol 8i cTvoK 5r( Ucapoi ifffxof hut they said (that) " we are dble,^ instead of Ikot 
yoi c7cy or cM they were able. Sometimes the two are found together in the 
same connection: fitrit rovrov &AX01 Mimi hrtisucvhs &s §ihi^s ffi; (or. obi.) 
ijy€fi6ya ahto^ irapi ro^ov f X»fuuy6fit^ (or. recta) T^y vpa^ip ofier him an- 
other rose, showing that it vhu a foolish thing to ask a guide from this man 
(Cyrus), for whom we are ruining nis enterprise, 

c. An iNFiNiTiYE or PARTICIPLE is ofteu used in the oratio obliqua. 
instead of a dependent sentence : 

$<paicratf robs fiky ^ifMOfmiK^yai, abrol 8i o'^Ceip robs v6iums they said that those 
indeed had transgressed, but they themselves were upholding the laws, or. recta ol 
fjAy iiftafyr^Kain^ a&rol 8i iril^ofisyf etc. ; Turca^ipviis Kvpov ixurrpartioyra irpw- 
ros 1jryytt\€ Tissaphemes was the first to announce that Cyrus was carrying on 
war, or. recta Kvpos hnarpars^i. 

735. Use of Modes. In general, indirect sentences have the 
same modes that would be used in the direct. This is regular- 
ly the case, when the principal verb denotes present or future 
time ; and often so, when it denotes poet time. Thus 

a. Inoicatiyx. When the Ind. is used, the taw« is generally the same as 
would be found in the direct sentence : A/yti &f oll^iv ioriy iJiue^tpow ^/iris 
he says ihat nothing is more unjust than fame, fist "A^fios tn^s thi ^{cXtyx' 

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d^crcrof AphobuB kn$w eUarly thai he (will be) wndd he convicted, f irt r iyy4KKmif 
rts &s 'EAircM icarcUiiirrcu there came eome one announeinff that Elatea (has 
been) had been taken, iroAiry xp^f^^ ^ipow ri wore Xijei 6 Ms^cr a long time 
I woe in doubt what the god (meana) meant, But when the pnncipal Terb re- 
fers to past time, the indirect aentence may take the imperfect, in place of a 
present in the direct : irtl^m-o r^ KX^dpx^^ bp&vres 9ti iUvos i^p6vu oTa 8ci 
rhv Hfxovra {the eoldiere) obeyed Clearchus, seeing that he alone had the mind 
v^ich a commander ought to have (direct lUvos ^poytt he alone has the mind). 

b. Subjunctive {of deliberation, 7 20 c) : fiauXfiofiai irws ere ianlifm 1 am eon- 
eiderina how I shall escape from you, ohx elxoy 5 t« yiimmai, they knew not tcAol 
(they shoold become) vtould become of them. 

c. OptaTITE {potential opt. with &y, 722): obm oT8* i riUp rtt xp^^f^fo arpar 
rt^ais ofh-ets b^fuos ixwtri I know not what any one could do with soldiers in this 
state of discouragement, cTircr 2rt 6 Mip fty kk&rifios ^ii he said that the man 
would be easy to capture, 

736. But if the principal verb denotes joa^^ time, the indirect 
sentence may take the optative, in place of an indicative or a 
subjunctive in the direct : thus 

1. the OPTATiTE is often need in place of the ikdicatite (781): llyiweraif ol 
ffrpoTiSnai 5ti Kci'^r b 4»6fiof c(i} the soldiers perceived that their fear was ground- 
less (direct Ktrhs 6 ^fios 4<rrl), Turerai^4pyns 9uifidXX.*i (699) riif Kvpoy wpbs rhp 
dScX^^y, &s ^TifiovKtvoi aSn^ Tissaphernes (accuses) accused Cyrus to his brother^ 
{sayina) that he was plotting against him, Kvpoi ixvyw 3ri i^ M^r tirono wphs 
fiaetklla Cyrus said that their march woidd he against the king (direct ^ Ms 
^erat), iipiruv Uo\vK\4a el byaxkeicetey tx»y bpyitpiow I asked Polycles whether 
he had sailed away with money (direct 3pa iuf4v\ewras ;), IXryoy &rt Kvpos ft^p 
ri^yjiKty (785)f 'Apuuos 8i xe^evyiis ^n they said that Cyrus was dead and that 
Ariaeus had fed. 

a. The hypothetical indicative (746 b) neyer changes to an optative in the 
indirect sentence : ovk ^w o rib^ ivoieire fi6voi there was nothing which you 
could do (by yourselves) alone. 

737. 2. the optative ia generally used in place of the subjunctive (729): 
i0ov\€v6fiiir T&s ae biKe9pali)v I was considering how I should escape from you 
(direct leas iaroipA how shall I escape? Subj. of Delib.), ol 'E7rt9dfiytoi rhv b^w 
iiHiporro el wapcJioitif KoptMois v^y w^\if the JB^pidamnians inquired of the god 
whether they should give up their city to the Corinthians (direct irapaHAfitp shall 
we give up }). 

a. It must be observed that the form iiyp6ovy 8 ri irooicy (nesctebant quid 
facerent) may mean, according to the connection, either they knew not what 
they were doing, or they knew not what they should do. 

738. When two or more connected sentences stand in the oratio ob* 
liqua, depending on the same principal verb, these uses of the optattvo 
(736-7) are not confined to the first (or leading one) of the connected 
sentences, but may appear in any of them. The same is true when an 
infinitive is used in place of the leading sentence (734 c). 

Thus tXryov voXXoi, tri rarrhs t^ia Xiyei (785), x^^f^" 7^ ^V (direct iorC) 
many said, that he says things worthy of all {heed), for it was winter, ifi6a iytip 
rh ffTpdrev/M Kwit fUirov r&v iroXcfJwr, tn iKsT fiaatXein iKii he cried out that he 
should lead the army against the centre of the enemy, because the king «m 

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there, ikoyl(em &Sf €l /til /tdxearro^ kroeriifoafro al vSXmu (direct ihw fc^ futX^ 
licda, itroirr^eremi) ihey eonaidered thcl, if they should not fight, the eUiea wcild 
revolt, 'AwL^lfiios iareicptiwro trri fiouK^^otro vtfi rtw or^tur&v i re Zipoiro iya- 
^v (direct /9ov\c^«^iai 5 ri fty Z^trnfjuai) Anaxibiue eatd thai he would provide 
for the eoldiere whatever adeantage he might he Me, 

n. Modes in Final Sentences. 

739. Sentences expressing aim or purpose are introduced by 
the conjunctions Iva, ok, ottcos (and Hm. o^pa), that^ in order that, 
— /*ij, or oir(i)9 (w9, iva) /a^, that not. 

Present or fiiture purpose is expressed by the subjunctive ; 
past purpose, by the optative (728-9) : 

6 r^patvot ro\4fiovs Kuruy Xt^ ip xP^t^ iffeiUvos 6 Hfjfun ^ the tyrant stirs up 
wars-, that the people may he in want of a leader, ^tatfourai r^y y4pupav \va-cu, 

iff fiii 9ia$rJTt M intends to destroy the bridge, thai you may not cross, ko^ 

ciXxoy riis rptfip^is, &s iv ra^nms a^(oiPTo they were launching the triremes, thai 
in these they might save themselves, i96K€i &irimu, fi^ iwi^ta-is yivotro rots Kara- 
XcAci^i/c/koix it was thought best to return, lest an attack should he mads on those 

left behind. In some elliptical expressions, the principal sentence is omitted : 

lia avrrdfjM to he brief {ac. I say only this); V ix rehear Apfyffuu to begin with 
these things. 

740. a. But the subjunctive is often used in reference to a 
past purpose (729 a): 

n€p9lKKas Hwpaaertp^ Ihms 96Ktfios y4rnrai Perdiccas was exerting himself, 
that a war (may be) might be brought about, 'A$p0K6ftat r& leXola Kar4Kav<rty^ 
Ua fiii Kvpos Utafi^ Abroeomas burned the vessels, that Gyrus (may not) might 
not cross. In such cases, the time is lost sight of, while the idea A aim or ex- 
pectation is made prominent. 

b. The optative is rarely used of present purpose, to represent the attain- 
ment as a mere possibility (730) : rovrev rhv rp6iroy fx^i 6 yS/AOS^ Iya fiii^ ^(cnra- 
ni^yai yiyovre the law stands thus, that no deception might occur* The optative 
may be used with the same force, when the principal verb is an optative of 
mere possibility : t { /i^ o^ 7c hriiieXolo thms ^»^y rt ^s^povro unless you 
should take tare that something should he brought in from without, 

741. With &s or <SfK»s^ the particle ty (Hm. kS) is sometimes used, to mark 
the attainment of the purpose as contingent: &s tof fiddps, Amoveroy hear, that 
you may learn (as you will, if you hear). 

742. Umattainablb Purpose. A purpose which could only be at- 
tuned in an imagined case, contrary to reality, is expressed by a past 
tense of the indicative (746) : (avrt fdrt (703) ^rjHtiy wayras, onc^s diKOf 
6raTa tlCl ^hey Ought all to have aided him while living^ that Tie might 
haice litid meet justly (as he coold have done, if they had ail aided him). 

For att»i with the future indicative, see 756. For the result expressed 
with &tre, see 770-71. 

743. FsABizf o implies aim or purpose that the apprehended eyent may 
not he realized. Hence 

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After expressions of fearing, a dependent sratenoe is introdnoed by firi 
le»ty that ; or, if it is negative, dj fi^ ov. The modes are used as above : 
present apprehension is expressed bj the subjunctive; past apprehension 
by the optative, yet very often by the subjunctive: 

diloiKo. fi^ ixiKd^^fit^ rris olicc(9c 6iov lam afraid we may forget the home- 
toard road^ i^ofiuro fiij ob Hvatro he feared that he might not be able, ^tXxirxos 
ip i»60^ ^p fih iKi»6yot rh xpdyfuera Philip wa$ in alarm lest hie oyeets might 
escape him, ol 'A^potoi robs ovfifidxovs ^c8(c<rfir fi^ iiirocrrwrt (729 a) the Athe- 
nians toere afraid that their allies (may) might revolt. Other words of fearing 
are ^poprl^w to think anxiously , ^vXirrofAM to beutare, (nrvwrvdw to suspeet^ 6p£» 
to see to it, CKowitt to consider, etc. 

a. After expressions of fearing, fi4 and tmtas f4 are occasionally followed 
by the indicative, the object of apprehension being thought of as a reality : 
<pofiovfiai fiii 4i9opks tifyficofitp ipayrias I fear thctt toe sheUl find opposite plea- 
sures ; especially whe^ the fear relates to something already past : ^fiov- 

fit^a n^ iifi^oT^pwp 4ifMp7iiKafitp we are afraid that we have failed of both, 

^ b. After such words as 6pd» and CKOfwin^ yA^ often introduces something 

/ suspected as probable, i. e. conjectured (rather than feared) : &&p€i 11)1 oh rovro 

• f/ rh hyol^y take heed lest this may not be the (genuine) good. The indicative is' 

then used in regard to something conceived as a reauty: Spa fi^ raiC^p ^^«7« 

(look to it lest he spoke in jest) see whether he did not speak in jest. ^ 

in. Modes in Cortditional Sentences. 

744. In the dependent sentence (protasis) something is supposed or 

! assumed as a condition, from which the principal sentence (apodosis) 

follows as a conclusion. The former is introduced by the oonjunction 

IF, Greek tl, or iau (for el a», cf. Hm. cL ««) oontracted ifp, av (a). The 

latter often takes av (&) to mark it as ccmtingent (i. e. as only conditionally 

true). The whole compound sentence is called a htfothbtioal period. 

There are four leading forms of the hypothetical period, corresponding 

^ to four varieties of supposition. 

V45. 1. Simple Supposition. The condition is assumed m 
real, but without implying any judgment as to its reality (727). 
We have then, 

in the condition, ct with the indicative ; 

in the conclusion, the indie, without av, or the imperative. 

Thus cl rovro irerofi|fcar, heaipitir^ai &(ios c7 if thou hast done this, thou art 
worthy to be praised, rf ri -w^iaoprai M^8o«, is Hiptras rh Uttphp (}{« if the Medes 
(shall) suffer anything, the danger will come to the Persians, iroX it irp &AAp (oirciy 
A€7€ iral ti^affM if to thee it appears otherwise, speak and instruct me. 

a. The past tenses of the mdicative may idso be used in this kind of suppo- 
sition ; and care must then be taken not to confound this form with the follow- 
ing (746) : ^l^y 0*01 hwtipoi ix rrjs WXc«s, cl n^ Ijpsa'KSp a-oi ol p6fu)i you were at 
liberty to depart from the city, if the laws did not please you (in the present IJ- 
c<m— , c/ /ii iLpitTKowri) ; rf n r&p B€6prup iwpdx^t 'rbu Koiphp obx ifA4 ^i^rcvcdf- . 
rtop yeyeprjcbai if any of the necessary (measures) was carried out, he says mat 

the occasion has been the cause (of it, and) not I. ^If Ap is nscd with the past 

tense in the conclusion, the supposition is always of the second kind ; if lU 
is not used, it is generally of the first (but see 746 b). 

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747] MODES IN coMDincnrAL bbntenceb. 277 

746. 2. Supposition oontbabt to REAunr. The condition 
is cusumed as real^ bat leith an implied judgment that it is corir 
t/rary to reality. We have then, 

in the condition, cZ with a past tense of the indicative ; 
in the conclusion, a past tense of the indicative with av. 

Both the condition and the conclusion imply a contrary realitv; and 
in each, the imperfect^ aarut^ or pluperfect is used, according as the con- 
trary reality would be expressed by a present^ an aoristy or t^ perfect. 

Thus ffl rhw ^tKanrw r& ZIkom trpdrroyra kApttv^ v^StfM hv ^twfuurrhv i^ov- 
fitly tsbrSy if I saw Philip doing what vhu jtut, I should regard him as very ad- 
mirable (but I do not see — , and do not regard him thus), oiik tuf iroirivtv *hya- 
ffias rcuhaj cl /i^ iyit a^hv MKtvaa Agastas would not have done these things^ 
if I had not ordered him (but I ordered him, and he did them), tl vtpl koivou 
Tirat wpdyfueros irpouri^m X/ytiy, heiaxw iy if^ it ^were proposed to speak on 
any new mattery 1 should hone waited (but this is not proposed, and I did not 
wait), cf fi^ 6fi9ts liX^rre, hroMvS^^a fty irphs fiagriXia if you had not eomCy we 
should be marching against the king (but you came, and we are not marching), 
c2 aMiptcn rh ifniplfffuera 9^9 4^«tos oitK tw IfipiKwi rovovrov xp6vov if your de* 
trees were suffteient^ Jphilip would not have insulted you so long (but they are 
insufficient, and he has insulted you). 

a. But the imperfect is sometimes used where the contrary reality would 
be expressed by an imperfect : 'Ayafi4fjLymp obK hy ruw rfitrtty ixpdrtt, cl fiii ri 
yavTuchy cTxc Agamemnon would not have been master of the islands, if he had 
not been fossessor of a naval force (but he was possessor of a navy, and was 

master ofthe islands). And, less often, the aorist is used when the contrary 

reality would be expressed by a present (indefinite, 696 a) ; cf rls as Upsro, ri 
&ir inrtieplyw if any body asked yoUy what would you answer f (but no one asks, 
and you answer nothing). 

b. The indicative, thus used in the conclusion, is called the htfo- 
THETicAL D^DiCATivE ; the aocompauying particle ai/is sometimes omitted : 
ija-xvv6firjVy el vnb TroXc/iiov ye ovros tfrjirarri^Tiv I should he oshamedj if I ^ 
haa been deceived by one who was an enemy, 

747. 3. Supposition -with Pbobability. The condition is 
assumed as possible and with some present expectation that it 
may be realized. We have then, 

in the condition, idv with the subjunctive ; 
in the conclusion, the indicative (principal tenses), 
or the imperative. 

Thus Tdyr* teriy i^tvpsiwy ihy fiii rhy x6yoy ^^ ris it is possible to find 
\ ent all things, if one shun not the toil, Ijy ris iiM^tariiraif TttpaeS/ie^ x^H^ov- 
a^ai if one resist, we shall try to subdue him, tltkoLfiov riu Sio^X^, tchy ^cv8c7s 
'iei avoid ccUumnies, even if they be false. 

a. The aorist adjunctive in conditional sentences is often nearly equivalent 
to the Latin future perfect : yios hf xov^crpi, yrjp^ «€«« tv^aXh (si juvenis la- 
boraveris, senectutem nabebis jucundam) if you toil (shall have toiled) while 
young, you wiU have a thriving old age. 

b. Hm. sometimes uses cf alone, instead of idy (cl &y, cf xc), with the subj. 
In Attic, this is yery rare : Soph. Mpa, iccf ns f o-o^s, rh fxayddytty w^AA' 
ahxp^y Mivfct a man, even if he he wise, to ham much (more) is no disgrace. 

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278 MODES IN COMDinOMAL SE3rrBIIC!!8. [748 

748. 4. Supposition WITH MERE PossEBELiTT. The oonditioii 
is assumed b& possible^ but wholly uncertain, toi^u^ expectoHon 
of its being realized. We have then, 

in the condition, ct with the optative ; 

in the conclusion, the optative with av. 

Thus <f ris K€Krtifi4vos ^ri wXovroy, xp^o tk a\n^ fi^, 2p* fty MaiiMvotifa 
T^an should possess vealth^ btU (should) make no use of it^ wnM he be happy f 
€i &irarr€s fUfiriiraifi^a rii» AoiccSiHfMWwy vAcoi^«(lair, lirarrcf hf iiw^KoifiAa ir 
we should all imitate the rapacity of the Lacedaemonians, we should all perisfi 
— ^Id Hm., &y (Ki) is sometimes inserted in the condition, and sometimes omit- 
ted in the concludon. The former occurs also, though rarely, in Attic writers. 

The optative thus used with &y in the conclusion, is called the potektxal 
OPTATIVE, cf. 722 a. 

749. There is a very different use of the optative with fc, in which it 
denotes t^past expectation (729), or a past conception (731). 

This occurs chiefly when the conclusion is itself dependent on a verb of 
past time : 4irop€v6fiiiyf tva^ cf ri Ziotro, ii^^Xolriy aurSy I was going, in order 
that I might aid him, if he should have any need of it (present vopwioiJtm^ Ira, 

ii» Ti S^irrcu, w^cAitf). In the oratio obliqua, after verbs of past time, the 

optative is often used with el, where the oratio recta would have the indicative 
or the subjunctive (i. e. with supposition of the first or third kind^: KAcoySpox 
c?Tcy 5ri L,ilanrov ovk iwaivoiti, tl rovra xaroaiKits cfi| Cleander said that he did 
not praise JDexippus, if he had done these things (or. recta oIk hnuvuf €l ireiro/- 
ijite) ; i9ii\ct<rt Kvpos tri irotfiSs iart (735) fu£xc<r<^ai, cf ris i^4pxoiro Cyrus 
shewed thai he was ready to fight, if any one should come out (or. recta mifUs 
cl/it, idy ris i^4pxnTai), Cf. 738. 

a. The optative with el is also used to express indefinite frequency 
of past action (729 b), usually with an indicative in the condusion : el nov 
((tXavvoi * AoTvdyiji^ c^' tmrov xpvo-o\dkivov irfpirfye t6v Kvpov OS often OS 
Astyages rode outj he took Cyrus about on a horse with golden bridle. 

750. Mixed Forms. The form of the conclusion does not always cor- 
respond to that of the condition. Thus, very frequently, when the con- 
dition has the first or third form, the conclusion takes the fourth, being 
represented as a mere possibility : 

c2 Tovro \4yeis, ofAoprdyois ir if you mean this, you might be in error, ihy 
i^e\^(ntTt wpdrrtty ii^lefs bftw abr&yt t<r»s tof fiiya re icr^oieuirdv itiyiMv if you 
will consent to act in a manner worthy of yourselves, you could perhaps aain some 
great good. A condition of the second form is rarely connected with a con- 
clusion of t^Q fourth : Hm. Koi vif tccr iy^* kw6Koiro^ el /i^ tp* h^h y6fia^y *A^^ 
9lrn and now would he perish there (his destruction being vivicUy conceived as 
an undecided possibility), if Aphrodite had not keenly o&erved him. 

751. Other wats cf expressing the condition or conclusion. The 
most frequent is by vl participle (789 e), or an infinitive (783). 

The condition may be implied in other forms of expression : Si' bfjMS oifTohs 
wdUoi ay inro^j&heire by yourselves (i. e. if you had been left to yourselves) ye 
would have perished long ago. It may be implied even in a co-ordinate sentence : 
obK iffdlovei rketw ^ Svyayroi ^ioeiv^ Ztaji^aytity yitp Am they eat no more than 
they can bear, for (if they should eat more) they would burst. The imperative 

Digitized by 



is'tometimefl eqniYalent to a condition of the third form : wtS$9s ytAff^mrw • 
^porHStfir ffSif vdrra ie\4a let children be bom (= if they are bom), aU thing$ 
now are full of carte, 

752. Condition Omitted. This occurs especially in the Mcond and 
fourth yarieties of supposition. Thus ^/SovXdfu/v &» I should wish (ct cdvi'd- 
fiTjy if I had the power, as I have not), povXolfiriv av I should toish (el dv 
vaifiri» if I should have the power, as possibly I might haye). The poten- 
tial opt. with av, in simple sentences, may be explslned in this way (722). 

753. Conclusion Omitted. This occurs when cl, ctSc, el yap are 
used in expressions of wishing with the optative or indicative (721 a, b). 

a. When two opposite suppositions are expressed, the second by el 8i /a^ 
(764 b), the conclnsion of the first is sometimes omitted altogether, as suffici- 
ently obvious : el fiey otp iyi^ ifMs Ikom&s 9i9dffK» \ el 9h /u^, xol wap^ r»y irpo- 
yeyernn^tmy /Myddyere if then I instruct you well enough (itaXm lx<' *^ ^ vv^^ 
or otr^e ZiZiaKeabe be instructed thus) ; but if not, learn from the men of former 
times, For aposiopeeis, see 883. 

754. Verb omittbd in condition oa concltision. This may occur 
in the cases 508 a, b, c : 

YopiC^O'M ffoi fiodkofuu • ical 7^ hy xal fuuyolfiiiy, el ftfi (so. fiouXolftriy) J 
wisk to gratify you ; for indeed I should be even insane, if I dia not wish it, ^- 
fio^fieyos^ &SMtp tty el iroTr, rh riiufeabai f carina, like a boy, to be cut (prop. As- 
vep hf ^fiolro, el xeus ^ij as he might fear, if he were a boy). 

a. Especially, where the same verb belongs at once to the condition 
and conclusion, it is^ often omitted with one of them : 

fff rif ical &XXof hrfip, ical Kvpos i^Us ivrt davfdCeffAeu if any other man 
(is worthy to be admired), Cyrus also is worthy (856 b), 6ircUcov0'oy, cfircp T^xn* 
iy^pdiwcty rwl (so. MiKOveras) obey, if ever yet {you obeyed) any man, oHicovy 
viftas ye o-^dWeiy &AX* cfirep c^ (for cfircD ru^ o'^dAA.ei, <r^d\\et tri) us then it 
does not deceive, but^ if {any one), thee, el 8^ r^ ao^^epos ^iiy clyoi, ro^^ Ay 
(sc. ^ifr, etc. ) if in any respect I should say that I was wiser, in this {I should 

say it). ^Hence ci ^^ gets the meaning of except : 06* yhp tpApuey^ el pi^ h\i- 

yovs ro^ovs for we see not (any, tf we do not see these few) except these few. 
But el fih 9td except for must be explained by supplying an idea of hindrance : 
Mkow iy ledyra fcara?M0uy, el fi^ 9th r^r iKttyov fi4XXriffiy it appeared tJiot they 
would have taken all things, (if not prevented by) except for his delay. 

b. A supposition directly contrary to something just before supposed, 
asserted, or demanded, is expressed by el te fifi : 

hrnfru rh xp^fMra * c{ 9^ pL^i, iroKtfiiiaeiy 1^ avrois he bade them restore the 
property ; but if not (if they should not restore it, el p.^ &iro8o7cir), he said he 
would make war upvn them. tX 8^ ^^ is sometimes found where ihy tk fi^ 
would be more regular : ihy pJky hpHv 9ok& K4yeiy &\i^^f , ^vyopoXjoyiiirttre • el 
9^ /i^, hyrtretyere If I seem to you to speak truth, agree toith me ; but if not, 
oppose. It is often used after negative sentences, where we miglit expect el 94: 
fiil oSre^ \4ye • cl 9^ peh, 06 daffovyrd pie ^ets do not speak thus; but (if not. if 
otherwise) if you speak thus, you will not find me confident. So too el 94 is 
sometimes used where we might expect el 8i pifi : el fi\y fio^Krrat, it^4r9s • cl 8*, 
8 ri 0o6\erai, rovro fnteirm if hs wi^ss, Ui him boil me ; but if {he wishes some* 
thing ^ss\ let him do what he 'wishes. 

Digitized by 



IV. Modes in Relative Sentences, 

755. Relative sentences are introduoed by relative pronouns or ad 
verbs. They show, in general, the same uses of the modes as oocur in 
simple sentences. 

Thus Subjunctive of Delib. (in indirect questions, 735 b), obn lx« 2^ ri xp& 
rov Xdfiu /(have not) know not what I should first take ; Optative or Wishing 
(721), 4pM 0*6 Zt^Kovra &v fi^ r^ois I see thee pursuing what {I pray) thou mayst 
net obtain; Potential Optative (722), d/Accs ier9 vap* &p &r irtUAMva rovro 
fid^t you are of thou from whom one might best learn this ; Hypothetical In- 
dicative (746 b, 762), qvk ^Xof X^iy vpht Ifias rotavra oV tof 6fuy IS8coV llv 
iuto6€ir I did not wish to say such things to you as would be most agreeable for 

you to hear (i. e. el lAryoy if I said them). Even the imperative may stand 

in a relative sentence : dc? vurreverai ro7s IjpToiy, %¥ i/icTt o'of ^crrcrror ixeyxor 
rov &\i9&ow rofUaare you must believe the aetionSy which {I bid you) consider as 
the surest test of the truth, poet. o7o^* t 9pwrow t knowst thou what thou art to 

dof or the subjunctive with imperative meaning: iKa^4(rro''ArvTos 58c, f 

firraSwfiey r^r Cnriaews Anytus has set down here^ to toA^m let us give apart in 
the investigation, 

756. The future indicative is often used in relative sentences to ex- 
press PURPOSE, see 710 c. Thus, in particular, on-ttr how, thaty in order 
that, is very often used with the future indicative, after verbs which ex- 
press attention, care, or effort : 

an^ei iwws rit irpdyfutra ffm^ererai see to it that the state be preserved (lit. 
how the state shall be preserved), ^p6yTiCe ^rws firfihy iyd^tov r^s fiaaiKfieis 
woi^<rcir consider anxiously that you may do nothing unworthy of the royal office. 
For iiFus with subjunctive of purpose, see 789. 

a. Before Sirai with the future, in earnest commands and warnings, the 
principal verb is often otnitted : Zvvs Top^crti ett r^v ienr4pay (sc. <ricJir6< look to 
it) that thou be present at the evening, Ihrws wepl rod ToKd/iov fitfi^y ipus (sc. ^v- 
kdrrov take heed) that thou say nothing concerning the tear, 

757. A relative sentence is indefinite, when the relative word refers 
to an uncertain (undetermined) subject or object. A sentence of this 
kind may have a hypothetical force, implying that t/the event (conceiv- 
ed as possible) takes place, with whatever subject or object, the princi- 
pal sentence then holds good. This is called a 

HTPOTHsncAL Relativb Ssntekge. It takes 
the subj. with av, in a case of present uncertainty (728) ; 
the opt. without av, m a case of past uncertainty (729). 
The principal sentence commonly has the indicative (without 
av), or the miperative. 

Thus 8 ri &v fieXXps Ipwf, mptrrepev hrurKSiret ry yr^fiji whatever you may be 
going to say, first consider it in your mind (i. e. if you are going to say any 
thing, whatever it maybe, consider it), Hm. hy V aZ 94ifiov r* Mpat^t fioiwyra 
1^ i^{fpoi, rhy tncfpfrp^ ihiroffKe but whatever man of the people he (might see) 
saw, and found him bawling, him he struck with hts sceptre (=if he saw any 
one bawlmg, he struck him), hs &v roirery re 8pf , re^ydrw whoever may do any 
eft/use things, let him die, tKere^avaty (699) Sr^ imryxJiiwey fiii ^^uy they 

Digitized by 



erUreat whanuoever they might fall in with not to /«e, t^aaaof iftny iwoia fty 8^ 
MNTcu K^rurra (729 a) they declared that they wndd say «ueA things as they best 
(can) coidd, ndyras, Bffovs ml^iw iy t$ ^aXifftrifi 9t4^ttpoy they toere destroy 
ing allf as many as they might take on tite seek. 

768. Hypothetical relative sentences of time^ places and man- 
neTy are introduced by relative words denoting time, place, and 
manner. They show the same uses of the modes. 

Thus vMpttfUtfofity ixdiffrore Iwr innixMii rh t^pmr4ipw9 • hretHii 8i hfoi- 
X^Vy (•if*My %p^s rhy ^SUncpdmi we waited each time untU the prison should he 
opened; but when it was opened^ we went to Socrates (if it was opened at any 
time, we waited till then, and went then), 8ci robs ywoikivovs^ MmP' ^^ C^h 
itovttw tliose who are bom must toil as long as they live (if thej uVe for any 
length of time, they must toil so long), htw^ twj^ &y ris ^rynrai follow wliere 
any one may lead you (if one lead you any whereX i>s iy ru xjiiitnrrat rois rpdy 
f^uroff oStw iufdyteq koL rh riXos ittfialveip in whatever way one may conduct his 
ajfairSy in the same way must tlu end also tvrn out. 

For conjunctions of time, place, and manner, see 875-9. For irpiv with the 
infinitive, see 769. 

759. The Article ap^ which belongs to the sabjunctive, is placed in 
immediate connection with the relative word : it even unites with some 
relative adverbs, giving compound forms, — orav, Anorap, indp or imiv (Hd. 

eweap), cTTccdciv, from orr, 6ir6T9^ irrei, inttdfj. But av is sometimes omit^ 

ted^ even by Attic writers, where the rule requires it : tftnrturrat^ fi{xP* 
ov iirav€\%vKTiv ol wpia-fitif a truce has been made, until the embastadort 
shall have came bach. Still more rarely is ap found with the optative, 

760. a. The aorist subjunctive with ap is often nearly equivalent to 
the Latin future perfect (747 a) : eneidap irdvra oKoiKnjrey Kplvar* when 
you (shall) have heard all, then judge. 

b. The subjunctiye with ((y is sometimes found in cases otpast uncertainty 
(729 a) : iro\c/iCiv ofhrtt Mku Hwarhp cTiw, irolr &ir hneioM fierax4fvpwri it did 
not as yet seem to be possible to carry on war, before they sfioiUd send for cavalry. 

c. The optative, used in hypothetical relative sentences, implies poet 
expectation, and very often with the idea of indefinite frequency (729 b): 
Swore ol "EXKrjpes roi r TroXf/xiocr inioiev, pa^iw dirit^evyop as often as the 
Greeks might attach the enemy, these escaped with ease, 

d. But sometimes it is used, espec. in poetry, to express a mtere possibility 
(730) : poet. %p ij ir6\ts arficue, rovUe xph icKieu/ if the city should instal any one 
as ruler, him it is necessary to obey. This is regularly the case, when the princi- 
pal verb is an opt. of mere possibility : Ix^y hp dp^ais ^or el yikp txois) &p9pa 
irrts i^4\oi hvepdnew rovs ilUKovyrdt <re you would gladly support (or, that 
you might have) a man who would be willing to keep off those that injure you. 

761. A hypothetical relative sentence takes the indicative, when it 
expresses an event assumed as real (cf. 745) : ots ufi evpia-Kop, Kepordifiiov 
ain-oU enoiria-ap (= cT nvas prj evp.) if they failed of finding any, they 
made a cenotaph for them. Such sentences, though very common, have 
nothing peculiar in the use of the mode. But, if negative, they take /iij, 
not ov : see 835, 

Digitized by 




762. The infinitive and participle are verbal nouns. a substantive 

and adjective derived from the stem of the verb (261 b). But they are 
unlike other verbals, being much more nearly related, both in form and 
in oonstruction, to the finite verb. Thus, in particular, 

a. They are made from all verbs, and with difierent forms for the 
different voices and tenses. 

b. Words expressing the object are connected with them in the same 
manner as with the finite verb (4S6 b). 

Depe7idence of the Infinitive, 

763. The infinitive may stand as the subject or the oJ)ject of 
a verb : ^as a subject, 

chiefly with intransitive or passive verbs : wwiy Ma^ xaXtw^v (so. ^W, 
608 a) to please all is difficulty ^{^r /i^rcty it was possibU to remainj fSo^t wpoi^ 
roi it seemed best to proceed^ ohx ifuy irposiixtt {irp4w€i) rovrovr ^/Sctodoi it does 
not become you to be afraid of these^ \4yrrat riif Kvpor wuaio'su it is said tJutt 

Cyrus conquered, The infinitive may also stand as the pretUeatc : rovro 

fjMy^dy€t¥ KoXcircu this is called learning, 

764. as an object, 

a. with verbs of thinking, perceiving, sating, showing (verba sentiendi 
et declarandi) : ofercu Sclx he thinks it is necessary^ iuco^ wdyras vapwai I hear 
that all are present^ 6fMfjL6Kttrt iutda-tiy ye fiave sworn to give Jud^ment^ iciytMrdai 
r& vdyra iaro^v6iktvos maintaining that all things are in motion, 

b. with verbs which imply power or fitness, rESLiNG or purpose, eitort 
or INTLUENCE, — toproduce (or prevent) an action : Knmrrai ianX^elit they can 
go avayy fitiCiv rt lx*» «i»««' I fCave something greater to say Tcan say it), ov W- 
^viras 8ov\cuciy thou art notfonned to be a slavCy irXovrciy m\€i he wishes to be 
richj ^fiovfuu X^ciy / am afraid to speak^ fytmaai^ rhp irorofthw htafiiiwai they 
determined to cross the river^ ris aitrhtf irwXi^ci Sevpo fiaMl(€af who will hinder him 
from marching hither / bfiiy avfifiovKs^ao ytwyai bfiui a&ro6s I advise you to know 

yourselves f cdrovyrai rohs ^tobs M6tmi tliey ask the gods to oive, -^ with the 

imp>cr80nal Jti it is necessary, xph *' behoves (strictly, something requires, urges, 
494) : Zu {j(f4i) fi iX&tTv I must (should) come, 

c. sometimes with other verbs : 4/ r6hts iKu^^pmiae meura Ump^apiipm the 
city tocu in danger of being wholly destroyed • 

765. The infinitive is often used (as an indirect object) to de- 
note the puBPOSE of an action : 

Ueyo^y rh lifucu rov arparr^^itaros KaT4knee ^vkdrreur rh arparSws^ir Xen- 
ophon left half the army to guard the eamp^ 9ap4xm ifuunhp r^ larp^ r4fuw9 
Kol Koletw I yield myself up to the physician to cut and casUerize, tmat hUwai 
ru^i to give one {something) to drink, 

766. The infinitive may stand in apposition with the subject or ob- 
ject : avrrj fidpfj fori MKif npa(i9^ marrffirjt ortpffiffwui this olOflS is evU 
fortune^ to be deprived ofknotoledge (500 d). 

Digitized by 



767. The infimtive may depend upon a siTBSTAimTB or ai>- 

odx &pa Ko^i^Of it is not a time to be tleeping, Mrymi hrifAtKtt&dtu it is 
necfuary to take eate^ iiXudaof txovci ireuMta'^at they have the proper age for 
receiving instruction^ Skpos ^p kylaruffbai there was an unwillingneaa to rtse up^ 

ovdtls ^6vos X4y€iy there is no (grudge) objection to speaking^ rp6^ftof 

(iroifios) Klyivroy /i4ytiy eager (ready) to abide danger^ bcayhs (Scty^s, rt^atfSs) 
Kiytof able (akil/uly pernuuive) in epeeiking, i^tos rKityiu Kafiuv worthy to re- 
ceive bloufSj xfl^nby tipw hard to Jind, oMa rfilarri Micureurdm a house very 
pleasant to live in, Kiyoi xFn^^H^^"'^^ kKOv^at words most, useful to hear, &AA.' i 
Xp^yos $pax^s iffTt SiiD^o-flwdai r& vpetx^tyra but the time is (too) short to re- 
late u^ was dime (659). 

For oXosy oX6rrty 6<rosj with the infinitiye, see 814. 
a. The infinitive with subBtantives may be compared to the genitive of 
connection (568), or the genitive objective (665) : with adjectives, it may some- 
times be compared to the genitive in 584-7, bat oflener to the dative of man- 
ner (608) or of respect (609). The infinitive used as a dative of respect ifl 

sometimes found with substantives : davfta mtl hcovirat a wonder even to hear of, 

The active is generally employed in these constructions, even where we 

might expect the passive : &{ios ^av/jid(€iy worthy ofadmiraiicn Cthat one should 
admire him) = ifyos ^a»fid(ta^ai worthy to be admired, 

768. The infinitive is used with Ij than after comparative words : 
poet. y6err}fia fA§t(oy fj ^ipMuf a disease (greater than that one should bear it) 

too great to be borne, obtkv &AAo ^ loituy ero^w sJyai nothing else than appearing 
to be wise, — ~&jtc is usually added with the infinitive : ^doyro "EitliiKoy ikir* 
rm H^yofuy ix'^yra ^ &sr€ robs ^(Aovr &^s\§iy they vereeived that Ecdicus had 
too stntUl a force to assist his friends, Cf. 659. > or infinitive with rod after 
comparatives, see 781. 

769. After vptv (prius) hefore, if is generally omitted (in Attio prose 
almost always so) : 

wpiy r^y &PX^y 6o^&s {ntobifrbat, fidraioy iiyovfuu letpl rfjs reXevr^s kiysu^ 
before laying aown the cotntnencement properly, I think it vain to speak about 
tfie end, Hm. uses rcCpot in a similar way : vdpes rcC^c ipya ytyicbai before 
these toorks were brought to pass. Instead of xpty alone, we often find irp^€ooy 
, , . irplyf or irpScr^ty , . . wpiy (and in Hm. vpty , . . votyy or rdpos . . . wpfy) : 
©5t» rtyh einrti^tis tUruff &sre woly clS^yai rh wposrarrontyoy icpSrrtpoy xs^oyrai 
some are so obedient, thai they obey before knowing the order, 

770. The infinitiye fs used with firrc to denote the result : 

rots iiXuct^au ovy^KdicparOf &rrs olKetus ^uucsur^at he had mingled with 
those of his own age, so as to be on familiar terms with them. The infin. with 
Hsre may also denote the purposk (as a result to be attained): way roiovaiyf 

fisrc Hiieny fi^ HiUyat they do every thing, in order not to suffer punishment; 

or the coNDiTiOK (to be attained, in order that something else may be) : i^riy 
rots wpay6you HpX*^ ^^ 'EAXiftywyy Arrt aibrobs bwoMoiety fiaxriKu it was in the 
power of your ancestors to be leaders of the Oreeks, on condition of being them* 
selves ndiject to the (Persian^ king. 

For i^* fre with the innnitive, see 813. 

771. Both wpiy and &rre are followed by sl finite mode, when the action of 
the verb Is to be eipressed as somethiDg real, probable, or possible : els r^^ 

Digitized by 



{f&T9paiay obx fxcr, ftsd^ ol '£AAt|rffx i^mCw on the next day he did net come^ 
9o thai the (J^reeke were anxiaua, ov xp4 M* ^v^P^e iireX^ly xpXp ^ 8d hUcnv 1 
mnet not go hence before I have suffered punishment (760 a). 

772. IxTiNiTivK IN LOOSE CONSTRUCTION. The infinitive (with or without 
the particle &s) is used in several phrases with loose construction, somewhat 
like the adverbial accusative (652) : &$ clirciV or its ivos eZirciy so to speak, to 
use this (rather strong) expression^ {&$) ffvviK^m eiwuy (sc. riW, cf. 001 a) to 
speak concisely y i/Ao\ ioK€iy as it seems to me, in my view^ o\lyov (jwcpov) 8c<y so 
as to want little ofity almost, rh rvy cTmu for the present^ xarik rovro sIfoi in 
this relation, and the like. 

For ixiftf c7kgu, see 775 a. 

Subject and Predicate with the Injmitvoe, 

773. The sabject of the infinitive stands in the accusative 
case (485 c). A predicate-noan, belonging to the sabject of the 
infinitive, stands in the same case. 

^^ciAay rhy Kvpov yunjau they reported that Cyrus had conquered, ffvvifiii 
furfi^ya rwy trrparrryity vaptlyai it chanced that no one of the generals loas pre^ 
sent, rhv HZiKoy (iy9pa ^/a2 6^\iov elycu I assert that the unjust man is mis- 
erable, Koi ol ijJkp tUxorro is 9oXleifs Ihn-as \,i}^J^Mu etnd some desired that they 
should be taken as being treacherous. 

a. The subject of the infinitive may be another infinitive : luar^parftkivos 
^icci irapik fiaffi\4w iodiiyai ol aui€iy robs "EAAijru he is eome having oliained 
from the king thai it should be granted him to rescue the Oreeks^ where a^Cup 
is the subject of ho^ycu. 

b. A sentence, when stated in oratio obliqua, is oflen expressed by the in- 
finitive (usually with subject-accusative) ; see 784 c. When two or more con- 
nected sentences are stated in oratio obliqua, the infinitive may be used, not 
only for the leading sentence, but for anv of those connected with it: rotaOt* 
drra a^ ifn 8ia\cxd^^yrai Uyai • ire\ zi ywyia^ai M ry oU(f , ht^wy/Uvtiy ica- 
raXofifidyeiy r^y ^pay ^^ after such conversation,^^ he said, **they went away: 
hut when they came to tJie house, they found the door open,^* 

774. Omitted Subject. The subject of the infinitive is fr&. 
quently omitted : thus 

1. very often when it is an indefinite word : 
itaaiy aZuy^y (bc. rtyd for any one) to please all is difficult, obx &pa 
jcoi^Sfiy t^ is not a time (for one) to be sleeping, xAyoi xp^^^l'^orot iucownu 

words most useful (for me) to hear. A predicate-noun, connected with the 

infin. and belonging to the indefinite subject, is put in the accusative: r& 
rouwra f^earrt (sc. riyd) iirrp4\oayra fcol itpt^/i'tiirayTa eid4yai such things (a man) 
may know by measuring and counting. 

775. 2. when it is the same as the subject of the principal verb : 
6fimfi6KaT€ Zucdaety ye have sworn to give judgment (that you will give), ^ 
fiovfuu \4ytiy I am afraid to speak, war wotoveriy firrc SimjK /i^ SiB^nu they do 

every thing in order not to suffer punishment (that they may not suffer). ^A 

preaicate-noun with the infinitive is then put in the nominative case : 6 'AA^^or- 
9pos t^etffKsw cTrsi Ai^r vl6s Alexander declared that he was son of Zeus, f^ obx 

Digitized by 



4/ioAo7^« tucXrrros ISkcik, Aax' ^h vov KtitXiifUwos IshaU not admit that Ihav§ 
come unbidden, but bidden by thee, ol SoirovKrf i wdrrw ffo^^arot thw tho9$ who 
stem to be wisest of all. 

a. From ix^p willing, connected as pred.-adj. with the inf. c7yai used in 
loose construction (772), comes the phrase iK^v Itlvai (so as to be willing) will- 
i^ffly •* rovTo lic^y tlyai ou iroiiia» I shall not do this of my own tnll, 

b. But sometimes, for the sake of emphasis or contrast, the subject of the 
principal yerb is also expressed with the infinitive ; it mav then stand either 
in the nominatire or the accusative : Hd. ol Aly^rrioi Mfiiioy ivvrous rp^ovs 
yew4<r»M iar^p^ww the Egyptians believed that they themselves were created first 
among men, tl dtwdt XaXKi94as 1i Mryapdas r^v *£XX^a <r^w, vfitts 8* 4iro- 
fydtrsffdm rii trodyfiaraj oiiic 6p^&s ofcv^^t if you think that the Chalcidians or 
megarians will save Greece, but that you wHl escape the trouble, yon are mistaken, 

776. 3. when it is the same as the object of the principal verb : 
ris abrhp iu0\6er€t Scvpo fiaZlCity toho will hinder him from coming hither f 
rh lifiurv Koriknte ^yXdrrsof rh ffrpari/wtZov he left half to auard the camp, dfuv 
ovftfiovKs^ ywSnmk bftas abro^ I advise you to know yourselves. A predicate- 
noun with the infinitive takes the case of the preceding object : Kbpov iUotn-o 
&s rpodufundrov yey4ff^ai they besought Cyrus to show himself as favorable as 
possible, woifrl ipxoyri wporhictt ^pofifi^ thai it becomes every ruler to be prudent ; 

but sometimes it stands in the accusative, when the object is a genitive or 

dative : avfi^pti abrots ^iXous cTmu fuiXXov ^ voKtfdous it is advantageous for 
them to befriends rather than enemies. 

111. Personal Construction for Impersonal. Instead of using an 
impen^nal verb (494 a) with the accusatiYO and infinitive, the Greek 
often puts the subiect of the infinitiye in the nominatiye case, and joins 
it as a subject with the principal verb. 

This occurs with Zoku it appears, touc€ it seems, \4yrrai it is said, byyiWe- 
reu it is reported, SfAoXoyeirai it is agreed, and the like ; with avfifiaimi it Jtap- 
pens ; and with HkolSv i<m it is just, hiayKtu6v iffri it is necessary, hrvHi^tioy 
iari it is fitting, and some similar phrases: 6 Kvpos ^^^AJ^ viK^cai (Cjrus was 
reported to have conquered) = ^tt^A^ij rhy Kvpoy yunj^rat it was reported that 
Cyrus had conquered, axnSs /ioc 8ok£ iy^tUs Korufiwtiy it seems to me that I my- 
self shall remain here, ^Uaios cT iytip ky^p6icovs (thou art just to lead men) it 
is rust that thou shouldst lead men, M9o^ol c/<ri rh abrh vflo-^ff^aiUhej are prob- 
able to sofier) it is probable that they will suffer the same. 1 et the imper- 
sonal construction Is also admissible : Iryy^^^ rhy Kvpoy yucrjcreu, c^ JiiKeu6y 
ierrty $fytty ky^pAwovi^ etc 

a. The personal construction here may be expkined by prolepsis (726): 
thus, proper form 1iyy4x^ tki 6 Kvpos Micnety by prolepsis liyy4\^ 6 Kupos 
Jt» MKfiaSf and, with yucriirai in place of 5t» iyiiaifff (734 c), iiyyix^ 6 Kvpos 

b. The ordinary construction of the ace. with the inf. (773) may be ei- 
plained by a similar prolepsis, when the principal verb is transitive : thus, prop- 
er form liryyttXay 5ti 6 Kupos iWmrcTf, by prolepsis liyyttKay rhy Kvpoy Bri ^i/fmjfl'f , 
and with the infin. liyyttXay rhy Kvpoy yuerjorm. The construction was perhaps 
first established in connection with transitive yerbs, and thence extended to 
cases where the principal yerb was intransitiye or passive. 

Digitized by 



Infinitive with Neuter Article. 

778. The nenter article, prefixed to the infinitive, giyes it more dis- 
tinctly the character of a »ub%tantite. Each case recei?e8 a form of its 
own, and may be made to depend on any word which would take the 
same case of a substantiye. But as to words which depend on the in- 
finitive (its avJfjeety predicate^ and object), they are expressed in the same 
way, whether it has or has not the article. Hence the rules in 773-6 
and 762 b are applicable here. 

779. The infinitive with the neater article prefixed may stand 
as a substantive in any case : thus 

Nov INATITX : rh ^poiMtip Maitiovias vp&rov ^dpx^i to be wi$e ia the Jirat 
{condUion) of happinees, rh iifiaprdytuf (so. abroCs) ia^pAwovs irras Mh^ dav 
fiacr6tf (so. tori) it is no tconder that being tnen they should err. 

780. Accusative : v€if>& KortpydiratrdttA &s ftdfoffra rh wtimi (9C. rnura) h 
fiolKti irpdErrcty endeanor to secure, as far as possible, the understanaina of those 
things which you wish to pursue. Especially with the prepositions %ls or iccnri 
in reference to, ltd by reason of, M op Tprff in order to, mpd in comparison 
with : Hth rh ^4tfos cTrai oitK tw oUt iZuetidiiyat do you think you would not be in- 
jured on account of being a foreigner f vphs rh fierpiwtf Scib-dm Ka\&s vcircuScv- 
/i4yos well trained to having only moderate wants, 

a. The infioitive with r6 is sometimes found in loose construction, analo- 
gous to the accusative of specification (549): hriXxiffrol tlci rh is r^y yrjr iifiup 
isfidXKttr they are without hope as regards the invasion of our land, rls Mii9stv 
ffov iars\€i^dri rh fi4i aoi iucoXov^€w what one of the Medes remained away from 
you, so as not to follow you (as to the not following) f Sometimes it resembles 
the adverbial accusative, see 772. 

781. Genitive : hndvfjda rov «€«]k desire of drinking, ^ rov vf£^ciy r4j(vti the 
art of persuading, Hdris rov Korcucovuv ri»6s unaccustomed to obeying any one, 
iftoX ohllv Tp^ofiirepoy rod Zri $4Krurrop ifi^ yfycVdac to me there is nothing 
more important than to become as good as possible, Iwi/itXtirm rov &s ^porifnA' 
raros cTi^oi he is careful (of being) to be as wise as possible. So with many pre- 
positions, as ^{ from, in consequence of, icp6 before, prior to, wcpf concerning, 
ZyeKu on account of, inrip for the sake of, lid by means of, iyw without, aside 
from; and with some adverbs, as K^n ehai rov kokws led^uy to be out of reach 
of injury. 

a. The infinitive with rov is often used, without a preposition, to denote 
the PURPOSE (especially a negative purpose) : rov /x^ Sio^vyciy rhv Kaey^p iic 
r&y lucr&w^j OKowohs Ko^lorofiey that the hare may not escape out of the nets, 
we set watchers. 

782. Dative: ravra oOk j)y iftvolifyr^ rohs ^cok^os irA(ea^ai these things 
were no bar to the preservation of the Fhocians. Especially as dative of means, 
cause, or manner : KtKpdrriKs r^ irpArepos xphs rohs iroXc/x/ovt I4ym he has tri' 
umpfied by marching first against the enemy, ed koK&s iroAirciH^/iCMU Ififioxparieu 
wpo^xovat rf luceu^tpai tlyai well conducted democracies are superior m beino 
more just. Also with prepositions, as iy in, M on the ground of or on eondtf 
tion that, 'wp6s in addition to : iy r^ %Kturroy lucattos Apxeu^ 4 ^oXtr^ia ir^trai 
when each adminieiere hie office Juetly, the order of the state is preserved (in and 
throagh the just adminiatration). 

Digitized by 



Injmitive with av. 

783. The infinitive takes &> where a finite verb, standing in- 
dependently, would take it. Thus the inf. with av corresponds 

a. to the POTENTIAL OFTATITS wUh JSuf (722) : fJiXMra oJfuu t» trov nd^dat 
(mdependent construction ftdxtffra &y Tudotfirir) I think that I should Uam beit 

from you ; and with expretted condition (748): Iokut4 fxoi {111) To\b fi4\- 

rw¥ if T€pl rod TokiyMv povK^iffeur^ai (indep. fiiXnov &y ^ovAtiJiraur^^c), ci rhv 
rSneow riis x^^ ip^foi^lfrrM it appears to me that you would take much better 
counsel concerning the loor, if you should consider the situation of the country, 

b. to the BTFOTRSTIOAL nTDiCATiYK with fti' (746) : Kvpos tl ifiiufftyf Apurros 
&y Sojcct ipXPMf y9viobat (indep. Ikpurros &y iy^vrro) it seems probable that Oyrus^ 
if he had lived, would have proved a most excellent ruler. So with implied con- 
dition (761): rehs ravra ivyyoovvrasZ^Kpdrris kp9paToS^€ts &i^ KtK\ri<rbfu^ywro 
(indep. cf rtyn ravra iiyySoWf ivSpoiroSciSciy &ir iK^Kkrivro) Socrates thought thai 
persons ignorant of these things (if such there were) would be called slavish. 

RxM. c. The partiole Ay^ though belonging to the infinitive, may be attached 
to the principal verb, or to other emphatic words in the sentence : see the fore- 
going examples. 

Injmitive for the Imperative, 

784. This occurs in the second (seldom in the third) person. It is 
rarely foand in Attic prose. 

In this use of the inf., its subject, if expressed, is put in the nom. ; a predi- 
cate-noun belonging to the subieot is put in the same case : Hm. ttaiZa V ifuA 
\vffal rs ^IkfiP, rd r* Awoa^a d^c<rd«u release to me my dear child, and accept 
the ransom, Hm. ^apa&v pwj AtSfitfitSf M Tp^sfrai /Adxsa^at with courage now, 
Dicmedes, fight against the Trojans, <rhf KAcap{Sa, r&i r^Aof hyoi^as httx^siw 
do thou, CUaridas, having opened the gates, hasten out against (the enemy). 


For the nature of the participle, as a verbal adjective, but different 
firom other verbal adjectives, see 762. For the agreement of the parti- 
ciple with its substantive or subject, see 498. 

Attributive Participle. 

786. The participle, like the adjective (488 a), may express 
an attiibute of its substantive or subject (493) : 

vSKis tbptiof iymhs fyouoa (= T6\tf e^pvdyuia Hm., or x^Aif ^ ebpttas iiyviiLS 
ix«<) o ^ly having broaastreets, al KaKo^fienu hl6Kov vriaoi the so-called islands 
ofAedluSf 6 Topitw Kaip6s the present occasion. The participle is always at- 
tributive, when it follows the article (492 d). 

786. The attributive participle is often found, with omitted subject^ 
used as a mbetantivs (509) : 

Digitized by 


288 ciacDiorrANTiAL pabticiple. [786 

ol wap6pT€$ the {perwn$) pruent^ 6 rvx^v whoever haj^ns^ rapk rots itptcrois 
9oKodcuf c7««i with thoee who appear to be best, T\4ofiMtf M ToMJia tmvs iccimi- 

ftiyovs we are eailing againet (rrun) who pozeeu many ships. Such participles 

are often to be translated by substantiires: 6 Zpdcas the doer, ol kiyorrts the 
speaker Sf TporfiKorr4s rtv9s some relatives, w6?as ToKsfxoiivrwy a city of belligerents, 
rh Zioyra the duties, Tphs rh r^wraiow infiky tKturroy rwy Tply bwapliyTwy Kplrt- 
Tcu by the final issue is each one of the previous measures judged of, 

a. Participles thus used sometimes take a genitive, like substantives, espe- 
cially in poetry : r& evfi^poyra rijs x6\€«t5 (663) the advantages of the state, rh 
Ho^dioy rfis ^vxyis (569) the thinking (part) of the soul, poet. 6 ixtiyov rcmiy 
{b&d n) his parent, 

b. The participle with the neater article is rarely used in an abitraet sense, 
like the infinitive : rh fiii fuKsrSy the not-exereising, failure to exercise {== rh pii 
fteXrray). In prose, this is nearly confined to Thucydides. 


787. The predicate-participle, like the predicate-adjectiye (488 b), is 
brought into connection with its subject oy the sentence. It is called 
ciacuMSTANTiAL, whcii it is loosely related to the principal verb, adding 
a eircumstajiee connected with the action ; and sufplbmemtabt, when it 
is closely related to the principal verb, supplying an essential part of the 

a. These subdivisions of the predicate-participle are not in all cases clearly 
distingulBhcd, but run into each other. 

Circumsta/ivtial Participle. 

788. The circumstance, denoted by the participle, may be re- 
lated in various ways to the action of the principal verb. Thus 
there is always a relation of 

a. TiiCE (for the tenses of the participle, sec '/li-lS): ravra eWinf itrftty 
after saying t/iese things, he went away, ytX&y cTxc he spoke laugKing (at the 
same time), irpos^xsre ro6rots hwftyywrKOfiiyois rhy yovy give your attention to 
these things, while they are being read, *AXKi/3id[8i}s Ifri tcus t^y i^avfid(tro Aid' 
biades, while yet a 60^, was aSnired (in such cases &y cannot be omitted), M 
'Apx^a ifopt^yrot A^tray^pos els "E^eroy kpUero while Archytas %oas ephor^ 
Lysander came to Ephesus, 

Sometimes the participle may be rendered by an adverbial expression : kpx^- 
fieyos at first, reKnnwy at last, dtaXnriiy xp^f^oy after an interval of time, ei 
{koK&s) 7toi&y with right. Similarly iroXXp rixy^ xp^f*^^' ^^l^ mucn art, rks 
yavs hiriorsiKtaf l^x'^yra 'AXicfBor they despatched AlcXdas toith the sJdps, Observe 
also such forms as ^Xvapels ix^* *^ ^""^ trifling (holding on to \i) continually, 
Jkyoiye hyiffas open with despatch, ^Ktt rh Konh ^p6iiwya the evils are come with 
a rush (lit. borne on, with haste and violence). 

789. But the participle may denote also 

b. HsAVB : Xtfldiiteyot fici they live by plundering, ovk Utrrty i^ucovyra 5^ 
yufuy fiefiaiay xr^mriiai it is not possible (for any one) by wrong-doing to gain 
firm power. 

Digitized by 



c Cause : to^mf tSt iuf9w ianixwro tiaxp^ voidCwrts ^tpoi from then 
gains they abstained^ becauae they eansidered them to U «A<im«/W.— Thus rt 
xo&^v having suffered what / and t< fia^^r having learned what f are used io 
asking, with surprise or severity, the reason of 8oni£ fact: ri yhp fia^6yrts 
Tohs ^tohs tfiplCtr^for toith what idea did you insult the godsf 

d. End. The yWur« pftrticiple often denotes /ni?7)0M: xap^X^Kuha aviifiow 
Xtinrtav dfuy I have comeforwara to advise you, rhv itSiKovrra Topk robs Zucacrrkf 
iyeut Sc< 9tKrj¥ Z^oyra tt is necessary to bring the evil-doer before the judges^ in 
order that he may suffer punishment (lit« give justice). 

e. Condition : ro7s K^vtdois ToXtfioveuf H/uufor Harai it will be better for 

the Athenians^ if they make war, ^Even an attributive participle may imply 

a condition on which the verb depends : 6 fiii ^aptls A^^pttiros ob TaiMtrai the 
man who is not whipped is not educated (if not whipped, he is not educated). The 
conditional participle with /«4 can often be rendered by without: ovk l<my 
ApX'"' M^ SiS^vra luaHw it is not possible to command without giving pay (774). 

f. Concession (cf. 874): r^ oSm^ ebwt^arotf Apurror 6p water is tne cheapest 
(of all things), though it is the best^ 6/ius b^p6fierot rh Twwpayfiipa Koi Svsyc- 
palrovTMs Ijyvre r^r ^Ipiivrir Zfms you^ though you were suspicious as to what had 
been done, and were dissatisfiedy continued to observe the peace notwithstanding. 

Rem. g. It must be remembered that the Greek participle, while it stands 
in an these relations, does not express them definitely and distinctly. Hence 
the different uses run into each other, and cases occur in which more than one 
might be assigned : thus robs ^IXous cdcpycrovi^cs Koi robs iX'^P^^' Svy4<rff<rd« 
Koki{eo^ by benefiting your friends (means), or if you benefit your friends (con- 
dition), you will be Ale also to chastise your enemies. 

Participle with Case Absolute. 

790. The circumstantial participle may be connected in its 
yarioQS uses (788-9) with a genitive (less often an accusative) 
absolute^ 1. e. not immediately dependent on any word in the 

GsNimrB Absolute. The participle with genitive absolute 
may denote 

a. Time : TlsputXious iiywfi4yoVf iroX?<h Koi KoXh tpya &irff8ff(|ayro 0/ *Aj^ 
veSoi while Pericles was their leader, the Athenians accomplished many noble 
works, roirmr ^ex^hnwr, hviffrntraf koX MiX^ov after these things were said, 
they rose up and went away. 

b. Means : r&r aufiArwv ^hwofihwr^ jcal al tf^x^ hfpw(Fr6repai ylymnnat 
(the body being enfSeebled) by the enfeebling of the body, t/ie spirit also is made 

c. Cause : obbhw r&y Zs^muf ieoio(nrrs»w bfi»y, kokSs Ix'* '''^ Tpdyftara be-- 
cause you are not doing any of your duties, your affairs are in bad condition. 

d. Condition : oIk &y f\!^o9 Zwpo, hfjuav fiii Ktheva-dyrttr (= c/ fiii bfxus 
iKeXe^irars) I should not have come here, if you had not commanded it, poet. 
T^yoir* &y xar, beov r^xv^f^^rov (= el &ths rex^fro) every thing would come to 
peas, should a divinity contrive. 

e. Concession : 'woKKuv Korrh yrir xal 3i(AaTrcv ^pi»r 6m«99, rovro fiiyuT' 
riv itrri though there are many wild animals on land and sea, this one is the 


Digitized by 



791. The Greek construction of the genitive absolute differs from the 
Latin ahlative absolute in several respects: 

a. The subject of the participle is often omitted, when it la easily under- 
stood from the context or n>om the meaning of the participle : ^yrcvdcir toU^ 
TOfVy itpalyero tx^M %inrm¥ at they (the army of Cyrus) were proceeding from thenee^ 
there appeared troche ofhoteet^ Somos (Zeus raining, cf. 6<H c) tehue it tecu ram- 
ing. The subject is omitted, also, when it is indeterminate, see 792 b. 

b. The participle of 4iid to he cannot be omitted, where the sense requires 
it, as in trov irajX6s &rros (but Lat. te puero) when thim wert a bog. Except in 
connection with the adjectives ixAw and &c«y, which closely resemble parti- 
ciples : ifwv iK6irros vfith my eoneent^ ifwv iKoyros againet my will, 

c. The Greek, as it has perfect and aorist participles in the active voice, 
nscs the construction of the case absolute much less often than the Leitin : 6 
Kvpos rhw Kpoiffotf pucfyras imrecrpet^o re^s AxMs^ Lat. Cyruey Oroeto victo, 
Zydos sibi eubjecit, 

d. The genitive absolute is sometimes used, even where the subject of the 
participle is at the same time dependent on other words in the sentence : ravr' 
€lir6vTOS eJn-oVf &o^4 rt Xryciy rf 'Airrvdyet (= rcah' c2ir^y liSo(c) when he had 
eaid these things^ he appeared to Astyages to say sonuthing (important^ SioiS^ 
firiKSros n9piK\4ouSf ijyyih^ aur^ ( = itafiefintcirt H^pucKti iyy4K^) when Pe- 
ricles had crossed over, word teas brought to him. 

792. AccusATiyB Absolxttk. Instead of the genitive abso- 
lute, the accusative is used when the participle is impersonal 
(494 a), i. e. 

a. when the subject of the participle is an invinitivs : ovS«h, i^hv cl^nTy 
Ay9t9f it6\efioy aip^iertrai no one, (it being permitted him) ti^en he is permitted 
to keep peaeey will choose toar, Tposraj^iv fiot W4ymya ttyctr els 'EXX^nrorror, 
(^X^fitiy ilk rdxovs (it being commanded) when a command was given me to con- 
vey Afenon to t)te Hellespont^ I went in haste j Koauyy obm 6\lyp ^XP^*^'> iMtrnr 
roy %y iy yvierl iXX<^ r^ ffiifiiiyai tJiey made no little otftcry, (it being impossible) 
as it w€u impossible in the night to give signals by any other means. The infini- 
tive is sometimes understood : ohZAs rh fieiioy aifffertroi^ i^h^ rh tXarroy (sc. 
alptia^at) no one will choose the greater (of two evils), when it is permitted (to 
choose) the less, 

b. when the subject is iNDSTEiufiHATK : ro^myobZhyylyyeTaij Uoywdrrwr 
lUXurra yiyyscbat. none of these things takes plaecy though it is above all neces- 
sary (something requires) that they should take place. Yet in this case the 

participle is commonly put in the genitive, if the corresponding verb is not or- 
dinarily impersonal : otiTtes lix<*yros or ix^yruy (it being thus, things being thus) 
in this state of things. So, also, when the subject is a dependent sentence: 
ffrifiay^yrtty r^ 'Arrru^ci Sri iro\4fuol tlff-iy iy rp x^P^ when it was reported to 
Astyages that enemies were in the land (for the plural, cf. 518 a, b). 

793. After its (795 e) and &siT(p, the accusative absolute is sometunes 
found, even when the participle is not impersonal : 

Tohs vUU ol irarip^s ^pyowriy birh rioy Toyripwyf &s tV rolrwy dfitXiay icardt- 
Xtwrcy oderav dpcr^s fathers keep tlieir sons away from evil men^ thinking that their 
society is the destruction of virtue^ aiwrff iZtiiryovy^ Qsirtp rovro irporrerec/fidyoy 
abrois they were supping in sUeneCy Just as if this was enjoined upon them. 
Rarely so, without preceding &5 or inrtp : Tpos^JKoy a^v '''^v itK'ipov pipos sines 
a part of the inheritance belonged to him, dS^ayra 8^ ravra but these things having 
buti resolved on (also M^ay ravra, wher« perhaps wote^ should be suppUed). 

Digitized by 


795] AJmrnfffTB OF THB PABTICIFLE. 291 

794 A participle with case absolute is often connected by oonjuno- 
tions to a circumstantial participle in construction with the sentence : 

c2s^Ado/ify fit rhw x^A.c/uor Uxovrts rptifip^is TtrpaKOfflaSf ^apx6yTuv 9\ xp^ 
IkAntp voAXfiy im entered into the toar, having four hundred triremes^ and (with) 
ntany resources helimaing to ua, r^ rtlxjti trposifiaXov hrb^ytt koX iuf^p^ttv ohic • 
Mvrmp they attacked the wo//, because it was weak^ and t/iere were no tnen on it. 

Adjuncts of the Participle. 

795. The relations of the circumstantial participle, in its various uses 
(788-90), to the action of the principal verb, are rendered more distinct 
hj addine certain particles, which may be called adjuncts of Uie parti- 
ciple. Thus, 

a. rire^ cTro, Ivciro, otren represent the action of the principal verb as 
8I7CCSEDINO that of the participle. Tbey are placed after the participle, and, 
as it were, repeat its meaning : KoraXxriiP ^povphtf oCfrMs ^ c^kov i»€xAfniff€ he 
left a garrison, and thus (after doing this^ marched home again. 

b. fij^f (placed before the participle) represents the succession as iinfXDi« 
▲TE : T^ 8c^i9» K^pf wvSShs ^itofiefiiiieSn MKeurro they fell upon the right wing 
immediately after its landing, 

c. tiia at the same time and /icrol^ between represent the two actions as 
CONTEMPORAKSO0S : ofE^Xtivts ifidxoyro &fM iropwSfieifot the Greeks were fight- 
ing while upon the march, Ktyoyris ffov, fiera^^ /toi yiyops ^ ipmirfi even while 
thou wert speaking^ the voice came to me. They are commonly placed before 
the participle. 

d. fire (also oToy, ola) with the participle gives a cacsal meaning : icar^ 
8a^ stCrv xoXh, &t€ fuucp&y r&y vuiermp oio'w he tHept a great deal^ because the 
nights were long. It denotes something actual (objsctivk), and differs thus 
from the following. 

c. iis with the participle represents its meaning as subjechve, that is, as 
thought, felty or uttered, by some person : XMcpdrriw wo^owu^ &s ^tf^cXi/u^roror 
tyra Tfhs hperris hti^iKuav they regret Socrates, because (as they think) he was 
most useful for t/ie culiivation of virtue^ ^auftdCerrai &s ^ofol re Ktd ebrvxeh ftr- 
9pes yeytyrifiiyoi tluy are admired as having been (in the view of their admirers) 
both wise and fortunate men, K4yst &s BiSoktov odarris riff hperfis he speaks in the 
belief that virtue is a thing that can be taught, poet. I^coti ^ewetw^ As ifutv ftS- 
WHS icixas (sc. oi<n\s^ omitted contrary to 791 b) you are at liberty to speak aloud^ 
assured that I alone am near, lya wphs r^v iKKKfifftay l)«coter, &$ 9h ^vyytyeis Sptss 
r&v b,iro\u\6Tmv that they might come into the assembly, pretending that they 
were kinsmen of those who had perished, itirs$\4i^are lep^s dXA^Aovs, ws astnhs 
l»kv iiuLffros oh mt^ffsty rh S^^or, rhy 9h irKfi<rioy Tpd^oyra (793) ye looked to one 
another, expecting each that he himself would not do what was resolved on, but 
that his neighbor would accomplish it. 

f. Koiwtp (less often ical) with the participle gives a concessive meaning 
and is rendered though : Koiirtp ofhret <ro^s t^y^ fitXriw hy y4yoio though thou 
art so wise, thou couldst become better. In Ilm., the Kcd and Wp are often se- 
parated (cf. 477) : ol Bh nol hxyvfitwot Ttp in^ avr^ ifih yiXaixffay but they, al- 
though troubled, laughed pleasantly at him ; or irip alone is used in the same 

sense : hxv^ii-*voi xep. "Ofiats yet with the principal verb, expresses the same 

meaning : lid. ti<n'spoy liinK6fityoi rris avfifioK^s IfA^ipoyro SfMt i^c^tfairdcu robs 
M^Sovf though they came too late for the engagement^ they yet desired to look 
upon the Modes. 

Digitized by 


292 SUFPLEMENTABT pabugifle. (790 

Sn^lementary Participle. 

796. The supplementary participle supplies an essential part 
of the predicate. It may belong either to the subject or to the 
object of the principal verb: 

a. to the BUBJBCT : iravco-Sc act frfpl r&v avr^v Pov\(v6fitvoi ceote €0n- 
suiting forever on^the same matters^ to-di \vinipoi &p hnoto that you are 

b. to the OBJECT : h nSKtfios tnava€v ^uas mi ntpX r&y avr&v jSovXcv- 
ofiipovs the war compelled us to cease consulting foreoer on the same mat" 
ters, olda avrov Xxmrfpou orra Ihnow that he is offensive. 

797. The action of the supplementary participle is represented, through 
its connection with the principal verb, 

1. as BEll^O or AFPSARINO TO BB. 

So with tl/d to be, Mipx» 'o ^ (<>"& ^ ^^^Si^^ ^^ ^)y ^X^ (J^^ ^^^^ 0°®*^ 

aelf| and hence) to be, ^aiyofuu to appear (802), ^orcp^s {9^k6s) €lfu to be 

ntafUfest, Houca I seem. So with verbs of bhowiko (causing to appear) : Sc(ic- 

wfu (S9}Ai«, &TO^Mf ) to show, mUu to represent, ^9\4yx» to convict, iLyy4AXo0 
to announce, bfxoXayim to acknowledge. 

Thus c{ roif yX^MTur h^ffKwr4s itrfitv if we are acceptable to the mc^ority, 
Arie*p TposiiK6w iart or Asvcp rpoj^KOK as it is proper. Tor the participle used 

with tlfd to supply certain parts of the verb, see 885, 892-3, 718. len^A^ 

lx« ^ have proclaimed (lit having proclaimed I hold myself thus) : this is 
chiefly poetic. Constructions like inndfiswoi Mkovs Ix^imti theypurchaes slaves 

and hold them, belong to 788. -hTo^ahmMrt rohs ^iyotnas wdXat rotnipobs 

tirras they show that the exiles were long ago bad, ^iXxntos Tdrra Sytna ^mrrov 
wotiitf i^t\'fiKtyKT€u Philip has been convict^ of doing all things for himself 

798. 2. as bkgikming, contikuino, or ceasing, to be. 

So with fyx'fiM to begin (691), SiorcX^ (Sktytf) to continue^ «a^ to make 
one cease, miofuu (KiiyVf Mxni) to cease, Sia- (^irc-) Xc/irw to leave off, intermit; 
also hrayope^m to give over, iWelvet to /o^.— Thus diorcAfi €thfbuv kx"^ wutrv 
^fur I continue to bear good-will to you all, htiffx*s bpyt(6tMyos cease to be angry, 
*Ayri(riKBuu obit &irf ixc fieyd\mp ical #raA»y /^^/icrot Agesilous did not give up 
uiming at great and Itionorable things, 

799. 3. as an object of pebception, knowledge, bemcmbrance, and 
the contrary. 

So with altr^Ayofioi to perceive, vofddu to consider, 6pd» to see, mptopdm to 
(overlook) allow, iueo^m tohear, tuofdiam to learn (802), wvrbdi^fuu to learn by 
inquiry, ebptcKCf to find, Xa/ifidtw to ^catcb) tletect, akloKOfiai {^a^pdofuu) to be 

detect^ o79a {Mirrafuu, yiyy^Kw) to know (802), iypo4» to be ignorant, 

Iiifuniiuu I remember (802), iwiXeuf^dtfOfuu to forget. 

Thus eVtoy robs mKefdovs wekAiopras they saw the enemy approaching, ^4«fs 
iuco^ "Zviepdrovs ^lakeyoiUrov I gladly hear Socrates discoursing, ^p 49iliov\e^w 
hKiincrrrai if he should be detected in laying plots, eb^^s iorlp Hsris &7i«ci rhv 
iM'i^w (cf. 618 a) T6\tfjL0p ^tvpe fi^opra fooluth is {any one) who does not know 
that the war subsistifig there utill come hither. 

^ a, aipQi^ fun may take the participle either in the nominative or in the 
dative : iavr^ ivrf^tp obBh^ iTiorifiepos or ivurra(i4r^ he was conseiaus thai he 

Digitized by 


808] PAsnciFLE WITH Siv. 298 

hnm nathififf. When it meanfl to know by privity with another^ it may have an 
object and participle in the accufiative. 

800. 4. aa an object of endurance or emotion. 

So with ^4ftc9 to bear, i^ixofuu to support, maprMpiot to endure, X^P^ 

(1$8ofuuy rifiKoiuu) to be pleased, irpariM to be content, iyainucT4» (llydo/uu, x^ 
Xrrwi ^pw) to be vexed, displeaied, bfryiCa/uu to be angry, alvxyroiuu to be 
aehamed (802), luraiiiXoiuu (jAerofiiKti /ioi) to repent : also Kd/xiw to be weary. 

Thus H^rai XoiZopo^iitvot ^ipeur he ie able to bear being reviled, x^P^* 

hnuvoOyLfvos he ddighte in being praised, fura/iiKtt avr^ ^ewraikiv^ he repents 
of having lied, luaSiamw fiii Kdfufe be not weary in teaming. 

a. The participle with yerbs of emotion might be regarded as the cireuni' 
stantial used to express means or eauee. 

801. 5. as taking place in some general makner indicated by the 
principal verb. 

So, as taking place well or ill, indicated by c9 {kokAs) Tom ; wronglt, by 
&8Mr^, j^^iopitbw; with superiobitt or iNrxRiORiTT, by yiiciw, rrrrdopuu; bt 
OHAiiCE, by rvTx^^t po^t. irvp^M ; without notice, by Xa^d^dim ; bitorb the 
action of another, by ^^4aw; etc.— —Thus i^uceire iro\//Mv Ikpx^wres iccU mrw 
Mf XiSoyrci ye do wrong in eommeneing war and breaking tniee, 4rvxoif bwJurai 
iw rn &yopf KcAeiioprts heavy-armed men, as it chanced, were sleeping in the 
market-plaeej i\a^ rhw Kvpoy ian^^^w he departed without the knowledge of 
Cyrus, lAodof Ztai^tap4irret (sc. karrois unnoticed by themselves) they were 
ruined unawares, tp^dyet robs ^tkovs ebepyer&p he anticipates his friends in con- 
ferring benefits, 

a. With rvTx^tfw, the participle may be omitted where it is readily sup- 
plied from the connection : mpt^pexow ftqi r^oipu (sc. itepirpix^ Iwu run- 
ning about wherever I might dhance. 

802. General Remark. With many of these verbs, an infinitive may 
be used in the same sense; bat often there is a difference of meaning. 

Thus ^alrerai TXovrmw he appean to be rich (is rich and appears so), but 
^rrrai yXovrcir he has the appearance (perhaps deceptive) of being rich; 
ahx^fuu \4yo9r Ispeedc with shame, but alax^fuu XfyetyJC am ashamed to 

rak (and therefore do not speak^ ; oVte (^uvd^i) rucmr he knowe (leeams) that 
M victorious, but oJSe (fuv^cCrt i) ratar he knowe {leame) how to be victorious ; 
lk4iuniiJMi c/f KMffyor 4xd4r I remember that J came into danger, but /i^pyfifuu 
rhy nttfivyor pe^ytty lam mindful to shun the danger, 

Particijple with av. 

803. The participle takes ay, where a finite verb, standing 
independently, would take it (783). Thus the participle with 
ay corresponds 

a. to the POTENTIAL optative with fiy (722): riu HAAot ir^Acis birepe^pvy, 
As obK tof 9uyafUyas iBoi)i^«rM (indep. obic tty B^yaiyro) the other cities they over- 
looked, supposing that they woiUd not be able to give aid; also with expressed 

condition (748) : iy4 tlfu rmy ifi4ws hy iKtyx^rrmy^ ff r< it^ kKifl^h \4yo9 (760), 
4iB4cft 8* &y iKey^dyrWf ff rts /ih iKffihs \4yoi ^indep. ot hy iKeyx^tey^ ihiy- 
^euof) lam one of those who would gladly be confuted, if I say anything untrue, 
M toould gladly confute another, if he should say anything untrue. 

Digitized by 



b. to the HTPOTHSTiCAL INOICATIYB with fbt (746) : ^iktnns Tlorfdauaf ikin 
lad Hmni^ls &y aSnhs fx*^9 <^ ^/SovX^^if, 'OXvMws vop^wicc (indep. 49vp4ibif iat) 
PhUip^ when he had taken PotidaeOj arid would have been abU to keep it himself, 
if he had wished, gave it up to the Olynthians, 

Verbal Adjectives in rio^. 

For the meaning of the verbal acyectives in r6s and rcos, see 398. 

804. The verbal adjective in rtosy when used as a predicate with ct/u, 
has a twofold construction, personal and impersonal. The latter gives 
prominence to the necessary action expressed by the verbal ; the former, 
to the object of that necessary action. The copula tlfii is very often 
omitted, see 508 a. 

a. lu the PERSONAL construction, the object of the action is 
put in the nominative (693), and the verbal agrees with it : 

ov irp6 ye rrjs iiKri^ftas rifiTrrios ia^ip a man is not to be honored before the 
truths ^ tSXis rots iroXircus ^cXifr^a iori the state must be aided by the citizens, 

With the infinitive ov participle of «!/*/, the object and the verbal may be 

put in other cases : & rols ^Kev^pois ijyovrro etvai Tpateria things which they 
thought were to be done by freemen, tcoXK&v in /Mt Xcxr^wr 6yn»v there being 
many things yet to be said by me, 

b. In the impersonal construction, the verbal stands in the 
neuter (tcW or rea, cf. 618 a), and the object is put in an oblique 
case, the same which the verb itself would take : 

r^v elpiivfiv hxriov iari it is necessary to observe the peace, kxrioff 4tfU¥ roS 
ToKifiov we must take hold of the war, ots ob Topaiorda itrrt toho must not be 


805. The verbal in tcos takes the agent (or doer of the action) 
in the dative, cf. 600. 

For examples, see the sentences given above. With the impersonal con- 
struction, the agent is sometimes put in the aceuseUite (perhaps because the 
verbal was thought of as equivalent to 8«c with the infinitive^ : Korafiariop h 
fidptt %Kaffrov each one must descend in turn, ov8cyl rpiftr^ kKOvras il$aenr4or by 
no means should (men) willingly do injustice, 

S06. a. The verbal in t4os may also have an indirect object, like the verb 
from which it comes : ots ov xapaJioria rois *A^yedots 4ffrl who must not be 
surrendered to the Athenians, 

b. The verbal in r4os sometimes shows the meaning of the middle voice : 
x€urr4ow one must obey {ret^ to persuade, mid. obey\ ^v\ButT4otf one mustguara 
against {^uJUa'av to watch, mid. guard against), kwr4or one mtist tetke hold of 
(iirrw to fasten, mid. touch). 

Digitized by 





Attraction. Tncorporatioti. 

807. A relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in number and 
gender (503), but stands in any ease required by the construction of its 
own sentence. Yet there is often an irregular agreement in case (attrac 
tionX >B well as a peculiar arrangement (incorporation), which bring 
the relative sentence into closer connection with its antecedent. They 
occur only when there is a close connection in sense, the relative sentence 
qualifying its antecedent like an attributive. 

808. L Attbaction. The relative often varies from the case 
required by its own sentence, being attracted^ or drawn into the 
case of its antecedent. 

Thus the relative may be attracted 1. from the accusative to the 

genitive: fxtfivr)a^f rov opKov ov 6iMa}fi6KaT€ (instead of tv vfi.) remember 

the oath which ye have sworn. 2. from the accusative to the dative : 

Tolff ayaSioU ots c)(o/xcv aKka tcrriero^t^a (for A ^xofitp) by mean* of the ad- 
vantages which we have, we will acquire others, 

a. The relative is seldom attracted raoM any case but the accusatiTe (the 
object of a verb), or to any case but the genitive or dative. But when incor- 
paration occurs, other varieties of attraction are sometimes found with it : ay 
irrvyx^tt /idkurra Ayoftal <rt (for ro6rw ots) of those whom I meet toithj lad- 
mire thee most, cf <roi ooirci ififi4y§uf oh tipri ISo^cy iifiiy (for ro6rois 8) if it seems 
to you best to adhere to those things which seemed best to us Just now, Cf. 810. 

809. n. Incorporation. The antecedent is often incorpo- 
rated^ or taken up, into the relative sentence. 

The relative and antecedent must then agree in case. Hence 1. 

The antecedent may conform to the case of the relative : c? nva 6p^rf ku- 
ra<rKtva{ovra ffs Spxot x^P^^ (f^^ ^^ x'^P°^ (^ ^X°0 if he saw any one 

improving the district of which he was governor, 2. The relative may 

conform to the case of the antecedent (attraction^ : irpht aU irapa Ava-dv- 
dpov eXajSe vaval (for rals vavai As eXafit) in addition to the ships which 

he received from Lysander, 3. When both regularly stand in the same 

case, no change occurs : pff a<l>f\rj<T^s vfimv avrSnf fjv n6Xai Mtcrrja^t Bo^ay 
KoKrip do not take away from yoursehea the honorable reputation which 
you long possess, 

a. If the antecedent in its ordinary position would take an article, this 
usnally disappears in the relative sentence. See the examples just given. 

810. Antecedent Omitted. When the antecedent is omitted 
(510), it is virtually contained in, and supplied by, the relative 
sentence. Constructions of this kind are regarded, therefore, 

Digitized by 


296 BELA.TiyE BEinXlffCES. [810 

as instances of incorporation. The relative sentence may tlien 
be compared to an attributiye with omitted subject (509) : it has 
the use and construction of a substantive in the different cases : 

Thtts'Nou WATITE : iyit jcal £y iyit Kparm /Atmvfuv (for otroi Sw) land (thoK) 
whom I command will «tay.<^-^AocusATiTX : rlt /lurw 9ivan^ &ir 5^* oS clSWiy 
iyad^hs yofui6fi§yof (for tovtov ^' oS) vho could hate (the man) hy vhom he knew 

thai he toae contidered ae good? Oxkitiyi : i^ w6Xjis tifiAw &p l^a^c rao'i fie- 

t49»k« (for ToW^y &) our city gave to all a share o/ (those things which) what 

she took, Datiyb: timxov c^y ots /tdxwra ^cXcTf (for ro^rots o9s) feast with 

{those) whom you most love, 

a. In explaining this construction, it is nsoal, as in the examples just glTen, 
to supply a demonstrative as antecedent. It must be observed, however, that 
the Greek idiom makes a distinction between aify oh ftdXttrra ^iXctf with those 
whom you most love (your best friends, without other distinction), and ahy ro^ 
rou oh fJtdkioTa ^tkeis with these (pardcular persons, mentioned before, or 
otherwise distinguished) whom you most love. We have also 0^ off luiKurra 
^iXm a^y roinms ^hmxov (the demonstrative introduced after the relative sen- 
tence) : this has the same meaning as the form first given, but with an emphatic 
repetition (680): with those whom you most love^ with them (I aay) feast. 

811. Other Relatives. These peculiarities of construction (attraction 
and incorporation) are not confined to o;, but apply also to the other re- 
latives, 00-or, olos^ ^XiKos^ on'if, etc.: 

9ioiK«Ty rhs T6\tis roio^ois fi^ffty otots Ehay6pas cTxc (for oTa) to govern the 
cities with such manners as Evagoras had, cls^^pcrc &^' Ztrwy sKtunos Ix*' (^^r 
Mt TOffo^my Sola) contribute from that amount of property which each one heu. 
The use of indejinite relatives as dependent interrogatwes rests upon incorpora- 
tion (825 b). 

a. The same peculiarities extend to REULinrK adverbs : ft{« 6fMs Iwda rh 
TpSryfM iy4y€T0 ffor ^iceurc Hy^) IwUl take you to the place where the affair 
oecurredj robs BoIkovs &woie\c(ou<riy 8dfy dy ri Kafitiy f (for iKsT^ey Sl^fy) they ex* 
elude the slaves from places whence it may he possible to ttike any thing. OtUso 
we may supply a pronoun as the antecedent : &ricf 1 6v6^ey 8^(cu ^poyuy (for 
rovro ivS^y) practise that from which you will appear to be wise. An instance 
of attraction is seen in BuKofdCoyro c£^f Z^^y ihn^d^^yro TtuZas koI yvyaUtas 
(for iKtT^mf ol) they imm^diaiely brought over their cJuldren and women from the 
places to which they had withdrawn them. 

812. "^trrtv 01. Here belongs the frequent construction of ^arty oZ^ 
less often ela\v ol, tliere are (those) toho^ that is 9ome (= nm, hut more 
emphatic) : in like manner etrriy ocrcycr, used in questum». 

(For the singular Kartyy see 616.) Thus: &ra\43^x rSy linr4»y fXai (larv 
&s having taken some squadrons of the cavalry^ fhroirroi iy4yoyro tarty 4y oh 
tfiey came to be suspected in some things^ t<rrw odrriyas hv^ptbwmy re^ifiuucas 
iwi eo^lf hast thou admired any among men on aecoimt of wisdom f Ij^ay ot 
(also ^y ot) tud wvp 9pos4pepoy some too were bringing fre. (Compare the word 
iytoi somsj made up of Iri+oT, where tyi is for tyeari or Hyeuri^ 615 a.) Similar 
expressions are loriy the (More) sometimes^ tarty oZ or Ihrov somesihere^ (arty 
Sw«s somehow, etc., in wluch the omitted antecedent is an idea of time, place, 
manner, etc 

Digitized by 



813. Nbutsk Rklatiye. In some cases of omitted antecedent, the 
neater relatiye has a free constmction with the force of ort or wrrt : 

wporfiKti xh^^ abroTs Ix^iy Sy ixr^^trap ^* 6fi&y (&y = ro^wp 8ti, 618 b) t< 
bieomes ihe$n to he graUfulfcr tkut^ that they vere saved by you. So. ha^ iv in 
return for {thU) that^ f^ £r in eoneequenee of{thi») that (cf. offrtica, 6do^ica, 
869, 8). So abo #^* f^ 4p' fre (= M ro^y ftsrc) on condition that, often 
used with the iofimtiye : ol rpdnorra ^pidri^aw 4^ fre ffvyYpd^ v6fto»s the 
thirty were choeen on the condition that they should draw up laws, Hd. has M 
rovry ^v* ^c with the same meaning. 

a. The neater relative is used with prepositions in several expressions of 
time and place : i^ oZ (= ^jc rodrov ip f from that point of time at which) niu», 
ibp* oZ since, iy f while, elf 8 (= eh rovro iy f) till, /i^xpi ((hcp^) ^ ^nHl, also 
to where (to that point of space at which), oo with ouer relatives : i^ irou 
since, /i^xp^ Zffov as far as where, Hd, sometimes uses H^XP^ oS, like /i^xph 
with a genitive. 

For special uses of sentences which begin with neater relatives, see 828. 

Other ocmstmctions which require particular notice an the following: 

814. Olo£ (full form roiovrof olos) is often used with the it^nitive, 
and means of such sort as to^ proper for. And so oUvre in mch condition 
as to, able to; ooos of such amount aa to^ enough to. 

Thus obK fy &pa ola IkplBtty rh xc8(or it was not a proper season to water the 
plain, obx otoirt jfovr fieii^erai they were not able to render assistancej Ix^/Acy 
Zo'oy Airoy^y we have enough to live, 

815. OFof and 5<rof are sometimes used where, in supplying the antecedent, 
we must supply with it an idea of " thinking," **conddering*': MitKaoy i^y 
ifuanov t^X^k, oTov Mphs krelpov iorepnifAiyos dify (sa KoyiiSfAnfos rouvroy tfy- 
Zpa otov considering the kind of man of whom, etc.) I bewailed my own fortune 
in that I had been deprived of such a man <u a companion, Hm. dlfutrot eh 
ieyadtM, ot* brfo^Uis (sc. riW \eyi(oitiy^ rouSha ota in the view of one who 
considers, etc.) thou art of good blood, to judge from such things as thou art 
saying. Similarly Mai/My /ioi hyiip i^yero, &s bJMts koX yemlvs ireKe^ra 
the man appeared to ms happy (considering the way in which) in that he died 
90 fearlessly and nobly, 

a. The same relatives, ttoSf 80-os, and &Sf are used in bxclamatxons, where 
we should employ interrogatives : & irivwc, Hoa Tpdy/utra ^x*^ ^ f^ 9eiwy^ O 
grandfather, how much trouble you have in your supper (oh I the amount of 
trouble which you have), &s ^bg *X how pleasant you are (oh ! the way in which 
you are pleasant). 

816. When otos (seldom S^vf, i^Xficos) would properly stand in the nomina- 
tive, as a predicate with c^, the copula el/d is often dropped, and the relative 
with its subject is attracted into the case of its antecedent : 4fi6 iort x»piC^^M 
o1^ cot Mpl (for Toio^y ofof air et)itis pleasant to gratify a man such as thou 
art. To tnis construction the article may be prefixed : rots ofbit ifuy to such 
as toe are. Tet sometimes the subjeot of the relative remains in the nomina- 
tive : robs olovs b/iut fuffti avKO^dyrtu he hates sycophants such <u you are. The 
form robs oTos oZrot ky^pAwovs is also found. 

a. By a similar attraction Zsris gets the meaning of any whatsoever; and 
the same idiom extends to other indefinite relatives. This is always the case 
when -ovy is added : obn Hcrt bucaiov hy^pbs fikArrtiy bmwovy bt^p^vy (for rufk 
brrtsovy iffTi any one whoever he is) t/ m fio< <As part of a Just man to is^urs 


Digitized by 



aaywrton tthatsoevef. So too tms (or Us) iBo^Xei, like Lat. qtUvis^ is QBed for 
rU w fio^Xtt : T9p\ noXvyptarw ^ &AAov Ih-w fio^K€t concerning Polyffnohu or 
any other whom you pleaae. 

b. A peculiar iDcorporation is seen in the pbrftses, Saoi ftifivf (as if ro^av 
rdxts iffoi firiy4s ciVi as many times as there are months) monthly^ Ztnu iifi4ptu 
(also doTifUpai) daily, etc. 

817. Inverse Attraction. Tho antecedent, without being incorpo- 
rated into the relative sentence, is sometimes attracted to the case of tiie 

In most instances of this kind, the relative seotence comes between the 
antecedent and the word on which it depends : r^y o^/ar ^y ror^Xiirfy at ir\c<- 
ovos i^ta Ijy (for ii oMa l^y) the property vohick he Uft was of no mor^ value, 
poet. rdsJI^ &nr€p ttsopfs fiKowrt irfhs <r4 (for cdfSc is) theu (maidens) tohom thou 
seesty are come to thee. So with adverbs : icol AxXoce throt hy ii/^Ucp iLyax^irwat 
<rc (for ftxXod't) and in other plaeee, wherever you may go, they foill love you, 

a. In this way, ovMs is attracted by a following Zsrts oh : oi/Btyl Sry ovk 
inroKpiwtTOi (for eMttts 4<mp Sry ohK kw, there is no one whom he does not anewer) 
he answers every one. 

b. By a somewhat similar change, bavfiotrrSy iariy Z<ro5, Hoov, etc., passes 
> into ^aufuurrhf iiros, dov/uMrroG Zirov, etc. ; and in like manner, davfuurrSy icriM 

&Sf into dwf/marr&s &f* A few other adjectives show the same idiom. Thua 
dauiia4Trhy i(rny wept eh wpo^tday Ix*' ^ ^' ^ wonderful degree of devotion for 
yott, ^ep^v&s &s x*^ ^'^^ prodigiously pleased. 

Other Peculiarities. 

818. One Rklativb with two or mobb Verbs. The same 
relative may depend at once on two different verbs, even whea 
these in their regular use require different cases. 

a. The two verbs may stand in the same sentence, the one being a finite 
verb, the other an infinitive or participle : laifraXafifid^ve'i relxos ^ r^txurd/ieyol 
wore 'Aicopyoycf kow^ Bucaorripl^ exp&yro (prop, f ixpi^yro) they take afortrees, 
which the Acamanians, having once fortified {jX^ were ueing as a common place 
of judgment. 

b. The two verbs may stand in different sentences, one of them subordinaie 
to the other : alpoifie^ abTOfi6\ovs ofs, 6v6Taaf ris rKtioya /lur^hy 9it^, fu^ 
iKtlywy iucoKov^^trovori (prop, ot itKoXov^.) we choose (as guides) deserters, vAo^ 
when any one may offer them larger pay^ %oill follow those (who offer it). 

c. the two verbs may stand in co-ordinate sentences : 'Apiaios, hy rifius 
^d>^Xo/icy fiaot\4a Kd^iordyatf md t^KOfuy ko) 4\d$o/ify vtard (prop, f iB^Ka- 
fiey, &^' <i ^Ad(/3o/tcr) Aruteus, whom we wished to make king^ and {to whom) we 
gave, and {from whom) we received pledges, Hm. &ywx^t t4 fuy yofitwbeu r^ 
Sretp Tf Tar^ip «ecA«ra<, Kttt Mdyti aSr^ (prop. 5sTit ayhdyet) bid her marry that 
one whom her father commands, and {wJio) is pleasing to herself. 

Rem. d. In the last case (c), the Greek hardly ever repeats the relative, but 
it often uses a personal pronoun (commonly aMs) instead: ol wpSyoyot, oh ovk 
iXoipiCoy^* ol \4yoyT€s, ov8* i<pl\ovy alno^s our ancestors, whom the speakers did 
not try to please, and were not caressing them, Hm. hrrS^^oy UoXd^ftoy^ 8ov icpir 
ros 4or\ fityurroy irwrty KuKK^ecci, B6wra 94 fuy r/irc y^fi^ the godlike Poly* 
phemus, whose pouter is greatest among all the Cyclopes, and the nymph Thoosa 
oars him» 

Digitized by 


828] OTBBB PECUXJijanEB. 299 

819. YxBB Oaiitted. Where the same verb belongs to both sentenoes, 
antecedent and relative, it is sometimes omitted in one of them, especially 
ir^ the relative sentence : 

poet. ^Uotff 9o/Ai(oya^ oSsr9p t» ir6vts ir4^9y (so. PO/dCp ^tKovs) eoruidering 
OB friendt thou whom your husband {may consider 9o\ ri yip ttAXa tkrtartp iced 
d/icii iwouvTM (sc ^oici) for aU other things {he did) ae many as you aUo toere 
doing, Sftouw ifuli 9oKov<n mwor^iroAf oTor ff ris § S ffw^lpur i^V rhr Kopfwhr icef 
rafp€iy they seem to me to have 'suffered the same thing aa (one would suffer) iff 

while sowing well^ he sho%dd let the crop perish, ^After relative adverbs, the 

omlsuon is much more frequent : lf(cirrur, Amp *Hy4Kox'>* (^< '^CT^O' ^M"' 
K4yetif it is permitted us to speak, as JBegeloehus (spoke), &s ifiov i6tno9 thn^ &y 
d/icci (sc. Yifrc) oihtt T^x yif^fuiy ^x^* ^ if I were going wherever you also (may 
go), so make up your mind, iweiS^ oh r^s (sc. ISci{ai), kKhkjnir Ze^or since thou 
didst not then (show), now at least show. 

820. Preposition Oicitted. When the antecedent stands before the rela- 
tive, a preposition belonging to both appears only with the first : iv rpurl icai 
94Ka obx i^ois Irccriy oh iviToXdCei (for 4y oh) in not ouite thirteen years, in 
which he is uppermost, ol fihr h^ i^ovoias Awi^s ^^vXovro HTparroy (for i<l>* 
^6<rns) they were acting wUh as much license as they pleased 

821. Transver to Relative Sentence. Designations which belong most 
properly to the antecedent, are sometimes taken mto the relative sentence : 
els *ApftevlaM f|(c<y, ft 'Op6pTag j(px* «vXX^f koI Maifioros (for iroAA^ icol ehBai" 
/Aora) they would come to Armenia, of which Orontas w€U governor, an extensive 
and prosperous country, oZroi^ ivei eh^4us $<rdoyro rh Tpay/JM, iarex&pnffay (for 
^tbius iircQ these immediately, when they understood the matter, withcbrew. So 
4ire\ (&Sf 8tc) rdxtffra for rdxtara iwei (&Sy irt) : TetpoffSfie^a vapetyat tray tdr 
Xurra Buarpa^^fie^a we shall endeavor to be present (most quickly when) as soon 
as we have accomplished. In like manner : ijyayoy ^6o-ovs irXc/orovs idvydfoiy 
I have brought (the largest number which) as many as I could 

For the use of relative words to strengthen the superlative, see 664. 

822. BsLATivs Pronoun vor Conjunction. A relative pronoun is some- 
dmes used, where we should expect a conjunction, Uri or Srrc (cf. 818): ^aof 
fuurrhy voictf, ^f iifuy oMy 9(9c9s you are acting stranaely, (who give) in that 
you give us nothing, rh ofhus iorl 9vsrvx^s isris warpida xpoitrbm fiovXhaerag 
who is so wretched that he will be willing to betray hxs country t i,'r6pvy iorXy 
dhvfst Id^AoiNTi hC iwtopitlas wpdrreiy ri it belongs to men without resource, that 

thev wish to pursue any object by means of perjury. For the relative used 

with the fut ud. to express j^urpoce, see 710 c. 

828. Loose Construction. A sentence commencing with a neuter relative, 

is sometimes loosely prefixed po another sentence, either (a) to suggest the 

matter to which it pertains : h 8* c7wer, &s iyA elfu oTot iei irorc /icro^oAAc^dai, 
KOTouwherare but what he said, that lam such a one eu to be always changing, 

(sc. wfpl roh^fy \4yu concerning this I say) consider, etc. ; or (h) with ap- 

positive force : % apri tXxyoy^ (urnrrioy rly€s ipiaroi ^^Aaic«9 (what) as I just 
said, tee must inquire who are the best guards. In this case, the principal sen- 
tence is sometimes irregularly introduced by Sn or ydp (cf. 502) : % fiky Tdyruy 
danffieurrdTOToy &icovoxu, Srt %y titttaroy iy iTpy^auftey aWAAviri r^y ^^vxhy ufutt 
is most wonderful of all, (that) each one of the things which we approved ruins 
the soul. In like manner, after phrases such as As X^yov^t as they say, &s louct 
OS it appears, etc., the principal sentence Is sometimes expressed as dependent: 
&s yitp ijicouo'd riroi , 2Pri K\4ay9pos iK Bv(ayriov fUWsi H^etyfor as I heard from 

.Digitized by 



iome on^ (that) CUander m about to eome from B}f»ainiwm^ rSU yt fiV» A' ^- 
luu^ iawpauirvroif elm (for jorQ \4rfiw this, howover^ at I think, it it most no- 
esssary to say. 


824. The qaestion expressed by an interrogative sentence 
may relate, eitner 

a. to the EXISTENCE of an act or state denoted by the verb 
ofthe sentence; or 

b. to something connected with that act or state, as its sub- 

Questions as to Subject, Objectt, Era 

825. These are expressed by means of prononns or adverbs, 
— by interrogatives, if the question is direct, — by interrogatives 
or indefinite relatives, if it is indirect (682). 

a. The pronoozis represent an uncertain person or thin^, miantity or quO" 
litf/j to be determined by the answer : the adverbs, an uncertain tims, plaes, or 
manner, to be determined in the same way. Thus rts \4y9i vfho is speaking f 
rl (S<& rl, WdTtt, wow, wirs, mv, wws) \4y€i what (on what account, how manu 
things, what sort of things^ when, where, how) does he speak f ilp6fifir rts (rl, 
9ota, T&s, also 5frir, S rt, iwota, tfrwt) X^i / asked who {what, taAa< sort of 
things^ how, he) spoke. 

b. Strictly speaking, the indefinite relatives have no interrogatire force : 
they are proper relatives, and have for antecedents the uncertain person, thing, 
time, place, etc., to be determined : it is the connection only which gives the 
idea of a question. Hence the simple relatives are occasionally used in the 
same way : ecfuirro«c\^f ZtUras ^pditt r^ yavicX^p^, tsrit iorl, Koi 9C & ^c^i 
Themistoeles in his fear makes known to the shipmaster, who he is, and on account 
of what he is fleeing. 

826. The interrogatire word often depends^ not on the principal verb 
of the interrogattre sentence, hnt on a participle or other dependent 

rtyos hrun^iiMV \4yeu as acquainted with what, are you speaking f rhp ix 
woias irjxtwf mpanffby Tpos9oKS rovra Tpd^euf (the general from what sort of 
city do I expect) from what sort of city must the general be, wlunn I expect to do 
these things f rihiof Kpvr60ovkop vowvma radra KoriyimKas abreiv (having seen 
C. doing what, have you brought) what have you seen CritobfUus do, that you 
have brought then charges against himf ol «Uai 'AdiyFcubi ob hisKrfifnano bwhp 
old (826 b) TswoaiKirMw ht^pA^wmw KtySvrf^^ewri (for men having done what sort 
of things) the ancient Athenians did not consider what sort </ thinas the men 
iuul done, in whose behalf they were to incur danger, &T(c^^r obic htaiero, ksSl rt 
Koxhw oh xap4x»v he did not cease threatening, and (what evil not causing f ) casts' 
ing every evil. For ri wtMw and rl fuMy, see 789 c. 

a. The interrogative may stand as predicate-a^ective with a demonstra- 
tive pronoun, not only in the nominative, but in an oblique can: rls V obros 

Digitized by 


8S9] DITBBBOaAliyE 8EMTB2IOE8. 801 

l^cnu rbeing who, does that one oome) who i$ that coming f hff^kiv ^pm fim- 
pua»* Tim ro^niy ^80. r^y iryytXUuf ^4p9u) I bring htwsy Hdinga : (being what^ 
do you bring these) ioKat are they t poet, ri r6V oMs what {U) (Am (which) thcu 
art cpcakingf Hm. volow rhp fivdcr Iccrcs of what innd (m) thi$ saying (which) 

b. So in a compound interrogatiye sentence, the interrogatiye word is 
sometimes connectea with the verb of the dependant sentence : w&rt h xfh *pdt 
rrt; littMiy rl yirrrrcu (bo, irp^crc) when will you do what you ought f after 
what shall have occurred (i. e. after what event, will you do your duty)? Xra ri 
yivirrw. (that what may come to pass) to what cndf also Xra ri (608 b). 

827. Double Qubstiom. Two interrogatire words are sometimes 
found in the same sentence: 

rlwa as x^ itoXcir, &s riros hrtariiftara r4xrfi9 what must one call you^ as 
being aequa%nted with what artf wola bmlou fUou fUff^/unUf abx Ix* ^^^*^ 
what kinds (of nombers) are imitations of what sort of life, I cannot say^ Hm. 
rlst t6^sp sis Mp&y who (and)frmn t^om among men art thou f 

For interrogative pronouns with the article, see 688 d. 

Questions as to thb Existencb of ak Act' ob State. 

828. DntECT questions of this kind are expressed toith and 
vnthout interrogative words : 

a. without interrogative words : *EXXf7Mr 6vres fiap^pott tovKswro- 
litp being Oreeh$^ shall vie become elaieee to barbarians f These are shown 
to be questions onlv by the connection in which they stand, though in 
speaking they may have been marked by a peculiar tone. 

b. by means of interrogative particles; these cannot usually be 
rendered by corresponding words. The most important are if>a and { : 
2p* flfii fuirris am J a prophet t ^ o^ot noXi/itoi cio-t are these enemies? 

Bsx. c Neither JLm and 9, nor ob and fi^ (829), had originally the nature 
of interrogatives. Tne proper meaning of ipa was accordingly (cf. (ipOf 866, 1, 
from which ipa was made by dwelling on the first sound), marking a question 
as naturally arising from, and suggested by, preceding circumstances or con- 
ceptions. The proper meaning of ^ was reallv, truly (862, 10), marking a 

question as directed to the real truth. ^Both ipa and ^ are often connected 

with other particles : dipd ye, ? yip, ? wow, etc. Hm. never uses 2pcB, but 

has 9 pa with much the same force. 

829. ''Apa and ^ in ffeneral imply no expectation as to the nature of the 
answer, whether affirmative or negative. In this they differ from od and /i^, 

' employed as interrogative particles; db (also ipa ob) implying that an answer 
is expected in the affibmativs : puk (also Sm ft^, and pAr for pAi obv\ in the 
NSOATiVB : thus ipa (IS) fofist are you afraid (ay or no) f ob (ipa ob) ^$ti are 
you not afraid (i. e. you are afraid, are you not)? fiii (ipa /tjj, fuhf) ^ofistyou 
are not afraid^ are yon t 

a. An interrogaUve expresrion which very clearly shows the nature of the 
expected answer, is JUAo ri ^ (for SaAo ri iartr ff) is any thing else true than 
= is it not certainly true that? — also, with ff omitted, SaAo rt^ In the same 
sense : IbUio ri ^ il$utovfier are we not certainly in the wrong f i^ko ri obrv^a 
raSra 1^ <fi| fUa irufrfitifn would not then att then things be (but) one seienosf 

Digitized by 



880. iNDiBSCTr questions of this kind are introduced by c{ 
VihUher (sometimes cav with the subjmietive) ; also by 2pa, and, 
in Homer, i} (^c) ; 

o'jroircirff c< ZiKtdms xP^^f^ ''^ ^^TV o^mhw v:hether lahall conduct the dta- 
couTBc righUy^ Hm. 4%^^ vciNr^ficyof /MTJk 0'^ir ieA.^9, ff vov IFi^ <fi|f Ae loetU to 

»n^sr€ ti^tor iMiof of thee, whtthir perchance thou toeti yet alive, ^This uae of 

tl and iw is closely connected with their use as conditional coi^jnnctions : thus 
the first example may be rendered, ** observe (so that) if I shall conduct aright 
(you may know it)." Indeed, it is often necessary to supply an idea like €ur6- 
lAMPot in order to know^ before <i and ^ (Hm. <f m, odf Jct) used as dependent 
interrogatiyes : Hm. Xafi^ To^iwr, odf iccy v&t i^kpcuf Apij^oi embrace hie kneee, 
(that y&u may find) uihether in any way he may be willing to aeeiet. 

831. DisJUNCirvs questions of this kind are introduced by 
vmpov (?rorepa) . . • ^ ; these are used both in direct and indirect 
questions. But indirect disjunctive questions are introdaced also 

by €LT€ . . . CtT€. 

virepov 9ApaK9P ^ off ; vSrepop &iN»r ^ liccSr; hae he done it or not f unwUl- 
ingly or willingly f hxoooviiev cfrf &«cmv % Ixitp ii^pam we are in doubt whether 

he hae done it unwillingly or willingly. For the use of rfrc (et+ri)^ of. S61. 

For the interrogative irSrepos, see 247 : w^epop 949paKep 1^ oH may be ren- 
dered, '* which of the two (statements is true), he has done it, or (he has) not 
(done it)?" 

a. For disjunctive questions, especially when these are indirect, Hm. has 
also ^ (^^) . . , 1i (^f) : ixeimn^ iitX x^^^% ^^ ba&fker ^ irtbr KiCXxof luurreit- 
rrai j^t KaX ohnl wait for a time^ that toe may know whether Calchae propfieeiee 
truly or even not eo. 

For the use of the modes in indirect questions, see 786-8. For the subject 
of the indirect question drawn into the principal sentence {prolepeie\ see 726. 


832. There are two simple particles, ov and /A17, used to ex- 
press the negation (non-existence) of a state or action. Ov ex- 
presses non-existence merely ; fn^ expresses it as toilledj assumed^ 
or aimed at. The same difference appears in their compounds^ 
as ovrc, fnriT€ ; ovScis, firfi€i^ ; ovSafua^, firfiafitas ; and many others. 

833. M^ is used with the subjunctive and impkrativb in all 
sentences, whether dependent or independent : 

/i^ hrtXri rhp Xiyop KoraXliwfup let ue not leave the diecuesion unfiniehedy 
ftfi^els oUo^ fie rovro \4y^tp let no one euppose that leay thie, kiyrre, elsim ^ 
/i'fl eay^ ehall I go in or not f 4dp rts xdfum^ irapoicaXcrf taro6p^ incus pAi burel^itfxi 
if one is eick^ you call in a phyeician, that he may not dte^ <nS^p6v iirri pi&ei 
way 5 ri ftv fiii 9iica(«t § wewpay/tdpop rotten by nature ie every thing which hue 
not been wrought wUhjuttice. 

But the subjunctive in its epic use for the fut. ind. (720 e) has •&. 

Digitized by 


887] HBQIXIYB EODrrENCStk 808 

884. Xndependent sentenoes with the indicahtb and opta- 
TiviB have fw} in expressions oi wishing (721) ; but otherwise, oi: 

1ll»apTWy &s ii1(woi^ 4(^c\f (sc. kiuLoruii) he mtMed^ m Iieoyld he had never 
done, fiTi^^yl iirifiovki^mfu let me plot againet no oik, ♦(Xinroy 9&fc ft7«i 
Mtf^jniif Philip does not maintain peace^ cl fAi "Xp^o roit ftapcvaiw^ o^ hif ciSttA* 
/Miro? i/* A« should not lue what he has, he coMnot be happy. 

For ov and fii as interrogative particles, see 829. 

835. Dependent sentences with the indioatxys and OFXATiyB 
have fiii when they express a purpose or a condition ; bat other- 
wise, ov: 

Hence fi^ is used in riNAL, conditional, and htpotrctical rslatiti, sen- 
tences : ffTvcr tri hmdimt /9o^APiro, /lii 6 war^p Ax^ro he said that he toished to 
depart, lest hie father thould be diepleaaedy §1 fi'^ ri kwX^ci, i^4Kc» avrois StoXfX' 
^Mu if nothing hinders^ I wish to confer with them, Aw^e fi-fi ri 9c((rftay, ob ^vy 
p€iray when they had no fear of any thing^ they did not come together. So in 
hypothetical relatiye sentences with the inoicatite (761): k fih oOa ob9h dtofuu 
tUUpoi what I do not know (= <f ri fiii olSa if lam ignorant of any thing) I do 
not even suppose that I know. 

a. So too, fi'^ is used with ihe future indicative in eipressions which -imply 
PURPOSE (710 c) : ^Imft^iffaff^e romvra 4^ £x fiiiSiwoTe b/uif ftcrofifX^frti vote such 
tilings that in consequence of them you will never have repentance, tpa tvas fi^ 
<roi awoarfic-oKrai see to it that they Jo not revolt from you. 

For ij4 in expressions of pbabino, see 748. 

836. Dependent sentences in the aratio obliqua take the same n^a- 
tiyes that they would hare in the recta : 

ebtsp Sri oblShf avr^ fi^Aoi rov iffAtrdpov ^opi6fiov (direct ob94w fun fi4\ti) he 
said that he cared nothing for our disturbance. But after el in dependent ques- 
tions, either ob or /i^ can be used at pleasure : ipm-^ el obtc atffj^ofuu (direct 
ovK idax^ i) he asks whether I am not cuhamed, iip^»y el fitfilr ^poyriiei 
(direct 2p* obBly tppoirri(eis) they asked him whetJier he had no concern, cko- 
v^fAMv ft wp4wet ^ ob let us consider whether it is proper or not, rovr^ abrh kyvo- 
c<f, el xeipeis ^ fi^i x^P*^^ y<^ ^^* ignorant of this very thing, whether you are 
pleased or not pleased, 

837. The iNPiNXTrvT: commonly has /ii; (as expressing some- 
thing merely assumed or aimed at), especially wnen connected 
with the neuter article : 

rovra hiJMs fiii kypoM iifioukSfiriw I wished you not to be ignorant of these 
things, f Xvyor airoTs /t^ iZucttw they told them not to commit injustice, ebehs ao^k 
ki^pa fx^ Kiipuv it is fit that a wise man should not talk idly, iroi rb fiif <riyiia'tu 
X4>arbv lif it remained for thee not to become silent, ai ^etpriyes kvi^p^ovs jcocrcixov, 
Arrc /i^ kitihai kt^ abr&w the Sirens detained men, so that they could not get 
away from them. 

a. Some exceptions are merely apparent : bfjMs k^iovo'w od ^ufifiax*^*' kXXh 
{vyalMCffMr they demand that you should be, not allies with them, but partners in 
wrong-^oing, where oJ belongs properly to k^iovnw. Similarly od9n^s kfutpreuf 
9Uat6s itrri it is not just that he should fail of any thing, 

b. But oJ may be used with the infinitive m the oratio obliqua (784 e): 
bfiokoyA od itmrii to6to»s cTnu Hrs§p I confess that lam not an orator after their 

Digitized by 



«orf, cli Atuc^td/tmn Mxavw Ihai • oi yif ttimi K^ptos aSrSs he eommandud them 
to^to Laeedaeman; for (he said) th4a he himetUfhad not the authority, 

838. In connection with rerbs of nsoatite meaning, such as hinder- 
ing^ forbidding^ denying, rtfueing, and the like, the infinitivo usually 
takes fi^, to express Uie negative result aimed at in the action of the verb : 

MtAu^fifda u^ fui^iif toe are hindered from learning (so as not to learn), 
itwearop rots ZovKms fiii firrix'*'^ "^"^^ yvfufOffMr thet/ forbade the slavee front ehar- 
ing in the ggmnatia (requiring them not to share), lifofovrro /xii V0rrwc4pat they 
denied that they had fallen (asserting that they had not fallen), iarivx'^^^ M^ m 
Hy kKceripwp yijy ffrpartwrm they rrfrained from making war upon the land of 
either (so as not to make war). 

839. The pabticiple has /A17 when it expresses a condition 
(789 e) ; otherwise, ov : 

rts hr wdXts dvb fA^ vei^fi4twr hXoiii what city could be taken by dieobedient 
men (by men, if not obedient), d«ov /x^ SiS^rrof , oC9h Idx^ci ^6^0$ unUu a god 

bestow, toil avails nothing, KSjpes Mfiiti hA rh $pti, oi9tfh$ Km\6oirros Cyme 

went up on the mountaine, (no one opposing) withoiu opposition, i3opv/3cire, &s 
ob ftoi^aorrts ravra you were damorous, as not intentUng to do Uiae things. 
The participle with fi^, after the article, may be expressed by a hypothetical 
relative sentence : oi ftii etUrts (= ot ta^ fiii Miffi) all or any who may not know 
(if such there are) : but K^yn iw rots odic clS^i the particular persons among 
whom I speak, do not know, 

840. M^ is also used with ADJECTfv^ES, adverbs, and even with sub- 
stantives, to express a hypothetical sense : r6 /a^ aya^op (= t^pfirj aya- 
36v 0) the not-good = uihateter is not good^ 6 fi^ iarpSs the nou-physician, 
whoever is not a physieian. 

841. M^ FOR ov. M^ is often used instead of ov with participles or 
other words, through an influence of the verbs on which they depend, 
when these verbs -either have fitj, or would have it, if negative : 

M X^*i *ATpff/8i|, KifZeoi rots fi^ KaKo7s rejoice not, Atrides, in ditJionorabls 
gains, birtfrxero elfr/irnr voi^o'ccy, /I'^rs iftiipa Ms, fAfire t& rc(x*? Kad«Ai6y (ji4i 
on account of woiiiaeir, 837) he promised that he would make peace, without 
either giving seeitrities, or danolishing the walls, Or rt e^cr^ atavrhr /lij elUra 
{f4 on account of ihw edtr^, 885) if you perceive yourself to be ignorant of any 

842. Ov TOR fi^, Oi is sometimes used for fi^, when it hara frequent and 
special connection with a particular word, as in otf ^fu to deny, odx iei to for* 
bid, od woWoifew, odx tifiror tnore, and the like : in such expressions, od is oc- 
casionally retained, when the above rules require fx^ : wdyrvs oUrtn fx*<» '^ 
re 01) ^^c 4dp re ^rjre it is so in any case, whether you deny it or affirm it. 


843. When a negative is followed by a compound negative 
of the same kind, the negation is repeated and strengthened. 

In English, only one negative can be used : the others may be rendered by 
indefinite expressions : poet, obx Hartr obSkr Kpeto&or I) y6fioi w6\tt there is (not 
any thing) nothing better for a state than laws, irev rodrov ob9e\s els oMv obUphi 

Digitized by 


848] NEOAnvE SEinrENOES. 805 

t» iifuip Mhnrt yivovro ifyot viUhout this none oftu eoMld ever become ef afKy 
foorthftjr any thing, 

844. When a negatiye is followed by a eimple n^;atiye of the same 
kind, the two balance each other and mike an affirmative : ovdtU dt^poy 
vtav d^uuoy riaiv ovk dirodoxrct fio man that doee injustice t/Dill not pay the 
penality L e. every one will pay. 

845. Ov firi, Oif followed by ^117 is used with the subjunctive or future 
indicative in emphatic negation. 

This use may be explained by supplying after ob an omitted expression of 
anxiety or aiopreheneian : ob fiif ftoii^m (= eb ^fiirr^w /lii miifffw it is not to be 
feared that lehall do t/, no danger of my doing it, i. e.) I certainly shall not do 
U^ ou8cl5 fiiiwoT€ t^fyhffti rh ko/ 4fjih oMif i\Xtt^4p no one ehall ever find that 
any thing, sofarae depends on me, is neglected^ oh iifprore H^apyos y4twfjuu never 
turely shall I deny it. 

846. M^ ov. M7 followed by ov is used in different ways. 

1. After expressions of fearing, where firi is rendered lest, that (743), 
fiff ov is rendered lest not^ that not (Lat ne non) : 

8^ouca fiii od ^fierhy f lam afraid that it may not be lawful: or, without 
the verb of fearing, fiii ob ^^/urhy J, the constraction described in 720 d, which 
implies anxiety, but does oot distinctly express it. 

847. 2. The infinitive takes ^^ ov instead of /*^ (837), when the word 
on which it depends has a negative: 

o^clf ot6sT€ iXkus K^y fiii ab ic9Tay4kBurros cZrai no one speaking in any 
other ieay (is able not to be) can avoid being ridiculous* The ob here only re- 
peats the negation which belongs to the principal word (cf. 848). 

a. Hence verbs of Atftdiertfi^, forbidding, denying, etc. (838), when they 
have a negative, are followed by /jJi ob with the infinitive : ob ic»Ku6fie^ n^ ob 
fui^ty toe are not hindered from learning. In such cases, the neuter article is 
sometimes added to the infinitive : poet, /a^ mygs rh /i^ ob ^pdnu do not forbear 
to make it known. 

b. M^ ob is used in the same way, when the principal verb stands in a 
qnestion which implies a negative: rira dtti iaroffy^eeadai fi^ obxl hrUrreur^m 
rh 9iKata who, think you, will deny (= no one will deny) that he understands 
what is Just f 

SoMB "NtQATrvn Expressions. 

8i8. For oifTSy iilrrs^ obU^ /afid, see 868-9. 

a. M4y, ixnUy^ and 0(^1, fiirri, are often used (like Lat. nihil) as emphatic 
negatives in the sense oi not at all (652). 

b. ovKfTi, MnK^<» fM> longer, must not be confomided with ohrm, fiiivm, not 
yet : obx^ri irohiow, olhrte ircvofi}«a. 

c. obx 5t<, fA^i trri (probably for ob K4yc§ 5t<, fiii \4ye Zri, (I) do not say 
that, it is not enough to sav that, and hence) not only, usuidly followed by 
iiXXh Kot but also, or &AA' oM/ but neither : obx 5ti 6 Kplrtey iv ^ovx^f ^k, &AAik 
«al ol ^Ihoi a^ov not only was Orito Quiet, but also his friends. Obx ^^s, /x^ 
6irw5, are used, and may be explained, in the same way : ftif thrm (sc. obx ^v- 
poff^) bftxMrdai ip- piAfiff &AA' oM* ip^vvdai i^^ptur^ not only {were ye not 
Me) to donee tn meaeure^ but ye were net able even to stand erect. 

Digitized by 



d. fUvov 0^, ii&¥0¥ oitxU ^y '^i hence all but^ almoti ; and, in refetenoe 
to time, Zaop ob (tantum non) altnoii : Km-tpftXif ^ Mp&w o^s c^ /Upop ob wpos- 
Kwptit y<m are ridiculed hymen tohom you aU bU worship, Urw obic dh-Uca (only 
80 much as not immediaterj) almoH, immediately, 

e. ob n^¥ &AAi, ob ixlrroi &AAi, neverthelesa, nohntHstandiny, They are to 
be explained by supplying before ixxd some idea drawn from the preceding 
context : 6 tmros fuicpov (57 6 a) Ikwop i^rrpax^Xurep ' ob fiiip (sc. i^trpaxh^^^) 
AAAik M/Mtp^p 6 Kvpos the horee almoet threw him over ite head; (yet it did not 
throw him, bat) nevertheUee Cyrus kept his seat. 


849. pRAEPOSiTiTE AND PosTPOSiTiTB. A particle is said to be prae- 
positiye, when it is always pat first in its own sentence ; postpositirey 
when it is always put after one or more words of the sentence. 

I. Intebbogatiyb Pabticles. See 824-31. 

n. Negative Particles. See 832-48. 

850. III. Intensive Pabticles. These add emphasis to 
particular words, or give additional force to the whole sentence. 

1. yt (postpos. and enclitic) everi, at leasts Lat. quidem, 

adds emphasis to the preceding word : Hm. cfwcp ydp ^ ^Lxntp yt icoKhp koX 
AydAxtSa ^cet^ iXX' ob irtlaoprai To&ts for tJiough even Hector {himself) shaU 
call thee base and unwarlike, still the Trojans will not believe it^ icol toAAo^s ye 
lo'ctrdcu iKtyop robs i^kfiaoprta and they said there would be many even who 
would wish tV, Hm. &AA^ <ri^, el S^voo-a/ ye, weplax'so iroiS^i but do thou^ if only 
thou art able, protect thy son, vA^i^ct ye obx birepfiaXotfitSr* hp riAs iroAc/Jovs in 
numbers at least we should not surpass the enemy, cb yhp pvp ye ^/tMp toucas /3a- 

atKtbs eJpot for now at least thou seemest to be our king, ^It is added «ith 

especial frequency to pronouns : tlyttye I for my part, Lat. equidem, tye in Hm. 
even he, Zsye Lat. qui quidem, Hm. t!ris roioMri ye p4ioi whoever should do such 
things (even such). 

a. N, when it belongs to a word which has the article, is usually put after 
the article : l| ye iip^penrlpri iro^a human wisdom at least. So too after a pre- 
position, if the word depends on one : o68cU IJKova'ep Up ye rf ^wfpf no one 
heard, in public at least, 

2. yot/y (postpositive) at least, Lat certe, 

contracted from y^ obp f sometimes written separately), and hence stronger than 
y4. It is used especially after a general statement, to mark some partictdar 
case, or limited extent, in which that statement is certainly true : ov TAcurr^y 
T^v ^iA(aF mpetxopTO * li^Ao^iOi yovp alrr^ <rvpefic4fijiira» they o^ered no prC' 
tended friendihip ; at least, they willingly joined him in giving aid, 

3. trip (postpos. and enclitic) very^ just, eten, 

shortened from the adverb -ript very much. In Attic, it is used to strengthen 
relatives: Ssrep just who, the one who, Unrep even as; also in cfrtp {jUupwep^ 
Hpvep) even if, Kolrep though. In Hm., its use is very eztendye: iyi^ S* i\eeuf&' 
rep6s wepbutJam much more to be pitied, irpSrr6p wep for the very first time. 

Digitized by 



rAn 9rvy4ovn dwl ww which even the aods deteet; and especially with parti* 
eipUt, in the sense of Kokt^p (796 f) : kxy^ntvei vtp though grieved^ KfvrnpSs 
wtp iitf (or Kpar9p6f vtp withoat &y) though he im mighty. 

851. 4. ^ (postpositiye) now^ indeed^ in particular, 

marks the idea of a word or sentence, as being immediately present and obmua 
to the mind. It is commonly put after the emphatic word, and admits a great 
variety of rendering : voAAol 84 (obTiously many) a great many, fi6ros 8^ fdl 
alone, 8qXa 9^ it ie quite plain, ^tia iccU ictfUXos icol rKovros H health, and 
beauty, and particularly wealth. It adds urgency to iupxratiye expressions : 
iwowTt Hi eoneider, I pray you, Aye Hi come now, fi^ 8^ iiceirp rp iKwlBi iwatp^ 
ft€^ let us by no means be elated with that hope. It strengthens the supxrla- 
TiTE : fiiyurros H\ the very greateet; and gires definiteness to deuonstratiyxs 
and RELATXTXS : it 8^ the (particular) one who, &rdios H of whichever (particular^ 
kind, dSrvs H (in this particular way) Juet bo. So with other pronouns and 
particles : rt 8^ what now / what precuelyf wov 9itjtut where / Ifiris tome cer- 
tain person, inAirepoy 8^ fpyor our own work (belonging to us only), tlHifinr 
deed, if really. For xai 8^ Koi, see 857. 

a. It is often used with something which is now present to the mind, as 
being memtiqned, or at least sugoestxo, before : o(rx olhtts lxc< ; ^x^t Mi it it 
not to f it is indeed (as you say), &s iy ^vp^ f<rfi€¥, xal ob 8ff« 8^ iaurhr ix 
ra^rris hittp we are as if(9et) on guard, and indeed (the obvious conclusion) one 
must not release himself from this. Especially so with demonstratives and rela- 
tives : i^ &v 8^ from which things now (already mentioned), oSret 8^ thus then 
(as preriously described) : and hence often in the apodosis (782), as &re , . • 
r6rt H vhen . . . t/ten, I eay; or with resumptive force, taking up a subject 
again after a digression. Hence, too, 

b. It sometimes approaches the meaning of ff8i}, Lat. jam : koI ro?iXh 8^ 
SxXa Ki^as cT-rt and when now (already) Ite had spoken many things, he said, wvv 
8^ even now, Hm. rh 8J^ vv¥ wdrra tcXcitiu <ill these things are now already re* 
ceiving fulfilmeTit. 

c. The Epic 8^ ydp, and poetic 8^ r<^^€y may stand at Uie beginning of a 

852. 5. d^irov (or d^ nov indeed, I mppose) probably, methinla, 
often used, with slight irony, in cases which admit no doubt : rp^^eroi 8^ ^vxh 
rivis fia^fuuri ^xov with what is the spirit nourished f with learning, doubt- 
less. A stronger form is Mprov^y, 

6. dtjTa (a stronger 8^) surely, in truth, 

nearly confined to the Attio: o^ 8i|ra nirs/y not, vwt Krra how in truth f t/bf 
rsipe irjra do really pity. 

7. d^Scv truly, forsooth, 

mostly in reference to a seeming or pretended tmth. 

8. dat (an Attio form of d^), 

used only in questions, and chiefly in rl 9ali v£i 8a/; what now/ how nowf 
with surprise or passion. 

9. Epic S^v (postpoB. and enclit) methinhs, Lat. opinor, 

has nearly the same meaning as 84wov, which last occurs but once in Hm. 

10. $ (praepositive) r^ly, truly, 

(not to be confounded with f interrog., 828 b, and # or, than, 860) adds force 
to an anerttoQ. 4 mV (Hm. 4 fih) is used especially in declarations under 

Digitized by 



oath : A/ioffoy Zokovs 4 mV M^ funntrueaK^ffttw they moon oathi thai in very tnUh 
they wmld n&i (remember wrongs) bear resentment. 

11. rot (postpos. and enclit) surely, dxyvhtleee, 

may often be rendered you Amow, ycu mutt Amow, 60 aetyredy and the like : 

othoi mrely not, For fi4nWf aee 864^ 6 : for To£rur, ro^yap, roryc^vr, roi* 

ydproi^ see 867. 

12. fro4 (j5 + Toi) verily, only Epic, 

a naive expression of assurance : ffroi 3y As eMtv ma* iff S^ct« (m aoo^) wAmi 
A« had apoken ihue^ he eat dcwn. For the disjunctive Ifroi • . . ff either ... or, 
see 860 a. 

13. firip (postpositive) in truth, Lat. yero, 

Ion. fify. Dor. ftdv ; Hm. has /ilr, fUCy, and ii^: ^^ yV H^H^* ^ M^ '>'*Tf- 
Xtc/iiyoy Harcufor thue teill lepeak out^ and in truth it iiil befulfiUed, Even 
the Attic uses fiip for /a^i^, in /iiy o2if, /iiv 8^. The word has also an adversa- 
tive use, yetj however; and this is always the meaning of ftdrrot (864, 6). 

14. vai yee, surely, — 1^ and yA surely, 
used in oaths and followed by the accusative (545). 


853. The conjunctions are particles used to connect one sentence with 
another. They are divided into classes, according to their meaning: 
though in some instances the same conjunction has various meanings, 
which bring it into different classes. 

a. The first four classes of conjunctioDS (copulative, dtMuneUte^ ad- 
versatile, and ii^ferentitd) connect etHfrdinate sentences (/24) : so too 
the causal yap. The other classes stand with suhordinaie sentences, and 
connect them with the prindpal sentences on which they depend. 

b. A sentence introduced by a relative (or indefinite relative) is al- 
ways subordinate; and all indedinable reUtives are reckoned among the 
ooi^unctions. ^The inferential &sTe, being a relative, belongs to a sub- 
ordinate sentence. The adversative ofjMt is generally attach^ to a prin- 
cipal sentence, to mark its connection jrith the subordinate. 

854. In continued discourse, every sentence has, in general, a conjunc- 
tion, or some other expression, which marks it as connected with wfiat 
goes before. Occasionally, however, a sentence appears without any sudi 
connective. This form or construction is called asyndeton (dcrvw^mp 
not bound together) : it is most common in explanatory sentences (which 
only bring out what is signified in the preceding sentence). Sometimes 
it is preferred as a livelier and more striking mode of expression. 


The principal copulatives are icat, W, emd. T« is postpositive and en- 
clitic : it corresponds in general to Lat gue^ as koi to Lat eL The poets 
have also $dc, 2dc, and (cf. Lat. atque) ; tdc is epic only. 

a. The copulative is often used with both of the connected members: 

Digitized by 


859] cofdulTivb conjunctions. 809 

Thus Kttl .-• Kuif or Tff . . • Ktdf or re ... re: icol luerh y^p luX Korrk hiXatrmof 
both by land and by mo, Hm. *Arputtd re koI &XX01 ^Oici^/uScf *Axato( ye aone of 
AtreuM and other Achaearu with goodly grtavet^ Hm. old ydp rot fyis re ^(Xi} 
wiKfiuA re fu(x^ '''* /<^ alwayt U Urtfe dear to thee and wears and battlet. In 
like maimer, the Epic has Itfiey • . . ^8^ ae well . . • oe eUeo, 

b. Oocaaionally we find re . . . U^ the two members beiDg at first thought 
of as simply connected, but afterwards as standing in a certain contrast. 

856. a. In the Epic language, r4 is used very extensirely to mark the con- 
nection of sentences and parts of sentences, being often attached to other par- 
tielesj as Koi^ fUr, Uf ydp, iMAj and to relatives (5fre, or^trc). In such cases, 
it can hardly be translated into English. The common words &sre and dUrre^ 
fonnd in all writers, are remnants of this early usage. 

b. To Kcii belonff further the meanings also and kten : Hm. wop' Kfjuuye 
fcal &AA01 dt k4 fie rtftiiirovat with me are others also who will honor ffte, koI Kara- 
yekfs fiov you are even laughing at me, xal fAJXtara even most^ ical 0paxbpxp6yow 
(even) only a short time. In the meaning also^ it is often repeated witn both 
members of a compound sentence : koI i^/ux rabrii 8okc7 8,rtp koI fieuriXei to ns 
also the same things seem goody which (seem good) also to the king. In ital 8^, 
the proper connectiye is 8^, while itof means also, even : ZUcaunf xol vphtov 8^ 
S^uijustf and, at the same time, fittina also, 

c. After words of likeness, ksI may be rendered as : 6/u>ltss Koi Lat. 
aequo ac. 

857. "AXKut re icaf means both in other relations and (particularly in the 
following^. Hence it may in general be rendered especially : x"^^^ ^<v^< ^<A' 
fialyetp rw worofihy, HKXott re ical voktfdtoy woXX&y lyy^f 6yr»y it is hard to 
cross the river, especially when many enemies are near. So ical 8j^ xof and in 
particular also, gives special prominence to that which follows it : Hd. heucvl- 
ayroi is zUpBts KAAm re wdlrref 4k riis *EAXd(8of o'o^MTaf, ko) 8j^ xal Z6koty there 
come to Bardie both all the other wise men from Chreeee, and particularly Solon, 
In like manner, ob fUyoy • . . bkxh ud not only , , , but also, are used with con- 
nected sentences to give prominence to the second. For obx ^(» obx Svtffy 
followed by b^xik icaf, with similar force, see 848 c. 

858. NxoATiTB BSNTENCis are connected by ov^€, firfie, or ofre, fAtire, 
Of these, ov8c, fuidi take the place of xai (standing srnglj) in aflfiraative 
sentenoes, and therefore signify 

a. and not, nor either; in this sense, they connect a single negaUre mem- 
ber to a preceding sentence (usually negative) : Hm. fipAiofs obx ^^c« Mk 
vornrof thou toucheet not food (and not drink) nor drink either, wpbs erov obV 
4fjLov ^^odffm I shall not speak for thy interest nor for mine. Sometimes oM 
ijufii) nas the adversative meaning but not (862). 

b. also not (neither): ikrlCu ob9h robs woXefdous yueyuy I expect that the 

enemy also will not r«matn (that neither will the enemy remain) ; or, with 

emphatic sense, mot xtkn, Lat ne--quidem : obb4 rovro i^ify not even this was 
allowed, Hm. fya firift 6yofi* avrov 4y ba/^p^mun Xiwrrrai that not even his name 
may remain among men. For oiU (fi'ni4) with cTs, see 255. 

859. 0<Vr, fiTire take the place of re . . . re, or koi . . . cat, in affirma- 
tiye sentences; thus oike . . . oihe, or firirt . , . ptrfre, neUher . . . nor: 

^ayepoi elirty oCre rf 3ef veib6fAeyot ofire rots yS/uus they are sun to obep 
neither the god nor the laws. Sometimes a negative member is connected with 
a following aflbmative by oi^re (jiire) ... re (Lat. neque . . . et): A/ioatpf fiin 

Digitized by 



wpoHAirtaf iXXfiXtus er^fifMxot re lr«adcu they twore that Ihey wmid n9t Utray 
each cither ^ and wovld be alliet, 

a. If after two membera connected by oih-c . . . ot^c, ft^t • . . iiffrt^ others 
still are added, they may take M4^ itmfii. Bot if a single member with ofrc 
(/i^ff) is followed by Mi (ji^ii), this is an irregular form (cf. re . . . 94, 855 b), 
and gives a special emphasis to the second member : ikxh yitp olfrc ro^t^p 
M4v iartp &\^^f , oM y <f runs iucfiKSart &s iyi» woiSc^ciy irix^ipA ia^^p^ovs 
bui indeed neither ie any one ofiheee ihinge true^ nor even if ye have heard from 
amy body that I undertake to educate men, 

860. V. DisjUNcnvK Conjunctions. 
1. f or^ than, not to be oonfoundod with $ (828 b, 852, 10) : 
a. OB ; and repeated, ff . • • ff either , , .or; also ffroc . . . ^, with special 
emphasis on the first member : ^ roXifi^ irpanidc/s, ^ koI &AXov rufk rp4wo9 
9ov?iw^§ts either vanquiehed in iMir, or else suhjugated in some other way, 

. b. THAK, after the comparative degree and adjectives like AxXos, crcpos, 
9idi^poSf iyarrtos, which have a comparative meaning. See 586, 660. 

8C1. 2. circ . . . circ whether . . . or, Lat. sive . . . sire, 
presenting two possible suppositions which are left open to the choice of the 
hearer : Sre itXridrhs cfrc ^tvBoSf ob icaA^v /aoi Sokc? tovto roCyofUi 4xeuf whether 
it be true or feUse^ it eeeme to me not honorable to have this name. Sometimes 
the first cfrf is omitted, or Ij is used for the second. With the subjunctive, 
idyre (^yre, iyrt) is used instead of cfrc. 

862. VI. Adveesativb CoNJUNcrnoNS. 
1. dc (postpotitiye) hut^ and, 

marks a slight contrftst with what goes before, being much weaker than 
dk\d. Hence, thoagh it should generally be rendered but, it is often 
better given, especially in Hm., by and. 

a. The first of the contrasted members very commonlv has fi4y (postposi- 
tive, originally the same as fi-fip^ 852, 18) : thus fi4y , , ,94 indeed . . . but, on 
the one hand . . . on the other; though, in many cases, fUw can hardly be ren- 
dered in English. Thus 6 pihy filos fipax^s, v 9h r4x?ni /taKpd life indeed ie short, 
but art ie long, Hm. ot wtpl fi^y fiovKy Aaya&y repl 2* f<rrf fidxea^m you who 
in counsel (on the one hand), and (on the other) in fghiingj are euperior to 
the (other) Vanai, 

iTor 6 fi4y , , , 694, see 525 a. M4y is often followed by other particles, 
&XXi, irdp, etc. ; and sometimes the thought to be contrasted with it, is ex- 
pressed in other ways or omitted altogether. 

b. After a conditiontU or relative sentence, the apodosis (principal sentence) 
is sometimes introduced by 8/: Hm. ws 6 ravd^ &pfMuye Kark Ap4ya iral Kori 
dvfjJy, ^X^9 9* 'A^yri while he was revolvina theae things in mind and in spirit, 
then came Atheneu Here 94 is used as if the former sentence were co-^triinatt 
with, not subordinate to, the Utter. This construction, which is rare in Attic, 
occurs frequently in Hm. 

863. 2. ciXXa but, yet (from oXXor other), 

marks a stronger contrast than 94 1 Hm. 4vb' &AA01 fi\y wdyres 4T€v^/tfieray 
*Axaioi, &XX' obK *Arptt9p 'Ayofiifiyopi fip9aye ^fi^i &AAik kok&s A^ci then all the 
other Achaeans shouted assent, yet it pleased not Atreue^ son Ageanemnon in his 
spirit, but harshly he dismissed him. 

Digitized by 



a. After a eonditiimal sentence expressed or implied, &^Ai is often to be 
rendered at U<ut : tl fi^ wdyra^ i^Xik voXAi y fore yoti knoWf if not all, yet 
wmeh at Uaat, i ^ol rarp^oif evy^ptff^ *f &XA& fvk O ffodi of viy fathers^ be 
with me ijiow at Uaet (if never before). 

b. *khXii in often used to break o£f the previous discourse and introduce a 
question or demand: Hm. o^k kwh ckowov ftui^ctrcu /ScurlXfta 'r€pl^pc»w &AAA 
wl^ta^€ (he prudent queen epeake not amiee : but do you comply, 

c. After negative expressions, &AA* ff (less often dXAci aloue) is used in the 
sense of other than^ except : itpyOptop iihf obn Hx^t ^^* ^ t'Mcp6p rt I have no 
money ^ except tome little. For ob /i^y &AA4 see 848 e. 

864. Other conjunctions which express a contrast, or a transition to 
Bomething different, are 

3. aS (postpositive, properly {igaitij hence) on the other hand^ on the 
contrary. So Epic aZre, 

4. ardp (praepositive, Hm. avrap and arap) but, hoteever, 

5. firjp (postpos., it ii true^ Lat rero) yet, howeter : see 852, 13. 

6. /icvroi (postpos. : from fiiv for /n^i^, and rot) yet, hmoev&r. 

7. KoiToi (not in Hm. : from Kai and roc) and yet, though. 

8. ofAwt neeertheleee, notieithstanding, 

marks decided opposition. See 858 b, and for its use with participles, 796 f. 
It is originally the same with poet. 6fi&s in like manner, in the same eaee. In 
Hm., it occurs but once. 

865. Vn. Inpebential Conjunctions. 

1. &pa (Hm. &pa, ap, and enclit. pd, all postpos.) accordingly, 
therefore, marks an idea as following naturally from preceding circumstances 
or a previous course of thought. It is especially frequent in Hm., and may 
often be rendered bj so, then : ^5 V ^1^ ^^^ ^^^ ^ '^*^ 'Arptihis 8* Ikpa 
pfja ^oiip ikeJit itpoipwrtrtp and so (a thing to be expected) Atrides launched the 
swift ship into the sea : ovk &pa not then (as might have been supposed)' el 6pa 
if UMffit, if perhaps. For 2pa (sometimes used in poetry for JkpOt but usually) 
tnterrogative, see 828 b. 

866. 2. oZp (Hd. and Dor.>£y, postpos.) therefore, consequently, 
stronger than Jkpa : Hm. Hfroi pSotos hr^Xero irarpbs ifioio • ot^ obp iyytXlps 
1^1 rti^ofuu my father's return ie verily lost ; neither therefore do I any more put 
faith in tidings (of him). In cozmectiou with other j)article8, it very often 
means /or that matter, at any rate, certainly: with relatives, it has the force of 
Lat. cunque : Ssrisovp whosoever (816 a). For fikp oip^ see 852, 13. 

a. From ob and o0y, arise both ovkovp and oHkovp. (a) The first is prop- 
erly interrogatijre : obKovp <rot SoKti dfL^pop eJpoi does ii not therefore seem to 
you to be advantageous t^ — (fi) But since questions with ob look to an affirma- 
tive answer, ovkovp came to be used without interrogation, as an affirmative : 
Ikyovaip iiixSty r& XF^f^'^^ * obicovp xph i^^ttp rtphs ripAp ii^ tdnoifs they are 
plundering our property : therefore ought (= ought not therefore ?) some of ut 
to march against them, — —(y) To express the sense **not therefore*' without 
interrogation, oCkovp is used (with accent on the negative) : oCkovp iLroXsijfOfud 
y4 ^ovy si Tovro Kiysit I will not depart from you, then, if you say this. Some 
editors employ oditovp also in the first case (a). 

Digitized by 



867. 3. vvv (Hm. vvv and i^, postpos. and encli^), 
a weakened fonn of ySr, like English new used for then, therefnirt. According 
to. many critics, the word should be written vw (not enclitic) in idl proae-authors 
except Hd. ; and in poetry too, unless the Terse requires a short sylUble. 

4. Toiwv (postpositive) therefore^ then^ 

from v^ aboTC, strengthened by toI surely (852, 11); never found in Hm. 

5. rotyapovvj roiyoprot, io then^ there/bre^ 

praepoeitiTe, like poet ndyapf of which they are strengthened forms. 

6. &sTt BO thaty see 876, 4. 

868. VULi. Declarattye CoNJUKcmoNS. 

1. Sti that, Lat. quod, 

originally the same as o rt, neuter of the pronoon osris. Like Lat qaod« 
it has both a declarative and a causal sense : 

a. THAT : *HpdK\tiros K4y9i Sri wAtfra X'^* fferaeiituB says thai all things 
are in motion. Hence the phrases 9^Xoy 9ri (also written 819X01^1) it is dear 
that, evidently f and c2 oTS* Brt I know ihat^ certainly : irAirr»v c2 oIB* iri ^otb^ 

rmy 'f Ky though all, lam sure^ would say, For the forms of the oratio recta 

used after 5ri, see 734 b. 

b. BCCAUSS : Hm. x'^f^^ot W Apurroy *Kxat&p olt^p truras angry because 

you paid no resjteet to the lest of the Aehaeans. Hm. sometimes uses 5, the 

simple relative, instead of 5ri, in both senses. 

Rkm. c. !h-i |it^ is used after a negative sentence, in the sense of except : 
othrai^ iie rris v^Xcws i^rfX^tSt 5ri /x^ mIs 'la^fiSy you never went out of the ei^, 
except once to the Isthmus (lit what you did not go out that one time). For 5t( 
with superlatives, see 664. 

2. Another declarative in general use is ox that^ see 875* Little used 
are it&ri and owtxa that, see 869, 3. 

869. IX. Causal Conjunchons. 

1. on because, see 868 b. 

2. ore and eVei siTics, see 877, 1, 5. 

3. dt<$rt, and poet ovvcko, ^Sovi^ko, because. 

9tSTi is for 81* 8 r< = 81^ roGro Srt on account of this that (818). And so 
offytira, ddo^cira are for ol (8rov) cyciea, = JtPtKa roinov 5t*. They are used 
also as declaratives, thai, see 868, 2. 

870. 4. yap (postpositive) /(?r 
introduces a reason or explanation, mostly for a preceding thought, but some- 
times for a foUowmg one : yvy 94, irp6Bpa yhp ^IttMfAtros 8oiccif itXtidv Kiytiy^ 
81^ ravrd <rs ^iym but now since, in speaking what is utterly false, you think that 
you aremeaking the truth, for this cause Iblatne you. 

a. The thought which is explained, is often not expressed, but only impliea 
in the connection. Thus especially in atiswers to questions : kyvyiariop ii\p fSipa 
rifuy Tphs robs &y9pas; iadyiefi ydp, 1^ must we, then, contend with the menf 
(yes, we must contend) /or it is necessary, said fie. 

b. In questions, ydp is often used with reference to an unexpressed and 
vague idea of uncertainty, which is explained by the questioirr ^AwXt ydpi 
(possibly I misunderstood you) /or is he (actually) deadf ^tXoaopifr^oy £/M^o• 

Digitized by 


874] coNDmoMix ani> gomcessivb conjunctions. 313 

yilffaiitv 4 ydp we agreed that one ahonld study philosophy (as I think, but per- 
haps incorrectly), for is it reaUy so/ Bo rl yap, Lat. quinam ? 

c. In wishes^ ydp is similarly used with reference to a yague idea of un- 
satisfied desire, which is explained by the wish : kokus yho i^6\oio (there is 
something I desire) for toould that you might perish uretchedly. For c2 yip, 
Lat. utinam, see 721 a. 

d. Similarly we may explain koX yip and (this is certain) for, ■=for indeed 
(but sometiraes/br also, for even) ; AAAik yip and AXX' ob yip but— for {for not), 
where an idea must be supplied in contrast with -what goes before : iyi» iftav 
rov Z4oiuu biowri robots iucoXov^sip' &XA* o6 7^ 9^tmftm I demand it of myself 
to keep up with these in running; but (I do not keep up, for) lam not able. 
But ol ykp kKXa is differently used : it^ ^nmrwri /i* 29eX^* • ob 'Ap &AX' lfx« ica- 
Kws do not mock me, brother; for /(am not to be mocked, but) eon in wretched 

871. X. Final CoNJUNcnows. 

These are named, and their uses described, in 739-43. They are cm 
(cf. 879, 6), &s (<£ 875 e), ^o>r (of. 876. 3), lkl>pa (cf. 877, 7), /i^ (cf. 743, 
S32 £f). For iMz rl (so. yeinrnu)^ see 826 b. 

872. XL Conditional Conjunciions, 

el if; ia¥ (for ci a»^ or by contraction) Ifw^ a» (d), if. 

For their tne in conditional sentences, see 744 ff: in indirect questions, 
830 : in expressions of wishing (with cl, «C^, el yio), 721. Zl i4 is sometimes 
used for except, as Lat. nisi : $fuy Mir itrrir iiyadbr &AXo «l /lii ivXa jcal hptri 
we have no other g&od save arms and courage : so §1 fi^ el except if, Lat. nisi si. 
Efrep (850, S), Lat. siquidem, if indeed, as true as : pii Af, ^rep ye Aapetou i<rr\ 
wmst ^ &M«X*^ ""^ fy^ K'fyfofuu ay, by Zeus, as sure as he is a son of Darius^ 
I shall not get these things without fighting, 

873. a» (a, postpositive) perTuipa 

marks the sentence as haying only a contingent or conditional truth : it can 
seldom be rendered by an English word. It is used with the (potential) opta- 
tive (722, 748) ; with the (hypothetical) indicative (746 b) ; with the indicative, 
implying repetition (704) ; with the future indicative (710 b) ; with the subjunc- 
tive in relative sentences (767 ff ) ; with the infinitive ^788), and participle (808). 

a. Not unfrequently, &y is found more than once in the same sentence : obic 
Av bp^&s 6 TOvToro4iras wepl od9eyhs hif Koyivano the man who did this would 
not reeuon rightly on any subiect. 

b. Ep. fc/, ie4r. Dor. jci (postpositive and enclitic), 

almost exactly equivalent to dy (a), which is also freely used by Hm. Some- 
times both ftr and k4 are found in the same sentence, cf. 873 a. 

874. Xn. CoNCKssrvB CoNJUNcnoNS. These mark a con- 
dition as something which may be conceded without destroying 
the conclusion. T^ey are 

1. el Kai (eap jcaQ if even, oUhough: 
poet viKip (726), el leal p,^ fi\(weu, ^vets 8* (862 b) Zpms olf Wo-y (^yfori m 
for the city, (if even) though then art blind, thou yet perceivest with ioAa< a mo' 
tody it is afflicted. 


Digitized by 



2. Ka\ ct (leai cay, K&y) even if, Lat etiamri : 

thought Uwuthe piart of a good man to <uaUt his frUntUf even if no one were 
about to know of it* 

^ a. Both c< K€d and koI ci represent the condition as unfavorable to the con- 
clusion, yet not incompatible with it. But the former gives special prominence 
to the condition, as being unfavorable ; the latter, to the conclusion, as holding 
good notwithstanding. Often, however, the difference between the two forms 
is very slight. 

3. jcaiVcp (Hm. Ml . . . wcp) with the participle, see 795 f. 

b. After concessive coz\j unctions, the conclusion is often introduced bj 
S/trnt notwithetancUngy see 858 b. 

876. XTTT. Comparative CoNJUNcnoNS. These are proper- 
ly relative adverbs of manner. 

1. o>ff 09, that, Lat. nt, 
properly in leMeh manner, a proclitic (108 c\ and thus distinguished from the 
demonstrative As thus, eo (250). Yet in poetry, the relative is sometimes oxy- 
tone, being placed afUr the word to which it belongs (104 a). It has a great 
variety of uses, viz. 

a. OOMFAAATIVB usc : &$ fio^^M^ OS tktm wiU. So with the force of Lat. 
tanquam : lumphif &s yi^orrt a long dietanee for me ae an old moii.— *It cor- 
responds to Lat. quam m kxclakationb (815 a), prop. the manner in vihieh I 
Hm. &sfiot Z^xfTtu Ktuchr iK kokov tdtl haw doee one evil alwaye follow for ms afUr 

another ! For &s with euperlaHvee : its rdx^ffra Lat quam celerrime, see 

664. With words of numier and measure, it has the meaning abouty not far 

from : &s ZUa about ten, &s M rh wokd (pretty much over the greater part) 

for the most part, In expressions of action, it often denotes that which is 

apparent, supposed, or professed : iirytt &s wphs rohs voKtfUovs he went away in 
the direction toward the enemy (as if he were going against the enemy), ^xir> 
rcoj^ff &s voksfdovs iifias you are guarding against us as (supposing us to be) 
enemies. Hence its use as an adjunct of the participle, see 795 e. For its use 
with the infinitive, see 772. 

b. TEMPORAL use, CM, as soon as, when : &s sVF, &s (demonstraUve) puif /uU- 
Kop tHu x^^^os fohen he saw them, then did anger ths more take possessioti of him 
(lit. as . . . so), &s rdxurra c«s dw^^oiyty, iS^omo as soon as dawn appeared, 
they were taking the auspices (Lat. ut primumV 

c. CAUSAL use, aSf inasmuch as, seeing that : 9u xpn^^^ I'ots hye^Ts, &s 
ou8iy 6^9\os Trjs lerfiaeus ylyprrai one must make use of his goods, since no ad^ 
vantage comes from the acquiring (of them). 

d. DECLARATIVE use, that: %Ksv hrffiKKup ris &s 'EXircta jcortiXiiirrai there 
came one with the tidings that JSlatSa is taken, cf. 738. 

e. riNAL use, that, in order that : &s fiii vdines 6Kcsrrai that all may not 
perish, cf. 789. 

f. CoNSECUTiVK use, h'kc fisrc so that, mostly with the infin. (770) : offrw 
fui ifio^djiaas &s rw atacocfioi you so aided me that lam now saved, liceiiL vaos- 
i^p &s 9etwp^aai riip errpartdy they brought enough, so that the army could dine, 

g. For &s in expressions of wishing (Lat. utinam), see 721 a. 

876. 2. &e7r(p (a>r+ wcp) even <u,juet 0$, 
a strengthened wi, but found only in the comparative use. 

Digitized by 



3. SfF^t 09, that, in order that, 

is the indefinite relative corresponding to &f (aa 6iro<bf to otosf etc.). Its prin* 
cipal nae ia that of k final coDJuncUon, see 780. like other indefinite relatiyes, 
it is used in dependent questions (825 a) Aoto, in what manner. 

4. &tT€ (856a) used in two ways: 

a. couPiRATiTK use, aa : this is Ion. and poetic, and is especially frequent 
In Homer. 

b. coNsicirriTE use, «o that : in this it denotes remits and may be connect- 
ed either with the infinitive or with a dependent finite verb (770-71). 

5. ^c (in Hm. only as pronoon) as, 
chiefly used with participles, see 796 d : so also pTo. 

6. ft 5*7, M, see 879, 4. 

7. Hm. iftrt aa, like aa. In H. 7, 10, r, 886, it is a dissyllable (87). 

877. XIV. Tebipobal Conjukcitons. These are mostly re- 
lative adverbs of time. 

1. Srf, oir6r€, tohen; and (with av) orav, owdrap. 'Ort is also used 
in a causal sense : uhereas, since. 

2. c^c (poetic and Ionic) = m, both temporal and causal. 

3. ^wVo, ^wijMira, at which time, whsTi. more predse than ore. In 
Hm., iivUa is scarcely found : on the other nand, 

4. fjfiot when (= ^wxa) is little used except in Hm. : it is found only 
with the indicatiye. 

5. fVf/ after, since, when; and (with ofv) fV^v or «nav (Hm. ^iniv, 
hrti K€, Hd. cwrciy). 'Eire/ is very often used as a causal oonjanction, since, 
seeing that. 

0. eVecd^ since now, when now, from eVe/ strengthened by ^17 (851) : 
it denotes thus a more immediate and particular relation of time or cause. 
With a», if forms rireidov, which is much more used than hriiv, inav, 

7. ?oTe (not in Hm.), ewr, and poet, tff^pa, Hm. ecn^ice (or tU o ice, etV 
St€ Kf), until, as long as: 

abctCorrai rohs hf^p^ovs Hffrt fty ipx"^"' ahr&w they abuae man m long as 
they art maatera of tliem, mptafityo/itw c«f iawx^tii rh ZwfjMvhpwv we were wait* 
ing until the priaon ahould be opened. "O^pa is Tery often used as a final con- 
junction (739) : Hm. 6^pa fiii olot 'Apyelmy hy4peurro$ tm that I may not he, <done 
among the Oreeha, viithout a prize. 

8. /Ai'xpi, «XP* (cf- 626, 7) until 

878. 9. irplv hefore {that), ere. 

In this use, it stands for ftpXv ff (aooner than^ Lat. priusquam): it may be con- 
nected either with the infinltire (769) or with a finite verb (771). In its proper 
use (= priua, aooner, earlier)^ it lias no relatire force and is not a conjunction : 
this m Attic Greek is found only after the article (iyroisirphf A^^is in the fore- 
going atatementa, rh wolp before^ formerly\ but is very frequent in Hm. : oS 7^ 
f)r^ \{>aw * wp(y luw yap y^peis iwturtp for I will not releaae {htr) ; oUL age even 
Judl come upon her before. He often uses it in correspondence with a conjunc- 
tion ftph (769) : ovUi ris trKii vply vt4eir rphf \e^eu nor durst any one (sooner) 
drink before he made libatien. 

Digitized by 



879. XV. Local Conjukchons. These are relative adrerbs 
of place. They are also occasionallj used to denote position in 
time ; and very often to denote situation^ i e. states^ conditions^ 
or circumstances. 

1. o^, oirov, iohere (Epic and Lyric oSi, irr^SSt). 

2. oSrv, 6iro'3f y, whinee. 

3. oty ofToc, toAi^A^. 

4. 17, o9r27 (Hm. also ^^Of ^^^ v^^} i^ which party tohere: also, in 
comparative sense, a«. 

5. ?yda at toAicA j9m^ toA^«, ttfhtv whence^ more precise than oS, 
oScy. They are often used as demonstratiTes, therSy thence, 

6. iva where; but much oftener used as a^naZ conjunction (cfl 739), 
thaty in order that 

Rev. a. Adverbs which express the place tDhere^ are often connected with 
verbs of motion : they denote then the place of rest in which the motion ends : 
im Tn> ^ikws oS Kor^^vTc from the city where (whither) he fied for refuge. 
Conversely, oT and 5voi are sometimes connected with verbs of rest, the adverb 
referring to a previous motion: poet l^c ^MI^oll S4 m' ^'m icei^ioretfier are 
you abU to inform ms fohither toe {have come and) are eet downf CC 618 a. 


880. Ellipsis (d^ect) is the omission of words which are requisite to 
a full logical expression of ^e thought. 

For numerous cases of elliptical construction, see 504-10, 752-4, 818 
-20 ; but many of those constructions fall under the special head of 

881. Brachtloot (hrirf expreseion) is a species of ellipsis by which 
a word appears but once, when in the complete expression it would be 
repeated, and, usually, with some clumge of form or construction: 

kyt&oi ^ fx^ (sc. ^TodoQ ar^pcf good men or not (good men), #rpi(c^(if ^/icli 
(sc. wpbt ^Kcfrovs), ical iKuyoi irpbs ^fJMS elp^yiiy tee made peace with them, and 

they with us. Very often the complete expression, instead of repeating the 

same word, would nse another word of kindred meaning : &s fi<Mp ixoifii^s 
(sc. thrvor) how deep (a sleep) you slept (509 a), 0/ 'A^vcuoi fieriyimoaaf Kcpiev- 
ftolois ^vfifiaxfay fiii roi^iaaodai ^for fierfyvctaay koL fyiwa-w) the Aihe n ian e 
changed their resolution {and resolved) not to form an alliance with the Corey- 
reans, hfitK^oas Sy ol woKKol (sc. hrLfitTiOvyrat) neglecting things which the most 
care for. Thus ^Koerros or rls must sometimes be supplied from a preceding 
o^eis : obSeU ixify Sficoiof , itXXk ^iy*i rh iZiKtiy iZvyarwy ainh Zpay no one is 
just by his own will, but {each one) blames injustice, because he is unable to prac- 
tise it. 

882. ZxuGMA {junction) is a variety of brachylogy, by ^nHiiich two 
connected sul^ects or objects are made to depend on the same rerb, when 
this is appropriate to but one of them : the other sulgect or object depends 
properly on a more general idea, which may be drawn from the inappro- 
priate verb: 

Digitized 'by 


886] pleSkasm; hyfebbaton anaooluthon. 817 

Hm. fx^ iicdtfT^ frroi &cMr(iro8«i iccU woutlKet rc^x^ ficnro where for each one 
{stood, tcroffw) hia foot'H/ttng horae$ and hi$ curiously-wrought anna were lying, 
Hd. ^(rd^ ^p4ov<ri ry 'Xxv^iKy Sfiolriyf yXwrirav Z\ iZirfif th^ wear a dreaa aimi- 
lor to the Scythian, but {have, ffxotwt) a peeulienr language. The figure is chiefly 

883. Aposiopesis {becoming aUenQ occurs when from strong or sudden feel- 
ing a sentence is abruptly broken off and left incomplete : Hm. cKror* 8* a&r« 
Xpci^ ifieio yinfroL ktutia Kovybv AftOrai — but if ever again there cornea a need of 
me to ward off ahameful ruin — . It is a figure of rhetoric rather than of syntax. 

884. Pleonasm (exceae) is the admission of words which are not re- 
quired for the complete logical expression of the thought. For a pleon- 
astic use of avroi and o^or, see 680. This also is in most cases a figure 
of rhetoric rather than of syntax. 

885. Hyperbaton {transposition) is an extraordinary departure from 
the usual and natural order of words in a sentence. Thus words closely 
connected in construction are separated by other words which do not 
usually and naturally come between them : 

2 Tp^f (Tc yorirtow (for vfhs yowdrmp ffe so. Ixere^) by thy hneea {I entreat) 
thee, ^ olfuu rris iucpordrris iKev^ptax tovKela xXehrn aa a conaequenee, I sup- 
pose, €f extreme freedom, cornea utter aervitude. It often gives emphaaia to soma 
particular word or vords : roXX&w, & Mpes 'Adrircudt, \&y»w yvYvofiivenf though 
many, O Athenians, are the apeeehea mocKff;— especially by bringing similar 
or contrasted words into immediate juxtaposition : iyia |vi^y iiXuu^au ifiSiiOfos 
ifiofiipois iiAol laaaociated with persons of my own a^e, taking pleasure in them^ 
and they in me, Hm. vap* oOk ^4\mp i^sKaiirp unteUling with her wishing it, 

886. Anacoluthon (inconsistency). This occurs, when In the course 
of a sentence, whether simple or compound, the speaser, purposely or in- 
adyertently, varies the scheme of its construction : 

Ktd 9ta\ey6fiepos eAr^j Vh^4 juoi oSros 6 Mip etna co^s and eonveraing ufith 
him, this man appeared to me to be wise (for ** I thought the man to be wise," 
iw6fu(ow rhtf Ai^po, etc.), /Mrk roOra ^ ^6ro9of ^r, *Apycioi fuy hpyy x*'P<'*^>'^' 
after this the engagement commenced, theArgives advancing eagerly {'Apyetot in- 
stead of 'Apytlwy, as if the sentence began with ^vyfi?^oy they engaaed), robs 
'EWriyas iy r§ 'Affl^ olKovrras o^4y 7r» ffo^s \4yerai el Kxorrcu but the Greeks 
that live in Asia, nothing certain ia aa yet reported, whether they are follotoituf 
Ul throrrm instead of Ibrw^eu, the expression cbangiug to an indirect question), 
Mm. firiripa 8* cf 0/ ^fibs if^pfMrai ya/A4e<r^aif &ifr frw 4s fUyapoy mrpis but thy 
mother, if her mind ia bent on being married, let her go back to her father* a houae 
{h^ Tt» mstead of itwSwffja^oy aend b<ick), Ssirep ol h^Ktirai^ Uray r&y iLyrayctyiff- 
T&y y4ywyTeu l^rrous, roW edno\n &yif aa the atlUetea, when they prove inferior 
to their antagoniata, thia troubles them (as if ol dtbkrrral belonged to the relative 
sentence, prop, roirtp hyt&yrat are troubled by Mta).^— Sometimes the anaco- 
iQtbon is caused by an endeavor to keep up a similarity of form between two 
corresponding sentences : rotavra yhp d Kpvs iirMKyvrai • ^umrxovyras fily & 
fih \6iniy ro2s &A\otf icap4xti btnapii voie7 yof»i(tty • ebrvxavrras 9h icol rh fih ^9o- 
yjis i^ui Trap* ixelyanf 4waiyo» hyayKdCsi rvyx4^»yfor such effects does love exhibit : 
vnforttmale persons he causes to regard «a troubusome, things which give no pain 
to others; but fortwu^e persons, he makes it necessary that even things unworthy 
of pleasure should obtain praise from them (c&rvxovrra» rap' ixelymy instead of 
trap* ebrvxo^anf). 

Digitized by 







887. Metre and Rhythm. 

of times and aooents. 

To all forms of Greek yerae belong 

" ' ). They all have 

regular movement 

metre {fiirpov meaaure) and rhythm (pv3/i($r moMmerU), They all have 
a definite measure of long and short syllables, and a r ' 

888. Feet. Verses are composed of metrical elements called feet 
The most important are the following: 

Fett of thr<€ (short) tifMs, 
Trochee — « \67ir« 

Iambus « - X<irc7y 

Tribrach ** w iXtrow 

Fed offivt iitMi. 
Cretic —w— ^clv^« 

First Paeon — w w w Ktar6fMda 
Fourth Paeon w w w > i?uir6fiipf 

Fed offovr iiiMt, 
Dactyl — V V Xcdrofifr 

Anapaest vw_ Xnr^w 

Spondee — ; Ktiwmr 

Ffd qf six timst. 
Ionic a majore - - v w Acn-of/iitda 
Ionic a minore w w . . ixivdi^p 
Ghotiambus — ww— Kttwo/idyovs 

Pyrrhic w w 



Amphibrach w-v 



Proceleusmatic w w w v 


First £pitrite 

Bacchius ^ — 

Antibacchius — « 


Second Eplt 

Second Paeon v - w w 


Third Epit. 

Third Paeon v w - w 


Fourth Epit. 




Much less unportant are the followmg : ' 




889. Groups. A single foot taken by itself, is called a monopddy; 
two feet, taken together, a dipoay; three feet, a tripody ; four, five, six, 
etc., a tetrapody, pentapody, hexapody\ etc. One foot with half of an- 
other is sometimes called triemimMa (three half-feet) : so penthemitMrii 
= two feet and a half; hephthemimeris = three and a half, etc. 

890. Verses. Verses are named troehaia, iambic, dactylic, etc, ac- 
cording to the principal (or fundamentdt) foot used in them. They are 
further distinguishea as monomiterj dimeter, trimeter, etc, according to 
the number of their feet. 

In trochaie^ iambic, and anapaestic rerses, each "-meter'* consists of two 
feet : thus, an anapaestic dimeter consists of four feet ; an iambic trimeter, of 
six ; a trochaic tetrameter, of eight, etc. In other kinds of verse, each foot is 
reckoned as a "-meter*': thus, a dactylic hexameter consists of six feet; a 
crettc pentameter, of five; an Ionic tetrameter, of four, etc. 

Digitized by 



891. Oatalbctic and Acatalectic. In many forms of verse, the clos- 
ing foot is incomplete. Such Tenses are designated as eataleetio (stopping 
short). On the other hand, verses which close with a complete foot are 
called acatalectic 

a. A verse is said to be catalectic m tylldbamy in disyllabuiniy in triMtflldbum, 
according to the number of syllables (one, two, three) actually used in the in- 
complete foot. 

b. The name hypereataltctie is sometimes appUed to a verse which extends 
one syllable beyond a given measure : thus a choriambic tetrameter hyperca- 
talectic is a verse which would become a choriambic tetrameter by omitting 

«ita last syllable, 

892. Resolution and Oontbaction. Many kinds of verse allow the 
use of two short syllables in place of a long one. which is then said to be 
resolved; or, vice versa^ the use of a long syllaole in place of two short 
ones, which are then said to be contracted. 

Thus, in the trochaic dimeter *Ap€iPla5 i^ Aptioy iy^s (ww-w-w-wj^ 
a tribrach stands by resolution in place of the first trochee. And in the dactyl- 
ic hexameter irra o'^j^cy, rov v«r, ^toO &s, r«(fv6/ud^ tA^ (-ww— — — w — 
.WW — ), a spondee stands by contraction in place of the second, fourth, and 
sixth dactyls. 

893. Caesura. When a pause in the sense, however shght, occurs 
within the verse, it produces a caesHra (i. e. a cutting, or dividing of the 
verse). This division very often takes place in the middle of a foot) and 
in that case it may be designated as Afoot^aeeura. 

Thus, in the dactylic hexameter Hvra iri^w^ rov rSt^ ^tov £t, r9fnr6fA^ Mp 

(.WW - I w I V — I -WW — , be/ore ihee^ by tohote voice, as if it u>ere a 

ffod'Sj we two are delighted), caesuras occur after cr^cy, yAl^ and &s; and the 
first two of these are, at the same time, foot-caesuras. 

894. Accent, Arsis and Thesis. In pronouncing verse, one syllable 
of each foot was distinguished from the rest by a greater stress of voice. 
This greater stress is called the rhythmic accent. It is wholly independ- 
ent of the written accent, which was disregarded in versification. 

That part of each foot which has the rhythmic accent is called the 
a/reis (raising) ; while the unaccented part of the foot is called the theeie 
(setting, lowering). 

Thus, in the dactylic hexameter Hvra cibw, rov rdi; bwv As, T€fnr6fA^ td/ig 
(i.ww±— XwwJL— XwwJL— ), the syllables which have the rhythmic accent are 
Ar-f -i^cy, 1W-, -ov, rep-, o^ (only half of which have the written accent). Each 
of these six is the arsis of its own foot ; while the remaining syllable or sylla- 
bles of each foot compose the thesis. 

Rem. a. When a long arsis is resolved into two short syllables (892), tho 
first of them receives the rhythmic accent. Thus in the iambic dimeter 9iaunv 
oMr iwtx«iX(s (wJL wi. w^w wi.), the tribrach which stands in place of the 
third iambus is accented on its second syllable. 

895. Stncope. Of many rhythms modified forms are produced by 
the omission of one or more theses. This omission is called syncdpe. 
The time of the omitted thesis was made up either by a pause, where the 
sense admits of one, or by a prolongation of the preceding long arsis. 

Digitized by 



ThuB the rerae /Sc^Zoi KOfraKKoByal (vi* o- wi. wl) b an iambio dimeter 
modified by syncope of the second thesis : the place of the omitted thesis we 
mark by a letter "0." 

896. Anacrusis. An unaooented syllable (short or long) prefixed to 
rhythms beginning with an accent) is adled an anacHlsi$ (upward beat). 
Sometimes we find a d<mble anacrusis, of two short syllables. 

Thus, the verses b, c, d, show the same rhythm as a, but with anaoruses 
prefixed : 

a. x*/^^*' SfitMrrSpouriy. -Lw i^v i.v 

b. wpoKffio^dya fiapuw, v-LvwI.v-Lv 

c. fiii Tapfia\4a dd»n>ifiu -. i.ww i.v i.v • 

d. rh Bh tnryytAf ififi4fiaKty» wvi.wwi.wl.w 

Bem. e. The names iambie (903 ff) and anawiKttie (912 ff ), applied to large 
classes of rhythms, though conyenient from tneir brevity, are not indispens- 
able: the iambic rhythms might with propriety be designated as anacnuie- 
trochaiCy the anapaestic as anacrusic-dactylicy i. e. trochaic and dactylic with 
preceding anacrusis. 

For BASIS, see 916. 

897. Final Syllable. The final syllable of every verse is unrestrictr 
ed as to quantity (jfylldba anceps). A long syllable may be need in that 
place instead of a short, and a short syllable instead of a long. 

Thus iituTKovovKi^ &7v(af ( is an iambic dimeter cataleetio 
(for wJL wJL wi v); and rtKyovrra ital rtiamdfJMfoy (wi.vXvXv»t)i8an iambic 

dimeter acatalectic (for vJL vX vJL vi.V In marking quantities throughout 

the following sections, the final syllable of each verse will be marked long or 
short, as the order of the rhythm may require, without reference to its quan- 
tity in the annexed specimen. 

Reic. a. The reason of the freedom here described lies in the fact that the 
time even of a short syllable, when combined with the pause which occurs at 
the end of a verse, becomes equivalent to a long syllable. For a like reason, 
HIATUS (67) is not avoided at the end of a verse, since the two vowel-somida 
(at the close of one verse and the beginning of the next) are not pronounced 
in immediate succession, but are separated by the final pause. 

b. Yet we sometimes find a system of lines, having the same or similar 
rhythm throughout, in which the liberties above described (syllaba ancept and 
hiattui) are allowed onlt/ in the closing line, A system of tnis kind might be 
regarded with propriety as a single long verse, the lines which compose it be- 
ing metrical series rather than verses. Hence the lines of such a system are 
sometimes found ending in the middle of a word, which can never be true of a 
verse, strictly so called. 

y^ 898. A metrical composition may consist 

/ • a. of SINGLE LINES (crTixoi), in which one kind of verse (dactylic hex- 
ameter, iambic trimeter, etc.) is repeated indefinitely : the verse is tben 
said to be used hy the line. 

b. of DisTicHS, — couplets of two lines, in which two kinds of verse^ 
differing more or less from each other, are repeated in the same order to 
an indefinite extent; see 911. 

c. of SYSTEMS^ — answering to the description just g^ven in 897 b. 

d. of STROPHES,— combinations of several lines, with more or less 
variety of verse. 

Digitized by 



Rbjc. e. Strophes of a Bimple kind maj be repeated (like single lines or 
disticlu) to an indefinite extent. But the longer and more complex strophes, 
which make up the lyric portions {choruses) of tragedy and comedy, are usually 
arran^d in pairs. Each pair consists of a btbophb and antibtbophe, the latter 
of which is like the former, containing the same kinds of Terse arranged in the 
tame order. Such a pair is sometimes followed by a single 8trophe--called an 
XPODS {afier-simg) — differing from them in rhythms, and serving as a conclusion 
to them. In the lyric odes of Pindar, this is the general law ; most of them 
consist of irios^ in which a like pair, strophe and aniisirdphe, are followed by 
an unlike epode ; but the successiye trios of the same piece are all alike, show- 
ing the same kinds of Verse in the same order of arrangement 
* In these complex strophes, it is not to be expected, in general, that the 
student will be able to determine the rhythms for himself, without direction of 
the text-book or the teacher. 

Trochaic Rhythma. 

899. The fundamental foot is the Vrochet. A trochaic ''-meter " (890) 
consists of two feet^ the last of which may also be a spondee. Hence the 
monometer, dimeter, trimeter, etc., may have either trochees or spondees 
for the even feet (2d, 4tfa, 6th, etc), but only trochees for the odd feet 
(1st, 3d, 5th, etc.). 

A tribraeh may be used by resolution (892), in place of a trochee ; 
and an emapaeit, in place of a spondee. A dactyl sometimes occurs in- 
stead of a trochee, but only in proper names. 

The rhythmic accent is always on the first syllable of the foot, and 
the first foot of a "-meter " is more strongly accented than the second. I 

900. The following are specimens of trochaic rhythms: . , . . , / / ^/oi 
a, b. monometer ; b, catalectio {eretic) : 

&y m^vfAtv (a). -L w — w 

2 8£«»(b). Jlw- 
c, d. tripody (Hhyphallie) ; d, cataL (pewthemimeris) : 

^X"^ ^^ W/wwri (c). -L w — w» — w 

KsUrerai rdUof (d). J. w - w - 
e, f. dimeter; f, catalectic: 

A\A* itifatunterd^fresf ipBpes (e). -^^ — I. »*- v 

fiil (,vimfjJr7is ris i*' (f ). i. v- w i. w- 
g. pentapody: 

Aihs ^ayiMMTfUi ffefJOfhy^Hpa, Aww-w-w-v 

h, i. trimeter; i, catalectic: 

Jdstpi^ 4wyiy iyap/i6^ai ts91\^ (h). - v i.w i.w 

iunrayai 8i ZufHooftay biudnovts (i). i.w-w A v v- vi.w- 
J« dimeter and itnyphallic : 

hKki fwi riXt ifi/i4pm jcol fiifroi^ ^Krcuccfq. i.w-vi.w Iw-w.w 

k. tetrameter (= dimeter repeated) : 

L tetrameter catalectio (= dimeter and dim. catal.) : 

Xw«vXw*-mXw*- — Xwm 

Digitized by Voi005lC 

822 lAHBIC BHTTHMB. [900 

»)fiyprrm ^pnTOts^ 6 ftAfftrmif fiioros V ra^ wpSffm. 

m. tetram. catoL Bcazon (Hipponaetlan) : 
iapt fihy xp6fuof iptffTQSf w^las 8^ x^ff^^** 

901. The following are specimens of btncopatid vobkb: a is a syncopated 
dimeter ; b, a dim. catal. ; c, d, e, catalectic trimeters ; f, g» h, catalectio tetra- 
meters. Buch forms as e appear to begin with a spondee, which, however, is 
really a syncopated dlpody. 

a. iifi4^ nmv K^pv/ifitu 2.w-.o^w-.w 

h, was yi^ ImrjiXdrtu, Xw— o-^v — 

c. fiii rvxova-cu ^&y '0\vfiwlmf» i.w— o-^v-.wi.w— 

d. yvy waoeuroufidpp fAOi, wdr€p. Xw—o-^*'— o^**— 

e. dhuifiiw T€ ^drfM pvttffidrms* i.© — o^v— w2.v— 

f. Ztlfs iya^ kroartpolii ydfiw 9vtdin)Mu Xv — vXv—o-^*'— vXw— 

g. UTtfica, fAorofow Syiw/M ic^puuf ^wm, Xv— o— «— o-^v— wXv — 
h. viiftoyof ^Xom^ CO X'^P^ ^B**^^ Xv— wi.v— o^w— o— w — 

902. a. The catalkctio tetbamitib is often used by the line (898 a), espe- 
cially in comedy : it generally has a caesura after the fourth foot. In the 

BCAZON {hobhlingy^ti satiric verse — ^it is modified by the use of a spondee for 
the last odd foot : this makes the verse unrhythmical (899), with hidnorous 

b. The niMETBR, couplets and catalectic, and the ithtphallic, are ex- 
tensively used in lyric strophes (898 d).— ^-^ystemS (897 b) are sometimes 
found, in which a succession of complete dimeters (with, here and there, a mo- 
nometer) is closed by a dimeter catalectic 

^^ 'Iambic Rhythms, 
iy.^ . ^ . 

903. The fundamental foot is the iomtmB. An iunbic ''-meter" (890) 
consists of two feet, the first of which may also be a epondee, Senoe 
the monometer, dimeter, trimeter, etc., may haye either iambi or spondees 
for the odd feet (1st, 3d, 5th, etc.), but only iambi for the eyen feet (2d, 
4th, 6th, etc.). In a tripody or pentapody, only the first foot can be a 

A i/ribrach may be used by resolution (892) in place of an iambus ; 
and a dactyl^ in place of a spondee. An anapaeat also may occur in place 
of an iambus : this is very common in humorous poetry ; in other kinds 
the anapaest (unless occurring in a proper name) is restricted to the first 
foot — ^In all catalectic yerses, the last complete foot is an iambus. 

The rhythmic aooent is on the second syllable of each foot, but on the 
third syllable of an anapaest. The first foot of a ''-meter " is more strong* 
ly accented than the second. 

^ 904. The following are specimens of iambic rhythms: 
a. monometer: 

ft XAKpOTMS, — X w — 

b,o. tripody; c, catalectic (jMfi<A«mtm«rw): 

*£XXay(8«s Kipai (b). -i-w^w. 

Kpdrauv 9yxos (o), »#±w—w 

Digitized by 




w^w — 

w Jlw>* 

-•«Sw V 



vXw w 



d, e. dimeter ; e, catalectio : 

iymtfos irrhs liUmif (q). wXv-.w±w 

^ g. pentapody ; g, catalectio : 

pats irarM\^^oio'iy ixfioktus (f ). .i.v.w-.w — w. 

h. trimeter catalectic : 

L trimeter (acatalectic) : 

i 9tos a£Hp, icfld rax^Ttpoi mwU, 
hrtl W irX^pi}f kyivr^ *hfiy%tm9 5xAot. 

j. trimeter scazon (cAo/iomMM, ^/;pona«<Mfi) : 

k. tetrameter catalectic (= dimeter and dim. cataL) : 

L tetrameter (acatalectic, =r dimeter repeated) : 

905. The following are specimens of btvcopatkd vorms : a, b, c, d, e, are 
dimeters, the first two being catalectic ; f; g, b, i, pentapodies, the first two 
catalectic; j, k, 1, m, n, trimeters, the first two catalectic; o, p, q, r, tetra- 
meters, the first one catalectic 

b. 8iirA<i(ercu rtfuL w JL w — o ~ v 

c. fiapuat KoraXXayal, vi-o — w-v- 

d. KOKOv 5^ X""^^^ rpSwow, vJLw — c^v — 

e. fuXa/anyijs WAci. wi.o — 0~w. 

f. ip ivYKwiri T4Kya ^luu, wXq-i^-w-w 

g. Xiray 8* iuco^ti /Ur offrts* wJLw^O — v~w 
h. ^fiovftai 8* ivos r6V ixfiaXw, ^Lo'^^—^ — ^'-' 

i. fidfioKW flfA^ Ztk wvXay. w2.o — o — w«&vw^ 

k. 5«^ &PX^ ^ ^^^'^^ <^C*''* wi.0 — O'^w — wJLv 

1. /k/Smri'T^ roiinp iyp^roi ffrparty. s^l^y^^^oLM^^Ls,^ 

in* /8f^ X"^''^*' ^ ^^''■^ Z*''^*' wl.w — o-^w — o-^w — 

n. Iiravx^fftty 8Woi(in 0*011 X^». vi.©— o-^w — wi-w — 

o. fiapnd ¥ ^ t4kpop 9t^«t 96f»mp ityaXfUU wi.w-.wi.w — o-^w — wJ.w 

p. w6wot 96ft0p r4M wukeueiun vvfifuytis Muioit. w-iw— wi.w— o-^w— w^w — 

q. 4;iov 8^ inuoni inuai^ MTrr', ft irop^^i. wi.w — o^*' — 0-^www-.I.w — 

r. liitip T9 AtfmtStp tbrpa^iffTaTOP iwfjudirmp, wi.v — o-^w— viw — o-w — 

906. The iambic tbimxter is, next to the dactylic hexameter, the most 
widely used of all rhythms. It prevails especially in tragedy and comedy, the 
dramatic dialogue being mainly carried on in tUa measure. Of the six feet 
which compose it, the last is always an iambus. For the iambus in the odd 
feet (1st, 8d, 6th), a spondee is very often used, and sometimes a dactyl : but 
a dactyl in Uie fifth foot is ahnost unknown in tragedy. Each of the first fire 
feet may also be a tribrach, and, in comedy, an anapaest In tragedy, the 
anapaest is generally confined to the first foot : in a proper name, however, it 

Digitized by 



884 DACmJO BHTTHMB. [906 

may oocnr in any foot except the aizth. ^The most eommon eu&gana are 

those which divide the third and fourth feet (penihernhneral and hepkthemim&' 
rol caesuras), especially the fonner. But caesuras of leai frequent uae are 
found at almost every place in the verse : the least approved are those which 
divide the verse into equal hahrca or thirds. When the fifth foot is divided by 
a caesura, the syllable before that caesura (if it is not a monosyllabic word) is 
almost always short. 

a. In the trimeter scazon (hobhlinff) — a satiric verse — ^the rhythm is modi* 
fied by the use of a spondee for the last (even) foot : this makes the verse un- 
rhythmical (908), with humorous effect. 

/ 90*7. a. The catalsctic tetbam etkr is often used ^y the line (898 a) in 
comedy : it generally has a caesura after the fourth foot Two syncopated 
forms of the tetrameter, 906 o, p (with fifth thesis omittedX were also used by 
the line. 

b. The DiUKTKR, covpLETK and catalxctic, and the catauctio Tuxmn, 
though sometimes used by the line, were more employed in lyric strophes 
(898 d^. Systems (897 b) are sometimes found, in which a succesmon of com- 
plete dimeters (with, here and there, a monometer) is closed by a dimeter ca- 

c. In a few instances, we find iambic tripodiea which (contrary to 908) ad- 
mit a spondee in the second or third foot. These are sometimes called iambio 
iKhunrkopic (limping) : cf. 906 a. 

, Dactylic Bhythma. 

908. The fundamenial foot is the dactyl Bat a spondee is vexy often 
used instead ^892) : at the end of a verse, it is mnch more common than 
the dactyl. A proedeusmatic^ used for the dactyl (892), is rare, and only 
found in lyric poetry. The rhythmic accent is on the first pliable A 
each foot. 

909. Specimens of dactylic rhythms : 

a. dimeter (almost always logaoedic, c£ 917 a) : 

fioipa 9t^K€U X w w X-. 

b,c. trimeter; c, catalectic (penthemimerU) : 

d, e, f. tetrameter; e, syncopated; f, ca|al. {hephihemimeruy. 

obKifjuiif aUl^/iafra rtxpih (e). JLwwXo-^wwi.^ 

lAi^tr' ^O^AMIW a^MVUF (f ). i.vvJ.wwXv»J. 

g, h. pentameter; h, syncopated and catal. : 

AXAJk fidraif 6 irp6^/AOf del v^roy l{ci (g). i.wvJ.wwXwwi.ww J.. 

fl Bpvhf 1l ikdfns iicpoKiftMS (h), I.wviiWwi.o-vwJL 

i. elegiac pentameter ( = catal. trimeter repeated) : 

atffx^ 8^ ^iKota ^pMT4pois Mvou. i— i.ww±o-vwXwl 

J, k. hexameter ; k, tpondaie (mih spondee as fifth foot^ : 

iAX* tdn6s Tf m(3i)0«, jcoI tfAXovt fiSpv* Xao^r. X— ZwwI.wwX— XwvX— 
k. Wwr* oJt', tijiix^*^ ^*^' r^Kos, tlk^Xovdas. i. —1. « v X w w X w vX~X .- 
I, m. octameter (= tetram. repeated); m, catalectic: 

2 x6woh ^ fMydlMf ityti^Sa re ToKunroif6/tov /9iOT«if fata^wn i y wy (1). 

Digitized by 



Scajwr^oar m&iiJifrotw wooUna^ai f^funa mii mpvrpifffwe^ hcihf (m). 

The following are specimens of cohpouvd forms (dactylic and trochaic) : 
n. tetrameter, and trochaic monomcter : 

o. trimeter, and trochaic dimeter catalectio : 

p. trimeter (with anacrusis, and syll. anceps), and ithyphallic : 

010. The HEROIC HEZA¥XTER (900 j) IS more nsed than any other rhythm, 
being the established measure for epic, didactic, and bucolic poetry. Of the 
nz feet which compose it, each may be at pleasure a dactyl or a spondee ; ex- 
cept the last foot, which can nerer be a dactyl. In the remaining feet, how- 
ever, the dactyl is the preyailing form ; especioUy in the fifth, where hardly 
one line in twenty has the spondee fOOO k). 

The third foot is commonly diyiaed by a caesura : this may be either hum- 
ctt/tfM, !. e. after the long arsis of a dactyl or spondee (pentJumimeral caesura), 
— or feminine^ L e. between the two shorts of a dactyl Often also there is a 
caesura after the arus of the fourth foot {Jiephthemimeral caesura) ; or at the 
end of the fourth foot (called Imeolie caesura, from its frequent occurrence in 
bucolic poetry). Beside these, there are other caesuras, of less frequent use, 
at almost every place in the hexameter. 

911. The ELEGIAC DISTICH was not confined to the elegy, but was used for 
many other kinds of composition. Its first line is the hexameter, containing, 
of course, two complete dactylic tripodies : its second (000 1) is a verse contain- 
log two catalectio tripodies, which are always separated by a caesura. Of this 
verse the first two feet may be dactyls or spondees at pleasure. The third foot 
consists of an accented long syllable (anii) : the time of its omitted thesis was 
made up by a caesural pause. The fourth and fifth feet are always dactyls : 
the sixth, like the third, consiflts of an accented salable. The usual name om- 
tameter was founded on a mistaken division into five feet, the third of wnSch 
was always a spondee, while the fourth and fifth were anapaests. 

^ . . Anapaestic Mkythms. 

912. The fundamental foot is the a/napaett. Bat a wondee or a d4uitfl 
18 very often used (892) instead ofthe anapaest; much less often, %pfih 
eeUumnatic The rhythmic accent fidls on the final long syllable cf the 
anapaest or spondee, and on the penultimate short of the dac^l or prooe- 
leusmatic (894 a). An anapaestic ''-meter " (890) consists of two net. 

013. Specimens of anapaestic rhythms : 
a,b. monometer; b, catalectic: 

&«oXf «i !&*, iaroktis (a). w w X w w .1 

w4kvs ifhi (b). w w i — 

c, d. tripody (orosocft'oe); d, catalectic: 

taXitfiufmin crv^kM (e). vw^ww.Lvw± J 

e. dimeter catalectic {pan emia c): 

vdrra yiip ff^y rrr4\Mfrau — <lv— XwX— 

Digitized by 



. f. dimeter (acataleetie): 

/ &y ftiroxcvorroc Ka0Ta\las. -.^w-i.-.i.wwi. 

. . J' ' g. tetr&meter cataleotic (= dimeter and dim. cataL)^ 

wpitrxT€ rhtf ¥ow rots bAwifrots ^/uy, rois miy iovfft^ 
rott aJ^fdois, rotaw iylip^St roh ft^ira /aiBofUyouny» 

..^w — Jl — XwJL— X — ^wwJlw 
»J.wwXi-.«Sw — J» — JLwvJLwwXw 

914. ANiPAESTic 8T8TE1I8 (89*7 b) are composed of any number of complete 
dimeters (and, here and there, a monometer), with a catidectic dimeter (paroe- 
miac) always added as a close. They are widely used in tragedy and comedy, 
— ^more widely than any other rhythm, after the iambic trimeter. They are of 
two kinds, ttricter uid freer systems. The stricter systems diifer from the freer 

in these respects : a. They avoid a succession of four short syllables : henoe 

a proceleusmatic almost neyer appears in them, or a dactyl followed by an an- 
apaest. b. In the dimeter, they have a re^lar caesura, generally at the 

end of the second foot, but sometimes in the middle of the third. c. In the 
paroemiac, they allow a dactyl to stand only as the first foot, and almost al- 
ways have an anapaest for the third. 

d. The freer eyetems are not subject to these restricUons. They sometimes 
consist, for lines together, of spondees only, or dactyls only ; and sometimes 
they have two or more paroemiacs in succession. They are much less used 
than the stricter systems, and are mainly confined to the expression of com- 
plamt or mourning. 

915. The CATALKcnc tetrameter is much used by the line (898 a) in comedy. 
It consists of a dimeter and paroemiac. These two parts are almost always 
separated by a caesura ; and each of them is subject, in general, to the rules 
Just giren for dimeters and paroemiacs in the stricter anapaestic systems (914). 


Logaoedic Bhythma. 

916. Dactyls are often mixed with trochees so as to form— not a com- 
pound rhythm (dactylic arid trochaic, 909 n, o, p) — ^but a simple rhythm, 
which is called logadedic. The dactyls may stand before the trocheeSy or 
after them, or interposed between them ; but trochees never stand be- 
tween the dactyls. Each trochee may be resolved into a tribrach; but 
a dactyl (unless it closes the rhythm) is very seldom contracted to a sfoi^ 
dee, A trochee (or tribrach) standing as the first foot, is called a wtBU 
(step), and is treated with great freedom : a spondee is very often used, 
instead of it, as basis : less often, an iambus or anapaest (and, in Aeolic 
poetry, even a pyrrhicy A logaoedic verse may have an anacrusis (long 
or short) prefixed to its first foot. Also a double anacrusis (two short 
syllables) may be used, in which case the verse is called logaoedic afto- 
paestic The rhythmic accent falls on the first syllable of each foot. 

a. If two trochees precede the first dactyl, the second also is called a basis, 
but it is not treated with the same freedom as the first : only a spondee can 
be used here for the trochee (or tribrach). b. A spondee may be used, in- 
stead of a trochee, as the second foot, even when the first foot is a dactyl 

& Further, when a v^rse ends with an arsis, a spondee may be used, instead 
of a trochee, before that arsis. Thus 

Digitized by 


918] JJOQAXmsaO BHTTHK8. 887 

C. rif ^Affwr/M^MMS 0*7^*. i._ J.wwi.-i. 

d. Troehaie rhythms used in near connection with logaoedio, may have 
bases and anacruses, such as those above described ; as also a spondee, instead 
of a trochee, before a final arsis (e). Thus 

917. The following are specimens of logaoedic rhythms toith one dactyl. 
The Pherecratean is called first or neondy according as the dactyl is its first 
or second foot : the Glyconic is called firH^ second^ or thirds by a similar dis- 
a, b. Adonic (dactyl and trochee); b, with anacrusis : 

o65^F *r' ticfi (a). i-wiw 

TOioIiSc /StXco-o-iy (b). - ± - - ± - 

.» .L w w J^v 

f ^ w^ w 

C d. Pherecratean (first, second); e, f, catalectic: 
hrrmr^Xouri B^/Scut (c). - ** 

94ierat -e M /uir^ (d). Xwi.wwi.v 

O^e^cffi xouclKois (e). J. w v i v i. 

ai>TrK^&ry«x/cu(f). ivi-wi. 

g, h. Pherecratean with anacrusis (loffooedie paroemiae) : 

iyi, Si t^ra Ka»€^f^ (g). w i.vwi.wi.w 

fCSofoV fip/IOTI vIkW (h). - ^viwwi.v 

i, j. Pherecratean catal with anac. (logaoedic protwUae) : 
l^ yweai fiporAy (i\ w i.wwi.**i. 

k, L m. Glyconic (first, second, third): 

^i,Karkrhyp^lay{k). 7"';-^"f"7 

Upws wap^4yios irA^ (1). t"^r'"7'" , 

i/i4yas6Kfiosir* iip€rd{m). Avvi.wi.vvi 

n, 0, p. Glyconic with anacrusis, or added thesis, or both : 

ceSo^or 2 p4oi KafjJrmy (n). - f^-/"^/-, 

M.MM iit a«A»AnAiu* ^tufiirrmy (q\ X-.Xwwi.wi.w 

rdy ^ SfpitowvKau ^ea4inmif io 

ftXh^t liJkv iipalytdr' & trtXdita (p). - i.w wi.wi.wi.w 
q. Phalaecton(hendecaay liable): , , , 

iv/iifnou jkXoJI ri {f<|>oj <>op<<r«. 

r. Sapphic (hendecasyllable): . . v . . 

WOUClJ^pOt^ i3cU«T"A^pO«(Ta.- i.wi.wi.wwi.wi.w 

8. Alcaic (hendecasyllable), begins with anacrusis : 

ob xip^ KOKotffi ^fihp ixtTp4rtty, - Xwi.wi.wwi.wi. 

918. The following have more than one dactyl: 

a. wap»ivos MoKlfutp ydfutP, XwwXwwi.wi. 

b. lj^69sitfUHpdrOlP4fU»yTO. i.wwi.ww-w-v 

0. fi4kur4irftHtnKaXXi6m. ^-i.wwi.vw- 

d. A^IMS Kme ipOS ZfwAlf iflVW^. wwi.vw-ww-.ww 

e. olwf a^{Xfir«uA^aiitai&Aifc^ca. i.wi.wwi.wwi.ww-v 

t ^pOS iuf^n69KrOS iwdSoy ipX0fi4p0tO. iw-ww-vv-vv-w 

g. iro^^w T^y icf^aAAy Ti y lwf»&f i^M^w. i.wvi.vvi.vv-wXw 
The forms d, e, f, belong to the so-caUed Aeolie dactyU; in d, the basis is 
a pyrrhio, and i/jorw^ stands for a dactyl by 897. The form g is caUed 


Digitized by 



919. The following hare a doMe tmaenmt (logaoedie aiiftpaestic): 

a. l#cfr«^0rff fy 2 jc^poi. wwi.wwi.v~ 
h, rh 9h avyyw^s ififi4fiainp. wwi.wwi.wi.w 
C icar^Adfufof » I8f lifot ^/t^oiHv. wwXwwi.wXwi. 

d. 'EKipoy 4K6ff9TO Tpt^S. wwi.wi.wwi.wi. 

e. 8t« rhw r^pannv Krat^iniP. wwi.wi.o — wwi. 

f. r£yi r«r vtfpof , 2 ju^oifMi eqJ9a- wwi.wwi.wi.wi.w 

The form e loses the second tfaeos by sjncope. Trochaic fonna wUb 

doable anacrusis are also regarded as logaoedio anapaeatio : 

g. KtfJLMf 9^ Tpls, wwi.w- 
h. 96kUft ^^* AmC^X^* wwXw.w 

i. Zt^vpov ylyarros atipt^ wwi.w — w — w 

i, XaplrmF iicmri t6i^ Kmfuiw* wwi.w— w — w—w 

920. Stncopatsd forms are very numerous. They often give rise to diori' 
ambi or eretic9» The following are specimens : 

A, ruuTiXlas i^^ras. i-wwi-oi-wi. 

b. ob i^9i^t riy^m K6yow. -i.wwi.oi.wi. 

c. i^mnnu it^ytuwrdras ifAoL — i.wi.o — «**—« — 

d. Bojc^f^^ t' l^(\s^cy ai!xM^* i.wwi.oi-wwi-wi.w 
Some rerses consist of mere than one terUa: thus 

e. first Pherecratean catal., repeated: 

Mpa r^/Kanwy''linni^w iKOwiniF. i.wwi.wi.oi'wwiwi. 

f. Asclepiadean (=Pherecr. cataL, second + first): 

hrtiH^ fUyaif i^Kov Bafiukmytots. »i-i.wwi.oi.wwi.wi. 

g. greater Asclepiadean (has choriambus between two Pherecr.) : 
/iifihv &XAo ^vTc^ff^t irp^€pw Up9ptoif iLfiir4\», 


h. Priap^an (= Glyconic and Pherecratean) : 

firfityijs 8* 6A6k9ws Iittm wdrtf ytoKsd^ i.wi.wwi.wi.o—--i.ww±w 
i. Eupolidean (= Glyconic and trooh. dim. cataL) : 

ft ^6fiwoi KwrnpA wftbs ^/ms iXtv^ptn, i.wi.wi.wwi.o«^— i-wi-vi. 

921. Phibsciutean verses are sometimes combined in systems (897 b): 
but much more frequent are Gltconio btbtkms closing with a Pherecratean. 

a. In antistrophic comporition, when one form of the Pherecratean (first 
or second) is used in a particular line of the strophe, the other form is sometimes 
found in the corresponding line of the antistrophe. The second and third 
forms of the Glyconic may correspond to each other in the same way, and 
either of them may correspond to the logaoedie form in 918 a. Sometimes a 
first Glyconic corresponds to a choriambic dimeter (924 b, c) or to an iambic 
dimeter ; and a first Pherecratean, to an iambio dim. cataL These irregulari- 
ties are mostly rare : only the interchange of a second and third Glyconic is 
frequent The rhythms in which they occur are termed poltschemaxist 

Cretic Hhythms. 

922. The eretie oflen oocors, as the result of sjmoope (895), in trochaic, 
iambic, and logaoedie rhythms. Examples may be seen in 901, 905, 920. 
The name "cretic rhythms " is frequently applied to such verses ; espe- 
cially when the ortf^ie— either in its proper form, or as resolved (892) intc 

Digitized by 



ft|>atf(m,j^eor/<mrtA^H)c(mrs repeatedly in the same yer^ Bat there 
ape also rhythms, more properly called hy that name, in which the cretic 
(or, hy resolation, the first or fourth paeon) stands as the fundamental 
foot. It is not always easy to distinguish hetween these two classes. 
The following will serye as specimens : 
a, b. dimeter catalectic ; b, with anacraos : 

jc Jt' 4\ayt^p€t (a). i. v w w i. w 

fuKp6tf yt KUfovfjxy (b). — I. v — i. v 

o, d. dimeter (acatal.) ; d, with anacmste : 

M€t^ iC^w iyt& (c). iw-lw- 

2 Z€V, Tl irOTf XPW^M*^ (d). — i.wwvl.vww 

e. trimeter: 

&s i/i\ \afiovm rhy 9iifUrny. i.wvwXw-. ±v. 

f. tetrameter catalectic: 

obK^Tt KceniX^ irdKiy tftxaH^ Mt fdcovf, iwvwi.vwwJ.wwwi.v 
g. tetrameter (acatalectic) : 

Korartfui rouruf linrtvci tcaTT^ftara, ttw «— iw— J.w^ JLw— 

h. dimeter, preceded by trochaic dimeter : 

M4tf icrt ^plopywamhi hfMx^^poy, ±w— wXw-.vI.wvwJLw — 

i. pentameter: 

<rod y iuco^ufuvs &iroXc7* Kord <r9 x&aoiiw rois aX^oii. 

928. The rhythmic acemt falls on the first long syllable of the cretic (894 a) : 

at the same time there is a certain stress, though weaker, on the second long. 

a. Occasionally a spondaic bans (that is, a syncopated cretic) is prefixed to 

a cretic rhythm. In some instances, a troehaie dijpidy answers to a cretic, in 

corresponding lines of strophe and antistrophe. 

Ch>OTi€mibiG Rhythms. 

924. The clwriamJiviM oocnrs in Greek Terse, not as the fondamental 
foot of a distinct rhythm, hut only as the resuft of syncope (895) in dac- 
tylic, anapaestic^ and logaoedic rhythms. For examples of choriamhi 
thus produced, see 909 e, h, 919 e, 920. Yet the name '* choriamhic " is 
used as a conyenient designation fof verses which are made up either of 
jpuTtf choriamhi, or of choriamhi mixed with ianibie dipodies. The follow- 
mg will serye as specimens : 
a, b, c. dimeter ; b and c begin with iambic dipody : 

2 xarplff 2 8w/ii t* ifi6y (a). -Lww-.i.ww — 

9«w^ai^ i;trttXovrrat iwup (c). — «Jvw-.lww — 

d. trimeter: 

€l 6h Kvpu rts v^Xjos 9Unwr6ko§y, i-wv-^ i^ww. Xw-. 

e. tetrameter: 

£ tetrameter hypercatalectic (891b): 

•LvVbm JmV%^mm XvWm* XwW— «> 

Digitized by 


880 IONIC BHYTHM8. [924 

g. dimeter, and fint Pherecratean: 

iunarirofim 9ii rplhs ''Oka/any 9r€p6ytinn Ko^^oit. 

Ionic Mhythras. 

925. The fundamental foot is the ionic a minore (v w i. ~). The rhjUi- 
mic accent falls on the first long syllable. The two shorts may be con- 
tracted into a long ; and of the longs, each one may be resolyed into two 
shorts. The verse, when catalectic, ends in an anajxiegt 

a. Anaclasis. Two trochees (- v - v) may be substituted for the two 
longs of one foot with the two shorts of the next ^i-- v w). This change 
is very frequent, especially in Anacreontic verses: its effect is to produce 
a breaking up (anaeUsie) of the ionio rhythm, wMch passes into the 

926. Specimens of ionic rhythms : 

a, b. dimeter catalectic ; b, with anaclaais : 

SurcXbf KOfn^hs Mip (a). w w i — w w i 

96\9Ay T* hycurrdfffis (b). v w X v — w .1 

c, d. dimeter (acatalectic) ; d, with anadasis: 

rlerai 8* alo\6firiris (c\ wwi.— wwi.— 

iroXiol fA^y iiyXp ff 817 (d). wwXw — wl.— 
e. trimeter catalectic : 

Kardpas 028itr<(8a fiXw^t^yos, wwi._wwi.-wwi. 

f, g, h. trimeter (acatalectic); g, h, with anadasis : 

arparhs €ls hnliropw ytiroya x^P^ (^)' wwZ—wwi.— wwi.— 

Kveis iK ic6ymy y4yon^, oiiBoftiL r£r8c (g). wwi.w — wi.— wwi— 

&xoAct^eU 6wh firrrphs ivro^dri (h). wwi.-wwi.w-wi.- 

i, J. tetrameter catal. {Galliambic); j, with anacl. : 

dtu^^ KwrifitXu ^paly hptlouri fiopdy (i). wwi— wwi.— wwi.— wwX 

4>^lS ofijC iB»K9 liivXV A^F "KXl^i arifJM (j)wwi.w — wi.-wwi.w-wi. 

k, L tetrameter (acatalectic); 1, with anaclasds : 

8/x« 8* &?Ji»y /My6fpmy c{/U, rh yiip 9vsa'€fih tpyoy (k). 

WW — — Wwi.>i«WW — ^WW — •« 

Tcerdpny re iral r€K6yTwy y6os Mucos uarc^ci (1). 

wwi.w — wi. — wwi.w — wX — 

RxH. m. An ionic Terse may show the two forms (without anaclasis and 
with it) in corresponding lines of strophe and antistrophe. The rhythm is then 
termed polj/»ehematist (cf. 921 a). 

927. Sometimes the last long of the ionio is omitted^ even in the middle of 
a Terse : thus 

a. ToK&yofi^y iSiCfuu wwio^wi.— 

b. ^ptyhs oiwt' h^Xtiffti KOKlay, wwi-o^wi.- wwX 

c. fliiaaiy Ka>Jd<rroun Kntolytuf, wwi.— — i-owi.— 
Sometunes the fint short of the ionic is irregularly lengthened, but not at 

the beginning of a Terse : thus 

d. T^piytdoyrai woXmoL mvX.-~wX— 

Digitized by 



Dochmiac and Bacchic Bhythms. 

928. The doehmitu oonsifits of a hacchltu with a following iambut 
Qwi.- wi.}. The rhythmic aeeent falls on the first long of the baochius : 
there is also a secondary accent on the long of the iambus. Each of the 
two shorts (in the bacchius and iambus) may be lengthened ; and each 
of the three longs may be resolved into two shorts. These liberties give 
rise to a great Tariety of forms, most of which are shown in the follow- 
ing specimens : ^i 

a. UtTp6nro\oi, wi.— wl. 

b. iy tJ t$5« ^v. — i.— wi. 
C. rt /*• ouK kmcdoM, vX— — J. 

d. ixbtit *\rptlZai. - JL- «i. 

e. VTiwrSwtiow \tw^y, w «t w — vJ. 

f. SovAoo^vas lhr€p, — «tw— wi. 

g. fi€iroXafi€i K4m^. « "^ « - 

h. 9\a(6fMvow Ktwrirmw, -. A v — — i. 

1. tfrrroy Iti ff* XP^» w <i w w w w i. 

j. ^fi leoXhs 55« A€i6f. * — »& w v w w i. 

k. &A/ivy^y M v6rroy, — itwww — ± 

1. W^XOV MfidK^S. wiwwv v^v 

m, olfirorff icaraA^iftoi'. —itwvww^fcw 

n. iaeirfvi^ iicrSwioy. w»tv- 

0. rh¥ KOfrapar6raroy, —Aw— w i w 

p. 0^ t', 5 AtoycWs. wiww wi. 

q, fiy ai&4^f &rc». -i.ww vi. 

r. Tvpdyyovvd&€a, wi.- wAv 

Rkx. 8. The dochmii are used in passages which express great mental agi- 
tation. They are often cembined in dknettrSf or longer eysUiM (897 b). 

929. Other bacchic rhtthms are little used in Greek poetry, and only in 
connection with dochmii. Thus we find a bacchic 

a. dimeter {docJuniae hypercataUetie) : 

Xopw^rt^ kimvXois, *'X— wX — 

b. trimeter catalectic : 

mtXflufiy TpoYttviir6pvw, «X- wi.- wi. 

e. tetrameter: 

ft^ fu KoifUtr^tty T^y Bvs9alfM^^Ai^, _ Aw - wl.- -X- wX- 

Digitized by 





Note. The references are made in all cases to the 9eeti<m9y sot the pages^ 
of the Orammar. The letters ff^ placed after the number of a section, show 
that the same subject extends into the following sections. 

For peculiarities of yerb-formation, a special Index (^Ysbbs has been 
giyen in section 451. 

A, vow. 7 flf ; quant. 86 ff. 
ct, c, 0, interch. 25. 834 a. 

883. 88*7 a. 889. 897 a; 

a, 1, 27. 
a after c, i, p, 29. 126 a. 

126. 184. 207 a. 835 ff. 
afori7 24Db.29D.125l>, 

1. 134 D. 809 D. 835 D. 

382 b. [388 B. 

a for 1} 24 D a. 125 D, 8. 
a from ao, a», see aOf aw. 
a from «, see e. 
atocu24Dc. ra,d. 

atoc 168 D. 1821). 8701) 
atoi}28. 125ff. 134.809. 

835ff. 372 b. 881-2. 387 

a. 400 m, n. 
a conn. vow. 849 ff. 400 h. 

410 D. 411 D. [584 b. 
a- priv. 483 ; in adj; w. gen. 
•a quant. 130. 134. 183. 

-a ace. sing. 154. 157. 171. 

1951; Toc. sing. masc. 

186; 1150. 138. 

154. 195 e. 
•A gen. sing, for ov 136 d. 
-a adv. 227. 

fdiphth. llff. [870 Da. 
aa to A 82 ; aa, of, for &, f, 
ieyii^6s comp. 228, 1 ; adv. 

€0 227; Tovro, iracmr 

itfrriy, 548. 
&7araicr/» w. part. 800. 
&7io/uu 419 D,l. 
ieyawdu w. dat. 611a; w. 

part. 800. 

hyyiXXw pass. pers. 777 ; 

w. part. 797. 
&7€8^861. [D.411D. 
&7«rfw 432, 1.867 Da. 384 
Aytvaros KtucAy 584 c. 
iyilfws {cms) 147. 
&7<y^(», -riftf, 424D,1. 
&yKdK7i 199 D. 
iyyodct w. gen. 570 ; w. par. 

799; Irpntriirt 24 Dc. 
StyyoUf 611. 
iyyvfu 442, 1. 28 D. 812. 

822. 887 a. 417. 
&7K(6s218. \jni^y 20ZD. 
ityoodwt. art. 580 b; 
iyds 457 c. 
iyp6fifyoi 884 D. 
iyp6swt. art. 530 b. 
ityp^tpos, &ypwSf 221 D. 
2(^1, -ov, compar. 229 D ; 

w. gen. 589. [mid. 689. 
6yv 424, 1. 849 D. 384; 
i.ywlCofJuu mid. 692; Td- 

Kny 547 D. 
&5 (&My») 437, 1. 
&5cA4>({s TOO. sing. 141 a. 
&840-C1C, iOfjK^St 818 D. 
&5tjc^« w. two ace. 555; 

w. part. 801 ; pres. for 

pf. 698. 
Myara for Myeeroy 518 

a; &9^yaroy (fy792a. 

(Hm. &€(»«) 879. 

MS xpfUfjtArwy 584 b. 

oc (ai}) to A 82 ; to t} 32 D 

g. 870 Dg. 871c; to 

370 Da, 
oc (ia^,&e<ra) 449 D, 7. 
cwi to f 84 ; to « 85 a ; to 

p82Dg. 870Dg; to a 

871a; toof 870Da. 

ktueiis 85 a. 488 b. 
&f|c»436,8. [fut.375. 
'*• denom. verbs 472 f; 
ai7, a]7, to A, a, 82. 84 ; to 

17, 17, 870 D g. 871 c 

401 i. 
knZ6y, hriBoif 194 o. 
*A»dya2^J)b. [-^i 206. 
'Ad^raC<204; -i|;^cy208; 
iAK4» 809. 
&70- A^^cv w. ^4 748 b. 
&dp^os, -<(a, 207 a. 
"Adws 148; 'A;^<^s 146 D. 
cullff; fora24Dc; for 

o (tf) in comp. 221 c ; to 

-at elided 70 D ; short for 

accent 95. 865 ; 2 sing. 

for cm 863. 401 c 
ol for c2 721. 
ou8/o;tai, cdfSo/uu, 448, 1. 

413; w. i^cc.544a. 
'Al9i7S ('AiSi7f ) 65 D. 202 D, 


twy^h 202 D, 22; iw 

alSoTos 455 a. 
ca9<£f 181-2. 
tO^t for d;^ 721. 
oli^p 152 p. 201 a. 
ciMis 85 a. 488 b. 
-aiy dual 195 b. 
-atya 1 decL 125 b. 

Digitized by 




aJylCo/ttu, aSwntu^ ^20 D, 4. 
c^n/uu 440 D, 6. 
•aitnf denom. 472 g. 
aip4t0 450, 1. 812. 821 D; 

w. two ace. 656; mid. 

691; pass. 694 c. 
ar/H»432,2. 35a.382a. 
•oist 'tutri(p), dat. pi. 129. 
-awa for -«^a 362 D. 
aur^dtfofuu {aa^/uu) 436, 

1 ; w. aoc or gen. 644 

c. 576; w. part 799. 
ahrxp6s compar. 222. 
tdffx^fMi w. ace. 644 a ; 

w. dat. 611a; w. part. 

or ioC 800. 802. 
ahdw w. two ace. 663. 
cdriof w. gen. 684 d. 
<if« 309. 

iucdnrra 136 Da. 
aK-ax442D, 16. 
&icaxf«^yor46D. S21D. 
iuciofAOi 419, 8. 
-dxis adr. 259. 
iucfi^i 46 a ; iucfi^p 652. 
iuco{v)i 39. 
&coirif 186 D. 
iuc6kou»of w. gen. 687 d; 

w. dat 602. 
iucovd(o/uu 423, 1. 
iico^423, 1.311. 321. 379. 

886 a. 421, 22; w. gen. 

644 b. 576 ; in* comp. 

584 c ; w. part 799 ; am 

called 540 ; pres. 698. 
tucpen'ot compar. 221 d. 
iucpodofuu 336 a; w. gen. 

576. [630 b. 

iucp^Kis 482; wt art 
tuepof w. art 686. 
&r«y 82 De. 483 b; gen. 

ox (ttXM, idXtiy) 432 D, 22. 
iXdo/tai 321 D. 867 D. 413. 
iJiyttwis compar. 223, 8. 
Axaim, -adw, Hitrjcw, 436 


eEXfi^) 167. 
iUMcrpiM^y 152 p. 
ii\4ofuut i\9^fuUf 426 D, 

7. 381 D. 
Aa/« 419, 9. [608. 

iJJl»€ta 126 D. 466 a ; dat 
d\iMt 179. 217. 
!Udo/iai422D, 19. 
IXir23D; w. gen. 684 b. 
&X/<rKo;iai447, 1. 23 D. 312. 

408,12; w. gen. 677 b; 

w. part 799. 
aXK (AA^|») 447 D, 8. 
&Mf&Ajc/, 199D. 
iMeu^y 153 m. 
&AAi 868; after compar. 

661; oh fiiiy (juirroi) 

hJjjL 848 e ; hXXk ydp, 

870 d. [428,1. 

hXXiir<rm 294. 284. 887 b. 

&XX4A«if 287. 672 b. 

tKKo^i 203. [D, 33. 

aUXojuai 432, 3. 382 a. 408 

JkKXos 59. 236 ; w. art 524. 
628 a. 638 e ; appoB. 538 
e ; w. gen. 584 g ; JkKXas 
<Ca\o 600 b; /liytoros 
(fiSvos) r&y SxXaty 686 
c; fff rif &\Xos 764 a; 
HWos fi 860 b ; iXko rt 
(ff) 508 b. 829 a; rriUAo 
ff, o^rKAX'ff, 508 b. 

A?iKiMr§ 204. 

&XA^w73D. [re Mar 857. 

&XAMS, r^y liX. 509 a ; &\. 

&X<&»cy 203 D. 

£X5 74d. 172 a. 

l^^ro, a^To, 408 D, 33. 

321 D. 
&X^K« (-<{C«, -(Ui>) 447, 9. 
&A^| 164. 
JEA«»f 199. 
i;ia70c. 227; w. dat 602 

a; w. part. 795c. 
Afu^a (Bfio^a) 66 D. 
a)ia{<rtf f 139 c. [801. 

hftaprdam 486, 8 ; w. part. 

tmfipvr {oftaprdiw) 436 D,2. 
i^^233D. [222 a. 

iiiub^y (iya^s) 228, 1. 
&fieA/» w. gen. 676. 
afi4s, -^Wf -a^, 233 D. 
^4r»p 483 a. 
V<^^/uu 413. 
ififi€s, -i{y), -#, 288 D, 79 D. 
ii/Aw^/tmy w. gen. 684 c. 
ifUstkfUs, 238 D. 
^JKiriXos 139. [6. 

ifiiw4x»t^ 'iirx», 66 d. 488, 
i/iirurj(^4ofAai 438, 5. 332. 
iifarkeuclaxw 447, 4. 
iinry^dnr (irr4») 3961). 
&/iv/i«if27. [411 D. 

&M^''« mid. 689 a ; -d;^ 
ifupi 80 D. 102 D b ; w. case 

637 flf. 
iLfA^t4imftu 440, 1. ; w. two 

ace. 553; perf. 712. 
a^rsSOD. [▼. dat 602. 
ilt^tefifirr4w w. gen. 577 c ; 
^/i^Jrcpof 265 ; -or, -a, 502 

b ; w. art. 688 a. 
hfupoT4p«»^€y w. gen. 689. 
ifi^ 255. 637; w. art 

538 a. 
ay 5th class 329 b. 436-7. 
iK- priv. 488. [D. 

-oir from -iuy gen. pL 128 
iy (o) 873 ; w. cond. sent 

744 ff; w. pot opt 722. 

748 ; w. hyp. ind. 746 b ; 

w. fut ind. 710 b; w. 

snbj. for fut 720 e; w. 

final &f, HmtSf 741 ; w. 

subj. in rel. sent 757 if; 

w. inf. 783 ; w. part 808. 
&'fora&r68b. [635-6. 
&ycil02Db. 112; w. case 
&yal02Db. 112. 615 a. 
iya YOC. of &ra| 158 D C. 
i^afiuiarKOficu 445. 692. 
kyaytyy^Kw 445 D, 4. 
iiyayKcuos pers. constr. 777. 
iofdyicn w. inf. 767. 
iiya}dcKa9f &yaX^«, 447, 2. 
iLyafAifiy4i<rK» w. two obj. 


Digitized by 




&w(|ios w. gen. 684 e. 
&i'B<bw4S7, 1.28 D. 818. 

&rfv w. gen. 626. 781. 


iufix^/uu 814 ; w. part. 800. 

Mmi»« 821 D. 


&i^pcs SticaoTfli 600 a; 

iat^p 68 c. 
bidyMMrar 1 18 ; om*d 604 c 

606 c. 606. 609 b; &^. 

/Airoueos 600 a. 
ijniifu 403 D ; w. gen. 680. 
ianlytt, -rv/u^ 424, 16. 812. 

822. 887 b. 
hvofutmt w. dat 608. 
h9opH» 314. 
Hrra 622. ♦ 

&rr(iM 870 Da. 
lSarr€ for ^(iyr« 861. 
hnixofuu w. gen. 674 b. 
lSarn\v 622. 
&rTa02Db; w.ca8e622; 

after compar. 661. 
itn'utff^f iyrucfws, 80 D. 

492 h. 622. • 
drrnroi4ofMU w. gen. 677 c. 
dvwrrSs w. superl. 664 b. 
cly^» (dr^itf, &j^w) 419, 

17. 344 D; dir^af 788. 
fbw adT. 229. 686; w. 

gen. 689. 
lbwTcrb419D, 17. 
iamya 409 D, 11. 818 D. 

361 D. 
cSyeSTfwr 146. 

(Myv/Aos 27. [767 a. 

&(iof w. gen. 684 e ; w. inf. 
ao, <«, intevch. 26. 186 D 

b. 147.870Dd. 
ao to w 82. 136 D b ; to Mi 

370 Da; to a 82 D h. 

134 D. 870 Dg; to co 

870 D a, d. 
-ao for *ov gen. 186 D b. 
optio y 34. 
a«t84 82De. 
fu>u to « 84; to 0« 870D 

a; to cov 370Dd. 
dx' for dxo- 73 D. 
dveeyoptvct 460, 8 a; w. 

part. 798. 
dmijfv/uu 440 D, 6. 
ims 218; w. gen. 684 b. 
dwaafrdo0 879 ; w. dat. 602. 
dxapivKm w. dat. 696 b. 
&wa5 w. art. 637. 
<2T^rwp 217 c. 

408 D, 19. 

timpos w. gen. 684 c. 
dirffx3^o/uu 486, 6. 
drtar4m w. dat. 696 b. 
&irA^of 208. 207a.268b. 
dT6 628 ; compar. 229. 
dmalyvftai 440 D, 6. 
droSl^fu 444, 7 ; w. gen. 

678 a; mid. 689 a. 
diro8i8pc(<rir« 444, 2; w. 

ace. 644 a. 
dvoMnTKw 444, 4. [d. 

iTo\ai» 379 ; w. gen. 674 
'AWAA»y 176 c. 172 b. 
kvovo4oiuu 418. 
hwopiw r< 647 c. 
&«-ooTcp/w w. two aec. 663 ; 

w. gen. 680 a. 
&iro^408D, 19. 
&«-o^r« w. part. 797. 
&To^c^yw w. gen. 677 b. 
h.T6xpH 404, 3. 
&irpciHif w. dat. 696 c. 
fivTM 427, 1 ; mid. 691 ; 

w. sen. 644 b. 674 b; 

kwriov 806 b. 
huwwrip^ 229. 
op stems in, 162b; nom. 

in, from st. in err, 167. 
op (fldfpw) 432, 2 ; {iipapl<r- 

K») 447 D, 16. 
ip for Upa 73 D. 866. 
&pa865. 112. 
apa828ff. 112. 
i^>ai6s 23 D. 
apcUA«ax404D, 9. 

338 D. 884 D. 408 D, 84. 
ApTMOi 1 D. 

apfr«y228, 1. [696 b 
M<r«w 444,10; w. dat 
Jipih^26;w. dat. 644 b. 
''Apiis 88 D. 202,1. 
-apioy nenL 466 a. 
kpwr^pd wt art. 630 b. 
&purrc^f 189 D. 
ipurroi {ieyt^s) 223, 1. 
apW» 419, 10. 
ip/i6rrwy ip/i6(t^ 480, 1. 
apy {iLpif6f, ipP9St) ^2, 2. 
iipifiofutt 413. 
jEjNa^ftai 442, 2. 
ap^ 419, 16. 370 Do. 
^(CC« 431, 1. 
&pra^ 218. 
{ip0>)y, <(fS^y, 217 b. 
*Apr€fus 168 d. 
^^, ip^Tw, 419, 18. 


^X« *24, 2 ; w. gen. 644 

b. 681 a; aor. 708;—- 

ApX^fJMi mid. 691; w. 

gen. 674 b; v. part. 

798; V tfp(»/i4u 739; 

kpx6iiwos 788. 
apAPT^f 26.466 c 
as stems in, 162 c. 18f ff. 
•af nom. from St. in err 168. 
-ds noans of number 268 d. 
"OS ace. pi. 164. 196 i. 
dffa 408 D, 18. 420 D, 10. 

449 D 7. 
jtoytcvof 221d.408D,44. 
doirfr coll. 614; hf \waff) 

dffoa 244c; hnra 246D. 
4<rH5p 178. 

iarpawTM subj. om. 604 c 
KtfTv 23 D. 186-6 ; wt. art. 

630 b. 
iurit^erw 864. 
ar stems in, 162 a. 166 ff. 
-aroi, -ctro, 366 D e. 392. 
ir^p 864,4. - 
i,Tafnr6s 67 D. 139 c 
Arc 876, 6 ; w. part. 796 d 
irtp w. gen. 626. 
irtpos 68 c. 
'Ar^ 40 b. 63 b. 

Digitized by 




-«ro for -vro 8 pL,B 
Arpcnr^f 67 D. 
hxpiiuis) 80 P. 
ftTTa244e; Arrc 246b. 
ovdiphth. llff. 
a3 8d4,S. 

a&{<bw, a0{«, 486, 8. 

anp {hrauplcTKOfiM) 447, 6. 

avfw {imufpdtt) 408 D, 19. 

a<;p<oy ; ^ atfp. 509 b. 

cArdp 864, 4. 

a^^«n}» 179. 

(Ort 864, 8. 

&M 18 a. 

oSrif 66 D. 

a^<(f 284. 668-9. 671. 
678-6.680; w. dat of 
accomp. 604; tebrht 6 
Mip and 6 Mip abr6s 
688b; ol airoi iiBuatK^ 
T9S 682 a; abrh rouro 
602 b; abr^ rovrtt 662 
a;—* aitT6t 688b; w. 
dat. 608; rmbrh rovro 
602 b. [690 a. 

aibrov gen. 688 a; adT. 

a^oD = iavrov 286. 

A^p^ w. •bj. 668. 680 a. 

ft^ oompar. 224 D. 

a^<r«430D, 8. 


iu^94c0 w. gen. 680. [e. 

iuf>i7lfu 408, 1 ; w. gen. 574 

&^^ 187 ; ii^wiif 187. 
klp^ffffci 481 D, 9. 
'Axouoi ID. 
ftxo^o compar. 221 D. 
&X^tfy> ax«^r, 442 D, 16. 
tx^lMt 422, 1. 418; w. 

dat. 611 a ; w. part. 800. 
•AxiA(\)€iJj40D. [892 D. 
ftx>^;iai 442 D, 16. 867 D b. 
ix/»i(j)70b. 80 D. 877,8; 

w. gen. 626. [870 JO d. 
CM», c<v, interch. 26. 128 D. 
M to « 82 ; to OM 870 D a ; 

toa82Dh. 128D. 
'4m denom. yerbs 472 b; 

contract 870 ;fiit. 875. 
«»408D,18. ^ 

-dmv gen. pi. 128. 

B, 19 ff; bef. r-mnte 44; 

bef. fi 46 ; bef. <r 47 

to ^ in pf. 841. 887 b. 

892 a. 
iSa8<C« S79. 
/SciJMi 212 D. 2221). 
iSodw 486,1. 849 D. 408,1. 

409,2.416,2; perf. 7 12. 
B^X<" 40 b. 83 b. 
fidKXm 482, 4. 866 D e. 886 

b. 894. 408 D, 20; w. 

dat. 607 ; in comp. 685. 
i8a«T« 427, 2. 
fidp9urros {fiftMs) 222 D. 
fiapvs 90. 
fidffnnt 189 a. 
iSfluriXcta 180 c. 466 a. 460c. 
0euri\€ios 468. 
fieurt\96s 189 ; compar. 

224 D; wt. art. 580 a. 
0afftkt6u w. gen. 681a; 

aor. 708. 
0€urt\uc6s 466 b. 
fiaffi\ur<ra 468 a. 
$currd(» 481, 2. 
fi4fi\rftu 86 1). 
fitlofuuf fi^o/uuj 878 D. 
fidkr^pos, -raros, 228 D, 1. 
iScArW, -lOTof, 228, 1. 
$ia dat. 608. 610 a ; w. gen. 

665; xpi>sfiioMeU;fii- 

rifi 206 D a, 
$idiofuu pass. 694 c. 
^</9(<C« S'7<»* [486 D,l. 
fii^ 408 D, 10; fitfi&yyait 
filfi?ios lS9e. [409 D, 16. 
0ifip6<ric» 446, 8. 408 D, 24. 

dytt'$t^KOfAtu 445, 1. , 
0\ rcdupL 819 c. 
fiXdfienu 427 D, 3. 
i3XiC«r« 427, 8. 897 b; w. 

cogn. aco. 655 a. 



^^» 424, 3 ;w. ace 547. 

fiKix^ 168 m. 

fiKirrw 430, 2. 



^oijij^ctf w. dat. 695 b. 




06<nM 422, 2. 

/3^pvsl68i.l86. [690a. 

/SovXf ^ w. ace. 547 ; mid. 

fiwKfl 189 d. 

fioiKofuu 422, 8. 808 a. 
868 a. 418; i/wl fiovk^- 
n4t^ 601a; fiavXotfiriP 
iw, 40wX6/iri¥ 6y^ 752. 

fiovs 189. 

i8f>a8^i compar. 222 D. 

fipdtnrw 480, 8. 


0p€sx^t compar. 222 D. 

iSp^of 182D. 


fipt^ 424, 6. 




iSvWw 488, 1. 

r, 16. 18. 19 ff; bef. r-mnte 
44; bef. <r47; to x in 
pf. 841. 387 b. 892 a. 

70 (ytypofACu) 409, 8. 

itua 132 D. 

ydXcL 163 r. 166. 

Toftfy 489 D, 6. 

ToA^Wf 146 D. 

To/A^tf 447, 2. 

ydyvfuu 439 D, 5. 

7«Ep 870; co>ord. 858 a; 
after art. 634 a; after 
prep. 616; after rel. 
sent. 823; 6ydp626y; 
cl ydp 721 a. 

yarHip 153 n. 173. 

ry 40a; stems in, 828b. 

Digitized by 




7^ 860,1. 70 a. 106 d; af- 

ter art. 684 a; after 

prep. 616. 
yffwa, -/«, -r<rjw, 424 D, 

SO. 361 D. 
TTveif 409, 8. 
ytXofftim 47 2 j. 
7f^a« 419, 2. 844D. 870D 

a. 879; aor. 709. 
7tXoM(» 419, 2. 
Y^/ctf w. gen. 676. 
Tfy (ylyifOfuu) 449, 1. 
T^^jdat. 608. [449 D,l. 
T^rro 408 D, 86; ^ytrro 
ytpeuds compar. 221 b. 
7d$M w. two obj. 664 ; yti- 

ofiai w. gen. 676. 
•yn 182; om. 609b; wt 

art. 680 b. 
T^l^/w 448, 8. 
yiipas 182-8. [2. 

y7jpdffK», -duf 444, 1. 408, 
7< to o-ir 60.828 a; to ( 

61.828 b. 
yl(y)wfAeu 449, 1. 81. 882. 

866 D e. 409, 8 ; incomp. 

pred. 490 ; impera. 494 ; 

om. 608 b ; w. pred. gen. 

672 ; w. dat poss. 698. 
yiyri&trK» 446, 4. 819 c 

408,14; w. gen. 682; 

w. part. 799. 
^Aredupl. 819 c. 
yXoMcAirts 171 D. 481. 
yPivK^s 212. 220. 222 D. 
y^.»X^' 163 m. 
TV redupl. 819 c. 
ypd^s 189 b. 
yydfAvrct 427, 4. 
yro {ytyyt&CKv) 446, 4. 
yr6fi7i 707; om. 609 b; 

gen. 668 ; dat 608. 
Tor stems in, 162 g. 
y6yv 202, 8. 
yovy 860, 2. 
yowy youroTf 202 D, 8. 
ypcififi^ 139 d. 
ypavs 189. 
7^^424, 6. 888 ; v. gen. 

677 b ; w. two ace 666 ; 

mid. 691. 
TpqOs, 7f»i|l)s, 11 b. 189 D. 
yvfu^s 218. 
yvfu^6s w. gen. 684 f. 
yvp^ 202,4. 168 d; OSL 

609b; wt. art. 680c 
y^os 139 a. 

A, 19 ff; be£ *arai, .-ctro, 


46-6; dropped 47. 49. 

76.386 a. 
9 stems in, 162 f. 169 £ 
9a (dflitf) 434 D, 8; (Wo- 

fuu) 484 D, 4; (iUnw) 

447 D, 10. 896 D. 
Mip 112D. 

Sof 862,8; W201Db. 
dalC« 828 D. 

9edofuu 434 D, 4. 866 D e. 
9aifm 424, 7. 
Wf 168r. 
9dKtw 436, 7. ^ 

3^pv, idxpuop^ 199. 
8a^C» 443 D, 1. 
3^/Mp 170. 
9d/urfitu, -mU, 443 D, 1. 

343D. 347D. 869D. 
Aoraof 1 B. 
9aif€i(» mid. 689 b. 
Sop (Uptt) 424, 7. 
8ar^o;ca<484D,4. 881 D. 
-d« local 203 ; enclit. 106 

d. 110. 239. 
U 862. 70 a; after art 

634 a; after prep. 616; 

r«..S^866b; jra2..d^ 

866 b. 
8^0 381 D. 
8ci(l88fura) 409,6. 87 D; 

pf. 712; w. /i^748. 
Sc7, see 8^«. 
8f /Sio, 8er{«, 409 D, 6. 
9€iZt<rK0fuu 442 D, 8. 
8ffiicai^/uu 442 D, 8. 
<c(nrvM( 442, 8. 800. 819 D. 

400-01 ; w. part. 797. 

8c(Xi|Wtart. 680b.' 
9tik6s 471. 
SciMi 246. 

8flir({s 471. 





deiCMT^f 476 b. 481. 



94x0/101 66 1). 

S^XMp 166. 

8eX^fi,-(y, 166 a. 

S^wf 201Db. 


8^ir8bor 199. 202D,2S. 

8f(cJf 221D;8t|i48t|i^r, 

wtart 630 b. 
Sf^irf^i 221 D. 
94ofuu w.<gen. 676. 
S^vof 182D. 
Urn 126 d. 
8^jcoAiai424D,31. 883 D. 

413 ; w. cogn. aoc. 647 d. 
8^/M*424,7. 398D. 
3f<riM^f 199D.200. 
itowirns 186 a. 197 D. 
8c^o/Mu 422 D,^. 
9tvpo w, gen. 689, 
dc^oror 224 D. [686. 

9t^€pos 263. 267 ; w. gen. 
3cx4/Mjpes 72. 
9ixo/uu 66 D. 818 D. 408 

D, 86. 416; mid. 692. 
94ct to bind 420,1. 371b. 

8^ to 10(111/422,4. 370 D 

e. 371 b. 413; w. gen. 

676 a. — 8c< w. gen. 494. 

676 a ; w. aco. 676 a; w« 

two casea 644 c ; w. inf. 

764 b; I8ci 703; 8c<r 

772 ; 94op ace. abs. 792 ; 

Ms (8vo<ir) 8^rrcs 266. 
94i 861; after art 634 a; 

w. superl. 666 a ; lx« 94i 

684 a; koI 8J^ xaC 867. 
9ri»ty 862, 7. 

Digitized by 




9fiXos w. part 797 ; 8^Xa 

8^861; S^Xoy 5ri 868 a. 
hl\6<» 281. 289. 885; w, 

part. 797. 
Ari/i4rnip 173. 
Zi\luovpy6s 473 a. 
8^/ios 559 d. 
tfllioala 608. 
8^r 87 D. 
Hvtn€ 261. 

BWvi Si^ovJ^cy, 862, 6. 
^Tiptdofuu 448 D, 22. 
•^s patronjm. 466. 
9fjrra 852f 6. 
ditoC61. 328 b. 
Si, S«, 9o<, 409,5. 808 D. 

319 D. 400 h. 
Ai {Ztis, Ai6s) 202, 6. 
Siiil02Db; w. case 629- 

30; w. inf. 780-81. 

9ta0aiy» w. ace. 544 d. 
SuCtw w. part. 798. 
9taytnfl{ofjMi w. dat. 602. 
Buurdiu 314. 
9iaKoy4co 314. 
9<a\C70Mai 319 e. 413. 424, 

15 a; w. dat. 602. 
ZtaX^twv w. part. 798 ; 8i- 

oXiTiiip 788. 
9iA\€ieros 3e. 139e. 
Ztdfurpos 189 d. 
9uuw4ofiM 413. 
SicM-Kov/w w. gen. 570. 
SurreX/tf w. part 798. 
Sio^/fM* prep. 630 ; intrans. 

685 ; w. gen. 581 ; mid. 

w. dat. 602. 
di^pof w. gen. 584 g; w. 

ff 860 b. 
9iyafifJM 28 D. 
MJuriem 447, 10; w. two 

ace. 553; mid. 689 b. 

nt9fifu 403, 8. 
9i9pd(rKm 444, 2. 408, 8. 
ni^fu 403, 4. 298. 802. 

847 D. 400-02; w. gen 

674 e; in comp. 685; 

pres. 702. 


9t4x» w, gen. 580. 
9lCnfMi 404 D c. 400 D m. 
9t7iK6cioi 253 D. 
iiKd(c» mid. 689 b. 
9iKcuot pers, con«tr. 777. 
Wicif om. 509 b; Wmjir w. 

gen. 552. 
Ato¥^ia 201 a. 
Kos, Sut, 207 D. 
Bt^i 869, 3. 868, 2. 
9nr?Jertos 258 b. 
SnrX^o'ios 258 JO. 
Utovs 217 c. 
9tffc6s 258 b. 

Sr^i^oTTOi 11. [626 r. 

S/x> 258 c. 629; ir. gen. 
9ix9 258 c. 

Siifrtltf 371 c; w. gen. 576. 
8<«m(j^ 411 D. 
8i«6ice0 w. cogn. ace. 547 b ; 

w. two ace. 555; 

gen. 570. 677 b. 
tfia {^dfumifu) 443 D, 1 
9ft9(UfM) 44ZD,l, 
BfA^s 160 c. 
9oi {Mouea) 409, 5. 
8ou6, ioioi, 255 D. 
9ojc^»448i4; w. inf. 763; 

pera. constr. 777; (&s) 

iftoX dojccix 772 ; t6iayra 

{S6^av) ravra 793. 
9ok6s 139 e. 
96fiw1i9 20S J), 
9oif stems in, 152 g. 
9ovXc^, 8drvX^, 472 1 
SovXc^ w. aec. 547 a ; ¥ 

dat. 595 b. 
9wp9 dovpar, 202 D, 5. 
9pa (Mpdunm) 444, 2. 
9pa^ (iap^dyu) 436 D, 4. 
ipofi \rp4x») 450, 6. 
9pcurcu* 472 j. 
8par<^f 398D. 
8pa« 421, 1. 
Zpiiios dat. 608. 

Sfi^o-o^ 139 e. 
IpviUs 200 D. 
Wo^ai 404,6. 808 a. 855 

Dc. 401k. 418; 

perl. 664 b. 
9vvatLis dat. 609. 
9<tv<» 423. 3. 
8vo 253. 255. 629. 
SvoKolScKa 253 D. 
8ur- 484. 816. 
9vsaf\w 28 D. 
9usaptffr4w 816. 
S^scfMtfs 96 ; w. gen, 684 c. 
9vsfi*y^s w. dat. 595 c. 
A^sTopts 484. 
5wiTi;X^** 816. 
8^» 423, 8. 804. 849 D. 401 

D 1.408, 16. 416. 420, 7. 
8^, 'QVf •oio'i, 265 D. 
8w for 8w/ia 201 J) b. 
8wXof for 9ov\os 24 D d. 
9wptdy 652. 
8«por w. dat. 696 d. 

E, vow. 7 if; interch. w. a, 

0, seea; w.i, 27. 384 c. 
« for a 349D; for n 847 

J); for digamma 23a, 
• to a 834 a. 383. 386 e. 

389 397. 
ctoijW 156. 189D.d09. 

386-6. 343. 400 m,n. 
etoci24])c.81.312. 370 

Db. 337. 343 D. 400 D 

i. 401 n. 
ff to 177. 334 a, 387 a. 

454b. 455c; tow 334 d. 
c contr. by syniz. 37 D ; 

inserted 376; dropped 

ff added to stem 331. 422. 

487. 448. 
ff augm. 307 ff; redupl. 

819. 322; w. augm. or 

red. 312. 322. 
ff conn. vow. 849 ff. 355 D 

ff pass, sign 348. 395. 
c fat. tense-sign 845. 373.. 
ff dual 164. [440, 1. 

I {Irifu) 403, 1 ; (cvyv/iO 
? po-on. 280. 

Digitized by 




€a to 1} 82. cf. 86. 

-ca for -«ia 212 1) ; for •vi' 

212 D; fr. stems in ex 

178; fr. st. in cv 190e, 

f ; in plup. 851 D. 
floi to ]9 34. 35 b ; to «i 35 

b. 368 a. 
1^872; in condiL eenk 

744 ff; iuterrog. 830. 
<ainr<p850,3; ^<(rr« 861. 
dap 23D. 160d; wt. art. 

530 b. [190 f. 

•ffof to -€it 86 b ; from ifos 
carou 355 D e. 
4avT«6 235;670.672.674. 

676; w. «rMu572c; w. 

fiiXrurros 559 a. 660 a. 
id4Aji 427 D, 1. 
idof 312. 835 D. 870 Da; 

ohK i& 842. 
^(i«ir227D. [258 D. 

ifi9ofids 258 d; ifiS6iueros 
^yy^r oompar. 229; w. 

gen. 589. 
iytifw 432, 5. 821. 367 D a. 

f/Kora 201 D a. 
Myp»f -oiiai^ 432, 5. 
iTXcXut 188. [860, 1. 

^230. 69. 485 a; Pymyt 
iyfftm 68 a. 
f)^(i')79D. 233D. 
c8, c^o, c9-cf (iff^itt) 450, 

8. 406 D, 3. 
f8wy23D. [y)371Dc. 
cct0ffi82. 312. 871b; to 
-f«to-ijl78. 186. 351. 
^/ 23 Da. 233 D. 
cfi to CI 34. 371b. 
^c(jcMri23Da. 25SD. 
i9MOffr6s iSS D. 
cc/ry442,4. 818D. 411D. 
-/csto -vs 190 d. 
cCo^oi 431, 6. 
ci| to 1} 32 ; c]? to 17 34. 
^^of 227 D. 
Ii^r for $f 243 D. 
i^tXopris 2^8 a, 
4»4\t9 422, 9. 
S;^ey 283 D. 
^;»r^» 296. 812. 822. 

CI 11 if; for f 24Dc; from 
«, see « ; from i 80 ; in- 
terch. w. oi 25.334 b. 

ci redupl. 319 e; ci in, 
plup. 351. I 

•«! 8 sing. act. 852 a; 2| 
sing. mid. 35 b. 863 a. | 

cl 872. 108c; in cond.l 
sent. 744 ff; indir. sent.! 
733; interrog. 830; in I 
wish ((2, «&ff, tl ydp) 
721.753; •! 8^^4*753 a. I 
754b; «< U 754b; €i 
flit «l fi^ 8ii 754 a; ci 
iii^)itml 874,1; «d ci* 
(id») 874, 2. 

ft (tint) 106 c. 

fia fem. 130. 212. 218 D. 
219 D. 458 a. 460 c 

tlapu^s^SD. [406 D,l. 

ftaroc, -aro, 855 D e ; «faro 

fI8oy 450, 4. 

fI8of 481a; ace. 649b. 

fflMs 409, 6. 

-C11} for -fia 125 D, a. 

4^ 110 a. 721. 753. 

tUdCtf 310. 



fffirari 253 D. 

cKtrcAof 23 D. 


frirw23D. 411 D; w. dat 
595 b. 

c/ic<6if 153 m. 194 c. 


9MiXov^26D. 28 D. * 

flXoK (a/p^«) 450. 1. 

«rxw, cIX^w, c/x/o*, flXAw, 
23 D. 432 D, 22. 312 D. 
828Dc. 345D. 

tXfta 2SJ>, [D. 

(f/iOi (wu^O 440 D, 1.318 

cr/M[f>rai432D, 25. 

W/ir 406, 1. 106 c. 364 D. 
400 Dh. 410 D; copula 
490 a, b ; om. 508 a ; w. 
pred. gen. 672; w. dat. 
poss. 598 ; w. part. 713. 
797; loTii' oX (oTriytr, 
8tc, o9, etc.) 812; — r^ 
rwr c7rai, levrii rovro c7- 
yai, 772 ; Ic^ tJpat 775 

a;— 6r circamst. ^88; 

case abs. 791b. 792 a; 

om. 795 e ; r^ $m 60S. 
tJ/u 405,1. 359 D. 864 D. 
i 400Dh; om. 508b; as 
I fut.699a. 
{c2y for ^ 627. 
IciwUrcf 100 D. 
IfMru 258 D ; -x^^^^ >^ 
eircaca, -jtcf, 24 D c. 620. 
ciW for ^y 627. 
do 233 D. 
-ciorneut. 468 b. 
cforforSM 248D. 
awtp 850, 3. 872. 
clTor 450, 8. 23 D. 866 b ; 

&9 ((vos) cfarclr 77i. 
9lpyififu 442, 4. 
^^ 442,4a. 411 D; w. 

gen. 580. 
ffifN»405Db.420D,12. . 
-fir 2 sing. act. 68 a. 862 a. 
-ctf, -cwa, -cr, a^. 214. 

470.50 a. 
9ls 103 b; w. case 620. 

618 a; w. num. 49Sf; 

w. in£ 780. 
A 253. 255. 156 c; ds 

Mip w. soperL 665 a. 
cff 105D.406D,1. 
cb^^CAAw intrans. 685. 
itiTkw 447 D, 16. 
«WiC€ 877, 7. 

cisrpdrrw w. two acc 563. 
cra-w w. gen. 589. 
cIto 70 c. 796 a. 
«rr€861. 831. 110. 
efw;^ 322. 334 d ; pf. V12. 
cr»r248D. [a. 108 b. 

^ir 624. 47 a. 74 c 80 c 87 
iKaardius 259. 
Ifforrof 269; colL 514b; 

w. art. 588 a; supplied 

from ovfc<r881; mi^ 

Digitized by 




iKooTor 498 f; iKwrrSs 

ru 683 b. 
iKdrtpot 259 ; w. art. 538 a. 
JKorZ/MB^cy w. gen. 589. 
Uwrorrds 258 d. 
iKfiaivw w. ace. 644 d. 
^irS^ w. two ace. 658. 
^icc7, iK€t»w, 249. 
U€»os 240. 678-9 ; w. art 

638 a ; verb om. 608 b ; 

iMirif 608 ; imtwsi 242. 
^Kf MTC 249. 
iK€x*ip(a, 65 d. 
^ffirrc 23 D. 
iKKKiial^ dat. 613. 
iKK\vatd(t» 315. 
eicXoFdcCyofUu 437, 6 a. 
^mrX^o-ow 897 a. 
i/erds w. gen. 589. 
licvM$9 28 D. 
^icJi^23D. 158 f; w. gen. 

abs. 791b; Uifp c7nu 

776 a. 
iK {edp4», tJKop) 460, k 
iKdtrcrw 228, 4 ; wt ff 660. 
^Aa^y»435,2. 811D. 321. 

376. 892 D ; sense 684. 
ixdxurros 22Sf4, 
ixdm 435, 2. [D, 

^XcTXces, iK^tOTOs, 222 
rf\^« 284. 821. 391 b. 
cAcui^ (IpX^Mw) 450, 2. 
^Acv^/pioy 468 a. 
^Xc^cpof w. gen. 684 1 
iXMv^tp6» w. gen. 580^ 
k\iirw 312. 
cAjvw 419, 19. 812. 
lAXojSc 40 D. 

iWtlvtt w. part. 798. 
•EAA7ifrfsl.4g. 500 a. 
*£AXi}yiirr4f 4 f. 
?Xir(f«424D,32. [D. 

IXir« 424 D, 32. 23 D. 822 
c\v;^ (ipxofjuu) 450 1), 2. 
cAMp 153 D. 
ifuanov 235. 670. 676. 
ififidXku intr. 686. [233. 

ifU^tP^ iftMf ifl4o^ 4/i€V, 

^Ai^« 419, 11. 

iM-tmrrov 235 D. 

^/Jyfor ^/uor283D. 

ffi(ji)€yf fft(fi)€ycu, 406 D, 1 . 

ifiiilfivKa (iifi^) 321 D. 

ifUs 288. 675-7. [675. 

4fiirlirkiifu 408, 7 ; w. gen. 

ifiirotw w. dat. 606. 

(fiTpoff^§p w. gen. 589. 

c(ir)8 8ing. 79 a. 

•«ir 8 pL aor. pass. 366 D c. 

^1^627. 62. 108 b; incomp. 
605 ; w. dat. time 613 ; 
adv. 616 ; w. inf. 782. 

^Mi/fw432D,28. 315. 

iyayTi6ofuu 413. 816. 

iyearrios 622 ; ir . gen. 687 
f; w. dat. 696 c; w. Ij 
860 b; rh iyarrtor, 502 
b; ^{^yai^rar509a. 

iyapi(» 828 D. 

M(8»/Lii intrans. 686. 

M6m w. two ace. 668. 

cvcyic, fy€K {^pta) 450, 6. 

(yttfu^ lyi 102. 615. [781. 

ci'Mcoy -«tcy, 626; w. inf. 



iy%poif 4vipT9po5f 2241). 

iyliyiAt 321 D. [6. 

rir;to248. 250. 811a. 879, 

^v^a$ff 248. 

iy^wra 66 D. [gen. 689. 

ivbw 248. 260. 879, 6 ; w. 

iy^4yZ* 248. 

iybmw^^J), [644 c. 

4y^ft4ofiai 418; w. case 

^W for ^lf 627. 

1^102. 615 a. 

Imoi, ^Worc, 812. 

iylxrw 427 D. 20. 



^vi'ciis 258 d. 

ivytdxi^i 253 D. 



iyyo4ofieu 413. 

fyvtf/Ai 440, 1. 

4yox^4w 814; case 644 c. 

^vravdo, -ci^er 248. 66 D. 

4yr6s w. gen. 689. 
fyTp4wofuu w. gen. 676. 
iyrvyxdyct w. dat. 602. 
Iw«p«jl5a. [w. inf. 781. 
^|624. 47 a. 80 c. 103 b; 
l^lanros w. ace. 544 e. 
ilapx^^ w. ace. 644 e. 

^cX^w w. part. 797. 
^|c<m impers. 494 a. 763; 

i^ucy4ofuu w. gen. 574 c. 
{^M compar. 229 ; w. gen. 

589 ; w. inf. 781. 
cotoov 82; to cv 82 Df. 

CO 23 D. 288 D. 
coi to 01 84. 
foiira409,7. 28D. 322;w. 

dat. 603; pf. 712; pere. 
.const. 777 ; w. par. 797. 
-cos adj. 470. 208. 146 c. 
{({r 288D; see 0s. 
covtootf 34; tocv82Df. 

4iraty4c0 w. two acc. 656; 

w. gen. 677 a. 
4Tdiy 877, 6. 

4ircafdffra4ris w. dat. 596 d. 
^vflurcrvrcpor 224 D. 
iravplffKOfjuu 447, 6. 
iTidy 877, 6. 
#irc{ 877, 6. 869.2.69; w. 

aorist 706; w. c6d^«r, 

rdxtimt, 821, 
#treiS^, ^irci8(£y, 877, 6. 
^ircira w. part. 795 a. 
4Tty4iyo^€ 321 D. 
Mx<v w. part. 798. 
iiHiKoosyr. gen. 584 c. 
W 640-42; w. inf. 780. 

782; in comp. 544 c. 

605 ; adr. 615. 
Iiri for JfirctfTi 616 a. 
ivtfialyta w. gen. 583. 
iiratUyvfu mid. 688. 
irMSufu intrans. 686. 
4Ttto^os pers. constr. 777 
iriHovtra 461 h« 

Digitized by 




ividvfi4» w. geii. 576. 
iTiKdpffMs Jr, gen. 587 f. 
MKtifuu If. dat. 605. 
hruciySuyos w. dat. 695 o. 
iTiKwp4<a w. gen. 578 b. 
iTiKofifidifo/juu w, gen. 574. 
iTiKo»^^o/tM 4S7, 6 a ; w. 

gen. 676 ; w. part. 799. 
4vi\€lww w. part. 798. 
iict}Jia-fAwy 217. 
^vtfMKfis w. gen. 584 c. 
hnfi4\»fjMi 418. 422,11; 

w. gen. 676. 
MffTOfuu 404,6. 401k 

413; w. part. 799. 
iiriorfifiuy w. ace. 544 e. 
^irurrparc^ w. case 544 c. 
irtr^iTOfuu w. ace. 595 a. 
^iT^8€ioj pers. constr.777. 
hrtrifidoi w. dat. 605. 
4irirp4vof»at w. ace. 595 a. 
Mxapu corapar. 221 g. 
€irofuu 424,8. 312. 384; 

TT. dat. 602. 
liroi23D. 450,8 a. 772. 
€p sjncop. steins in, 173. 
€p(€lwoy,ip&)450yS] («r- 

fpofuu 404, 7. 
ipda 419, 8 ; w. gen. 576. 
4pyii(oftau 812. 
^ov 23 D ; dat. 608. 
ipyw(^f^f») 442,4. 23 D. 

318 D. 411 D. 
4pBw i^py) 428,14. 23 D. 

322 D. 
iptUu 425 D, 19. 
^/>€rir»425,6. 3210. 
ip€fiy6s from fytfios 46 b. 
ip4ffir» 430, 4. 
ipt^fjuu 425, 12. 
^pc^d«0 426D,2O. 
^/>^itf, -0/401,424 D, 9. 
ipaaiy», 'fxaiyvy 436 D, 16 
4plC» w. dat. 602. 
hhpoSf -^^'n 219 D, 

rp» 169. 1710. 

*Epti(itu 136 O b. 

'£p/x^5 133. 

fy^as 442,4. [5. 

Ipo/uu 424, 9. 367 O a. 422, 

ipos 169 0. 

c/nm, 4/nr^«, 812. [b. 

I^^«422,6. 23O;om.508 

^^^»fi4yos 221 d. 

4p<ra 345 0. 

^/Mn7 125 d. 

(ptmy 217 O. 

4pvyyAy» 425, 12. 

ipv^yofiai 425 O, 20. 

ipvKdvw^ 'oyiito^ 4240, 10. 

ip^«tt»424, 10. 3840. 

ip6ofiai 405 O b. 

ipwrdpfiaT9s 476 b. 

^p<}» 420 0,12! 23 0. 812 
O. 378 0. [409 0, 18. 

r/>xoM<u 450, 2. 326. 366 b. 

(pvs 169 O. [553. 

ipwrJuoi 424, 9 ; w. two ace. 

cf stems in, 162 c. 176 ff. 

•cr nom. pi. 154. 196 b. 

ej, € (fi/J) 406, 1. 

^f 620. 103 b ; see th, 

4<r3^ir230. 1531; coU. 614. 

iff^lw, 4ir»v, 460, 8. 378. 

i(nr4pa wt. art. 630 b. 

l(nrcpo;23 0. 200O. 


i<nr4fiiiy (ciro/ieu) 424, 8. 

to'tra fern. adj. 214. [O. 

eo-^ra, coroi, 440 0, 1. 818 

(<rtrai {XC<») 431 0, 6. 

fcro-iW dat. pi. 164 0.178 
O. 176 O. 

^(r(r( 406 0,1. 106 0. 

€(nro9y 223 O, 2. 

JTcn-e 877, 7. 

•4ffr€pos, '4araroSf 221 d. 

ftrrty ot 812. 

iirrid» 312 ; w. ace. 547 b. 

I<rr(£s 216. 

4irxap6<t>t 206 O a. 

iirxpros 224 a ; w. art. 686. 

4ir» compar. 229 ; cf. ffo'w. 

mpos 68 c. 247 ; w. art. 
528 a. 638 c ; appos. 688 
e; w. gen. 684 g; w. ff 
860 b. I 

In}f28 0. I 

krufrlai 137. 201 a. 
rri70c. 80 b. 848 b. [618. 
iros 23 O ; gen. 691 ; dat. 
cv 11 ; interch. w. ov 26 O. 
cv from V 80 ; from fo, cov, 

see €0, €ov. 
cv to c 189. 326. 426. 
cv stems in, 152 j. 189 £ 
cJ 227 ; 4t 227 O, 
c5 233 0. 

evador {kyBdvtt) 487 0, 1. 
c^SoifioWCw w. gen. 677 a. 
Maituty 217. 221 d. 
Mioi 221 c. 
cS$(tf 422,7. 
ctfcXiTii 217 c. 
W9pyvr4» 816. 
cv;^80O; w. gen. 689. 
cvl^s 80 ; w. part. 796 b. 
(vKkt^s 1780. 
^Ojcrf/icyoi 408 0,26. 
cvAa^co/mu 413. 
ityyirros 40 0. 
€vyo4a9 w. dat. 696 b. 
ci^yoos 221 d. 
c^Toripcca 2180. 
einrXoln 126 0. 
i{nrop4» w. gen. 676. 
fiptcTKW 447,6. 366 b; w. 

part. 799. 
fHpoos 43. 
cSpos ace. 649 b. 
cvp^oira 186 a. 
cvpt^f 212. 

-cvi masc. 189 if. 468. 467. 
-cusgen. sg. 176 0. 1890. 
c5tc 877, 2. 
€v^aly» 414. 
cir^v^f 178. 
fUXBtpiS 2^*7 C. 
ftfXo/uu w. dat. 696 b. 
ci^ denom. verbs 472 d, 
€b^yvfioy wt. art. 680 b. 

cv«»x^« ^^74 <^- 
i<p9XKV€mK6y (ir) 78 c 
iit>4?uc» mid. 689. 
^^c|^s w. dat. 602 a. 
iipSHif^^pos 72. 
4<^iKy4ofuu w. gen. 674 c. 
^<^p({w 460 0,4. 461b. 
kx^P^^ compar. 222. 
irx3«, -0^01,436, 6. 367 0. 

Digitized by 





408,11. 411 D; w. ace. 

specif. 649 a; w. gen. 

680; mid. w. gen. 574 

b ; impers. 494 ; intrans. 

684; middle 691; aor. 

708; w. part. 797;— 

lx»y vfith 7 8S ; <p\vapt7s 

ix^^ '^88; oiirus tx"*^' 

^» 422, 8. [ao, axa. 

«» intcrch. w. ao^ aw, see 
fftf from Terbs in a» 370 

Dd; in Att. 2 decl. 147 

ff; to » 32. 
-ۥ gen. sing. 186 D b; 

verba 870. 472 c; fut. 


Utiiw {u»ii€i) 408 D, 18. 
-^•Kg. pi. Idee. 128 Db. 
•««f gen. sing. 186. 190 a, f. 
MS noun 66 D. 148. 182; 

wt. art 630 b. 
f«f conj. 877,7. 248 D. 
Iwvrov 11 Db. 235 D. 

r (Stigma) 5 b. 254 a. 

Z, 21-2 ; from trS 56 ; from 
81,71,61; inpre8.828b. 

fA»871c; w. ace. 647 b. 

-ff local 204. 66. 

bdyyvfu 442, 5. 

Zf^f 202, 6 ; om. 504 c. 

C^« 419, 12. 

Ziiv6sy etc., 202 D, 6. 

-f« verbs in, 828 b. 428-9. 
481. 472; fut. 875-6; 
Aeol. -al^a 66 D. 

(^yyvfu 441, 1. 


H, vow. 7 ff ; interch, w. » 

26; w. i27. 
II after c, i, p, 29. 
i|for a 24Da. 29 D. 125 

D, 2. 134 D. 870 D g. 

871c. 835 D. 882 b. 
i| from «, see e^ 
II sylL augm. 808 a ; pass. 

sign 843. 895. 

p llff; insubj. 847 a. 
97 voc. sing. masc. 135; 

in dual 178. 186; ace. 

sing. 178 ; in plup. 851 a. 
-|7 2 sing. 35 b. 868. 
Ij or 860. 69. 112. 612; 

inteiTOg. 738. 880 ff. 
fj than 860; w. compar. 

686.660; I^jrara660c; 

1i (^ &s, i> fioTc) w. inf. 

660 c. 768. 
^<ru/y 852, 10. 112. 
^ interrog. 828 ff. 69. 112. 
^mrf 404,1. 
J248. 608. 876,6. 879,4; 

w. supcrl. 664. 
rial to ]7 84. [D a. 

vfidfTKt^, ij0dw, 444, 8. 870 
7iy4ofjLat w. gen. 681 a. 
iiytpi^irrai 411 D. 
ilU 855. 
ff8i7 68D.851b. 
^8ofcai 418 ; w. dat. 611 a ; 

w. part. 800; 1i9ofi4p^ 

ffoi 601 a. 
i{dor 201 Db. 
rfiv4it€ia 219 D. 
^Svs 28 D. 212. 222. 
M 880-81 ; 4c 881 a. 
i}c< to ]7 84. 
4c/8i7 409 D, 6. 
$€iy 405,1. 
il€pi^rrcu 411 D. 
ilJpos 202 D, 21. 
iiu&y 163 m. 

ijicurra 228, 2. [698. 

fjiM 27 ; om. 608 b ; as pf. 
W or ^ix«^ 201 D b. 
ijKueta w. inf. 767. 
^X/icof 811.816. 
)}Aioi 65 D. 
ilfuu (lis) 406,2. 856De; 

ace. 644 c. 
lifjuu^ lifJMS, 282. 
il/i4ts etc. 283 D. 
iin4pa w. iyiyrro 494; om. 

509 b; wt. art. 580 b; 

gen. 691 ; dat. 613, 
ilfA4rtp6p9€ 208 D. 
ilfUr^s 238. 675-6. 
j|/u 404, 1. 

^/^''i fM<''i ^fuy, 232. 
Vw'^' ▼• ftrt. 686. 
4/iOf 248 D. 877,4. 
il/iitg 321 D. 
^ir 406, 1.404,1. 
V^Ka 248. 877, 8. 
rivioxos 199 D. 
iiwpdri 28 D. 
^yircp 850, 8 ; Ijm 861. 
lyo to « 33 ; rioi to ^ 84 ; 

1J0V to » 34. 
-i;oj, -ija, -riaSf 190 f. 
^mp 165. 
ihrtipos 189. 
'HpaK\47is 180 D. 
iipty4vtta 219 D. 
W(rapos) 160 D. 
9/M»f 181. 182D. 184. 
-^snom. pi 190 d. 
'TIS prop, names 198. [e, f. 
fis adj. 476 ; compar. 221 
-|7<ri(r), pj, dat. pi. 129 D. 
lia&my 223,2; o^x f^^oy 

1{0yxo9 209. 221 c. 
rir stems in, 1621. 
^01 852, 12. 860 a. 110. 
ih>opl68D. 201Db. 
ijTTdof pass. w. case 681 ; 

part. 801. 
riv diphth. 11. 
^ds 227 D. 
1lX(& 198. 
^<(f 66D. 146D. 182. 

e, 17. 19. 22; to i 46-6. 

76. 401 b. 
;^ doubled 40 b; dropped 

47.49.886 a. 
;^ stems in, 152 f. 169 ff; 

formation in, 411 D. 
^dkaunra wt. art. 630 b. 
»d?<\<» 482, 6. 888 D. 
dofUts, »afuudj 219 D. 
^ar(M<rJC«) 44.^1 4. 
»4iifaros gen. 577 b. 

Digitized by 




^dwn0 427, 6. 
b<ipp4w w. ace. 544 a. 
;^(£p<ros43a. 57. 176D. 
^Jura-oi w. ace. 644 c. 
^duraw (raxvs) 60 b. 222. 
d&Tfpop 68 c. 72; appos. 

r>oi b. 
^av/ia 1 1 D b ; w. inf. 767 a. 
^avfidCv w. g€n. 57^. 577 a. 
^av/jLOirrhs ^trosy &aviJ.our- 

T«y us, 817 b. 
r^c pass. «ign 343. 305. 

.&*, ;»« (Ti/arij/^o 403, 2. 

;^€<£ 12.5 0. 

^(7os 221 D. 


^€\« 422, 9. 

i^ffus 202, 7. 

-^€1', -^€, local 2<»3. 

^(6s 37. 118. 141; om. 

504 c ; wt. art. 530 ; ,^e- 

6(pi 206 Db. 
^4p€ios 468. 
»€pfjLalya 433, 5. 
3fWcu424, 12. 8i5D. 
;&€« (^w, ^€V) 420, 1. 
;^f«6T*^y 221D. 
;^ pass, sign 343. 895. 
e^iSaCc 56. 
;^^Auj212a. 221D. 
3^v 852, 9. 106 D. 
^pdof 286. 335. 
di to tf-o* 60. 
'^i local 203 ; imper. 358. 

361. 400 b. 401b. 05 b. 
^lyydyof 437, 2 ; w. gen. 

574 b. 
3\(i<» 419,4. 
^\i0<a 424, 13. 
^trfja-KV 444, 4. 894 a. 409, 

4.433,4; w. ace. 544 e. 
^olfidrioy 68. 
^Spwftau {^p<6<rKw) 445, 6. 
^ovpiSj ^ovpos, 219 D. 
^par (rpf^) 424, 26. 
hpdtros 57. 
6/)7<r(ra 60. 
^pdtrau 428, 8. 
dpa^ttf 421, 18. 
dpcK {rp*.x») 66 c. 450, 6. 

^ptx {rp4ipv) 66 c. 424, 26. 

dpriyta 370 Db. 

^pTJyvt 153 i. 

^p(^ 66 a. 163. 

^pimrw 60 c 427, 6. 

^pucKOf 445, 5. 

^vydnjp 173* 

^vfxtofieu w. dat. 595 b, 

.^vKW, -Ww, 435 D, 10. 

^wr (tw^w) 66 c. 424, 28. 

^vpaCe 56. 204. 

'^upa<n 205. 

^tJw 65 c. 420, 2, 435 D, 10. 

;>cij 160 c. 182. 

r^wD/xa (.^w/ia) 1 1 1) b. 

I, vow. 7 ff ; quant. 80 ff. 
I to CI 30. 326. 425. [tf 27. 
I interch. w. t 27. 186 ; w. 
t omitted 39 a. 328 c. 405 

2. [328 

I changes prod, by, 58 ff. 
t subscript 11. 34. 68 a; in 

dat.sing. 150. 195a.l88. 
I of 4th cl. 828. 428 ff; as 

rcdupl. 332. 449 D, 7; 

mode-sign 348. 
I sterna in, 152 d, i. 185 ft 
I (f7/«) 405, 1. [164.195 a. 
-f nom. pi. 150 ; dat. sing. 
-( loc. 205 ; dcmonst. 242. 
la for to 466. 
m fern. 464 c. 125ff. 
fa for fila 255 D. 
idofxcu 415. 
la^ 449 D, 7. 
idx<», -^», 424D,3S. 23D. 
-ido9 dcnom. 472 j. 
i8 450, 4. 409, 6. 23 D. 
15c 855. 

iBioy neut. 465 a. 
Xdios 23 D ; w. gen. 587 c ; 

m<f 608. 
XBfity 46 D. 
iipis 188, 217 c. 
iip6a^ IBpvv^y^ 896 D. 
iBpdis 169 D. 
<c mode-sign 348. 
iVpol 65 D. 

ifp6s 32 D c ; w. gen. 587 c. 
-ifw verbs in, 472 e; Att. 

fut. 876. 
rfc», lCdyf», 431, 6. 

11} mode-sign ^8. 

Irifu 403, 1. 812. S32. 400 

Dd. 401 D. 401Dh,k. 

402. [D. 

i^«5(j) 80 D; i^irrara 221 
u toi 186D.401DL 
IK23D; (loijfo) 409, 7. 
]Kay6s W; dat. 695 c. 
Uayiis w. gen. 589. 
fircXof 231). 
ric/i<yor46D. 40SD,45. 
Uy^ofKU 438, 2. 
'tK6s adj. 469 ; w. gen. 5S7. 
IXofuu 404 D, 10. 
r\iwj 210 D. [D. 

ixdcKOfuu 444,5; iKi^mi 
\X\ws 209-10. 

tXKu 432 D, 22. 
Ifidaau 430 D, 9. 
ty stems in, 156 a. 
'ly ace. sing. 171 ; dual 

150.195 b. 
Tv for 01233 0. [608 b. 
'iya 739 ff. 879,6; tra rl 
iyos adj. 470. 
-lo gen. sing. 140 D. 
fo/ici', Xctfity, 88 D. 
toy neut. 465 a. 
los adj. 468. 
ioxioM, 218 D. 
7jnroj coll. 614. 
Tirra/iat 424, 19. 
ttratii 409 D,.6. 
r<r;^i 27. 
Iff^fioi 206. 
I(rd/i^f 46 a. 
-(^irof, 49'Kfiy 465 b. 
tffiw 447 D, 16. 
(r6fioipos w. gen. 684 a. 
ro-or 23 D. 221c; w. dtJL 

603; ^fmi 5.09a. 
liTTtpoSf 'iffreeroSf 221 e. 
r<rrvfu 403, 6. 299. 303. 

305. 63. 347 D. 859 D. 

Digitized by 




894 a. 40(M)1. 409,1. 

410D. 416,1; mid. 688; 

pert 712. 
itrxdyv, -mI», 449 D, 2. 
lax^ Aor. 708. 
r0rx»65e.449,2. 332. 
ix^^f 1531185 ff. 
t<p 265 D. 
Imc^, l&KOy 199 D. 
•Iwv patron. 466 a. 
'iwf 'iffTos, 222 £ 

K, 16. 19 if. 22; dropped 
75. [46 ; bef. <r 47. 

jc bef. T-mute 44; bef. /i 

Kforir,Ion.247D. [892 a. 

If to X in Pf- 341. 887 b. 

K movable in ovk 80 a. 

K teose-flign 844 ff. 386. 

•Ka 1 aor. 402. 

Kd for k4 878 b. 

icdy, KdB, etc. 73 D. 

Ka8 428D, 18,422D,20. 

jco^ape^ w. gen. 580. 

KcAap4s w. gen. 584 f. 

Ko^tCofiai 431, 6. 

KO^tijiv 814. 

Kd^fxat 406, 2. 

ica3^C» 431, 6. 314. 

Ko^iffrnfu incomp. prcd. 
490 c. 640. 

Koi 865 ff. 68; w. num. 
256; w. two 8ubj. 611; 
w. part. 795 f; jcol 5f 
525 b; jcal &s 250; icol 
T^yj ri^y, 525 b ; xol ydp 
870 d; ci (^^) icoT, ica} 
cl (^ily) 874. 

Ka/irv;tai442D, 17. 

ica/yw 432, 7. 

iro/ircp 795 1 850, 8. 874, 8: 

Katp6s daU 613. 

ica(roi 864, 7. 110. 

Kalt» 434, 1. 381 D. 


KaK6s compar. 228,2; w. 
ace. 648. 

KOKOvpfyos w. gen. 687 a. 

Kdierat^ 73 D. 

iroA^cv 420, 0; incomp. 
prcd. 490; perf. 712. 

{wpo)Ktt?dCofuu 420 D, 6. 

Ka?iXty^yaiKa 2181). 

Ka?sXi6yus 228. 

jcoA^i compar. 228^ 6. 

Kd\os 146 D. 

KoXifiri 327 a. 

«aA.^« 427, 7 ; mid. 688. 

icdKoffs 146. 

xdfifiopos 73 D. 

Kdfuyot 189 b. 

K<£/Ai^» 435, 8. 386 c; w. 

ace. 547 b ; w. part. 800. 
Kdfjuwrw 427, 6. 
«r&y, x&y, 68 a. 
KdjftoVf Ktufmhfy 144. 
K^v, Kdo {tcofrd) *IZT>. 
Kop (Ktlpca) 432, 8. 
Kdpa, ndpn, xdp, 202 D, 24. 
Kdpioiros lS9h. 
«r4>ra 227 D. 
KopTMptw w. part. 800. 
KaoT€p6s 57 D. 
icA9Ti<rroj67D. 228D, 1. 
*dT (Kord) 78 D. 
/c^ra 68 a. 
Kord 631-2; w. num. 258 

a; in comp. 683; w. 

inf. 780. 
KoreeytXdaf w. gen. 688. 
KorotytTw^jrctf w. gen. 577 

b. 688. 
Kttrdymffu w. gen. 674 b. 
K»raBo6xmffis w. dat. 695 d. 
KordK^tfuu 405, 2. 
iraroAXdlrTW w. dat. 602. 
JcoFoX^w w. gen. 680. 
iroravX^^crw 397 a. 
Kara^fiiypvfit w. ace 546, 
Keerdpx» w. acc. 644 e. 
KaT€uppor4w w. gen. 588; 

pass. 694 a. 
<caTOXpf 404D,8. 
irara^cvSo/itai w. gen. 583. 
Karax^l(QfMi w. gen. 683. 
Kcerix'^ intrans. 495. 
Kwniyop4w w. gen. 683. 
Koerbwtiv 73 D. 
Kdrv 229. 631. 
KW (Koiw) 434, 1. 
xoviifaif 442D,1. 
Ktwrfi 68 a. 
ic<i» 434. 1. 

Kc, mj, Kci (ica/») 434, 1. 
ic^,ic€V,873b.79D. 106D. 
K^araif K^vraiy 406 D, 2. 
K*9dyyvfu 439 D, 4. 
iccil^i, irc«;^ey, xcro-e, 249 D. 
Kc7Meu405, 2. 366 De. 878 

D.410D;w. acc. 644 c. 
tetiifos 240 D. 
iccr^482,8. 846D. 
ictKopv&fi4yos 46 D. 
KcAa8^«448D, 13. 
jc/Xcvdos 139 c. 2001). 
jcfAf^ 421, 20. 
k/aa«346D. 878. 
WAo/Mf 424 D, 84. 384 D. 
K9y6s w. gen. 684 b. 
Kerrc»448D, 14. 
Ktpdyyvfu 439, 1 ; w. dat 

602; Ktpdu,'ai<»,^Z9D. 
Kipas 165. 168. 
xepSolycv J^33, 6. 882 b. 
Ktfalvy, 'urros, 223 D, 9; 

KtpSa\4os ib. 
Kti^Vy -dyw^ 425, 13. 
Ktipdkcuoy 502 b. 
Kti (Kai») 484, 1. [os ib. 
ic^aurroj 228 D,il ; jnySe?- 
K^d«422D, 20. 855De. 
K^p fem. 158 n. 
Ktjfnf^ 164. 
Krip^<rc» 428, 2. 
Ki to <rir 60. 828 ». 
Kt$en6s 139 b. 
ic(8m/ii 448 D, 8. 
Ki;^(6r 66 D. 

Kuc\^<nM4UT),12. [764. 
iciy9uycv« aor. 708 ; w. inf. 
iclyu/icu (ficioy) 440 D, 6 ; 

ixieAoy All J), 
icipyijfu, -yd»^ 443 D, 2. 
Kixpnhi 403, 9. 

jcAa/«, icA^, 484, 2. 857 D. 
jcAair (icX^rrw) 427, 9. 
KKwaidM 472j. 
KAi« 419, 6. 
kXm (KoXdtt) 420, 6. 
-ffX^f 178D. 180. 198. 

Digitized by 




KXfls 171. 

K\€ioo 421, 15. 390. 

kW», kA^o/mu, 426 T>, 8. 

K\4irrris 221 e. 


KAjjtj 171 D. 

icXijt«421D,16. [198. 

-kA^s prop, names in, 180. 

ichina 421, 16. 

KXSrv 433, 1. 432, 9. 

K\uriit^i 206 D a. 

icAo4> (KKhrrn) 427, 9. 


ic^a (Kdfivw) 435, 8. 

Kva/w 421, 12. 

KydM 421, 2. 371 c. 

Ky4if>as 182. 


icoWj w. gen. 687 c. ; ^ 

ico{y4 3 e ; KOiyj 608. 
KOivnviw w. gen. 574 a; 

w. dat. 602. 
woi^wWa w. dat. 602. 
Koivw6t 202, 8. 
jc^Airo; om. 509 b. 
ico/i/Ca»S28D. 376. 
K6inra 254. 

K({v-/>o;139a. [686. 

K6'rr» 4^7, 10 ; iu comp. 
K6pttJI^ ; ^f K<^paicaf 608 b. 
Kop4vyvfu 440, 2. 
K6pTi 125 d. 

Kd/Mri7, K<{^^17, 125 d. 43 a. 
Kop^a-trto 430 D, 10. 
'k6s adj. 469. 687 b. 
KOffSs 247 D. 
Kor4 247 D. 
iCiJrepoy 247 D. 
kot/«420D,11. . 

KOTV\fltO¥6<pl 206 D c. 

ico9 247 D. 

Kovpos compar. 224 D. 

K6us 146 D. 

Kpa (xtpdmnffu) 439, 1. 

icpetfw 428, 13. 338.409,8; 

Kpar{K(ipa) 202 J), 24:, 
KpttTtc^i 206 D c. 
KpaT4» w. gen. 681 a. 
KpdrttrTOS 223, 1. 
Kpdros 67 D. 
«paT^s223D,l. 227D. 

icp^ail81. 182D. 183. 
Kptlmrwy 223, 1. 
Kp4fMfuu 404, 8. 401 k, 
Kpffiayyvfii 439, 2. 
Kp/(r<r»y 223 D,l. 
irpijj^fif 203 D. 
Kp^fiyafuu 443 D, 3. 
Kprjffaa 60. 
/cpi for icpi34 201 D b. 
Kp(C» 428 D, 20. [a. 655 a. 
Kplyt» 433, 2 ; w. ace. 547 
Kpovlwy 466 a. 
Kpovw 421, 23. 
icp^wT»427, 11.410D; w. 

two ace. 653. 
Kp6<l>a w. gen. 589. 
KTO, KToy, (KT€lyu) 433, 4. 
KTdofjLoi 319 b. 393 a; mid. 

692; pf. 712. 
KTcrw 433,4. 364 D. 401 

n. 408, 4. 482, 10. 
KT4pas 182 D. 
KT(it0 408 D, 26. 
{ifiro)KTlyyvfu 442, 6. 
Kviidytipa 218 D. 
ffvSpJr compar. 222 D. 
Kt/fo'icw, «<$», icv^cv, 446, 2. 
KUK^^y 176 D. 
KVKJi6^y 203. 
irvX/w, kvAIkSw, -$^tf, 421, 6, 
Kuy4tf 438, 3. 
«<;yrepof 224 D. 
ici^tf 427, 12. 
Kup^tf, k6p», 448, 6. 346 B. 

373; w. gen. 674 c; w, 

part 801. 
K^y 202, 9. 
Kx for XX 40 b. 
Kcis 148. 

A, 18. 22; AA. after augm. 

308 D. See Liquids. 
Aaof 202, 10. 
\a$ (\afifidy») 437, 4. 
KaySs 146 D. 
Kwyxatw 437, 3. 319 e. 887 

a ; V. gen. 674 c. 
Aoy^f 148. 

Xji(ofMit A^^v/uu, 429 D, 5. 
Aod^ (Aay;&((iw) 437, 6. 
AaK(Ai{<rjr«) 447,11. 
\d\os compar. 221 e. 
\afjLfidyu 437, 4. 319 e. 366 

b ; w. gen. 674 b, e ; mid. 

690; w. part. 799. 
Xdfiw 424, 14. 
\ay^dy0 437,6; w. ace 

644 a ; w. part. 801. 
\a6s 147. 
Aoj 202, 10. 
?JurK» 447, 11. 
^X i^ayxdyv) 437, 3. 
A({x€ia218D. [319 e. 

\^a» to gather 424,16. 
A^ to speak 424,15 a. 

460,8 a. 408 D, 37; om. 

508 b ; impers. 763 ; 

pers. 777; K4yova'i 604 

c ; rh Keyifityoy 496. 
\tlv» 292. 276-7. 334 b. 

412 b. 425, 7; gen. 681 
Ac^» 421, 21. 
Aex<^ 194 b. 
Kti&s 146. 

\ri0 {Xa/ifidyce) 437, 4. 
A^T* w. part. 798. 
A^8a 126 a. 130 c 
A4di}455d. [6. 

\4l^, -<{w, 425, 1. 437 1), 
Ai?<Jf 146D. 
Ai to AA 59. 328 c. 
AI70227D; Ary^sib. 
Taikxayoa 425, 7. 
Af* = A/«if202D,25. 
\i<r<roiuu^ xItoiuuj 430 D, 

11. 308 D. 
ATro, AiT^, 202 D, 26. 
Ao(Ao<J»)371e. [602. 
K&yos dat. 608 ; cti Adyovs 
AoTX (^7X<^) 437, 3. 
Aotv (Afffir«) 425, 7. 
KonrSs 466 c. 457 b, c ; ace. 

662 a; gen. 691. 
Ao?(r3of , 'tosy -^Mf, 224 D 
-Aoi ady. 471. 

Digitized by 




^o^ 871 e ; mid. 688. 
Xinr4» w. ace. 647 c. 
X^Xrot 200 D, [29.420»3. 
k^ 268-76. 898 D. 408 D, 
kuitty, -irf(tos^ 223 J), 1. 
Xarrtvrra 214 D. 
?M^d» w. gen. 680. 
A^»y, \fcroSf 223, 1. 

M, 18.22; bef. p68; bef. 

fi4y^os dat. 609. 
fi4Ci»y 222 J), [1 du. 356 b, 
'/JL€^ 1 pi. 865 ff; 'fit^oy 
/«c»rir/u403D,l. [675. 
ti§d^K9» 446,8; w. gea 
fit^ct 446, 3. 
;(c/C«i'222. [319 D. 

fi€ipofiat 432 D, 26. 819 e. 
/if/, = /i^if202D,27 

K 63 D; mates bef. fi^fi€tmy22S,Z; /uioyQ^Od, 
46 ; fjifi after augm. ^08\fi4xas 166 c. 212-13. 220. 

D. See Liguidit. 
'fjM ncut. 461 a. 166. 
^C 862, 14. 646. 
fui^ (nay^dyu) 487, 6. 
•fuu 1 siDg. 366 ff. 

fuu/u^w 434 D, 6. 472 k. 
/ia/fo^iai432, 11. 
/Mro/Mi434D,6. 409D,9. 
fituc (jifiKdofiw) 448 D, 24. 
ftdKtupa 219 J>. 
fidKop 220. 
/Murp^s 222V; fioKf}^ 610; 

(^s) /MMcp^ 609 0. 
fuuepixtip 218. 481. 
/4d\a70c. 227. 222 a; w. 

com p., sap. 666 b. 666. 
Iidkti 201 b. 
fidM for /i^r 862, 13. 
AMU^i^M 487, 6. 808 D. 412 

a ; w. gen. 682 ; w. part. 


789 c. 
fuar (jiJ^u) 427 D, 21. 
Mapo^yt 612. 
fidpiTTW 427 D, 21. 
fuurvp4tfi 'po/uut 448, 6. 
/^n^poi202D, 11. 
/Ufpruf 162p. 202, 11. 
fiMTcm (juty) 428, 8. 
ftidirtwy 222D. 
^(^i|163. 199D. 
tAdxo/uu 422,10; w. ace. 

647 a; w. dat. 602. 
/U 106 a. 230. 
fuydKut 226. 
14^1219.222; /t^ya, /;ic 

yd\a, 226. 662 a; W| 


/A/A<163r. 166. 

MfAlrp 612. [inf. 711. 

ti4\\m 422,12. 308 a; w. 

fi4\M 422, 11 ; w. gen. 676. 

fi4nfiKrrcu 422 J), II. 

/if/UTtti4yos 403 D, 1. 

fi4/t^ofuu w. gen. 6*77 a« 

'fiw 1 pi. 356. 

fi4y 862 a ; after art. 626 a. 
634 a; after prep. 616; 
for ^^y 862, 13 ; ftiy oZy, 
/*iy Wi, 862, 13. [De. 

-/*cwu, -/*«', inf. 869 D. 400 


tifyotydm 870 D a. 

Mcrr^" 68 c. [aAAi848e. 

^t^yroi 864,6; oif fitrroi /i^icos 46l'h, 

fUTtatoUoikoi w. gen. 677 c. 
fi4T€<m w. gen. 671. 
fi€T4xt9 w. gen. 674 a. 

/JL€Tt»pl(w 816. 

li€r4»pos 26. 

fUroxos w. gen. 684 a. 

fUrpoy 887. 

MCtf 283 D. 

;t^X/»'70b. 80D; w. gen. 

626; conj. 877,8; w. 

oS, So-ov, 813 a. 
M4 832ff. 68 D. 69. 80 b; 

w. ind. 761; w. subj. 

720 b, d; w. impr. 723; 

w. part. 789 e; final 7 39 

ff; interrog. 829; /i4 

fiot 608 b; fiiiob 720 d. 

743.846-7; o^/«ii846; 

Sri ^4 868 c; c2 /ii}, c/ 

Mi> •/872.764 a. 
fi7i9a/i^, -ov, -01, 262. 

;ti}8* £i 260. 
ftri^M 266 ; neut. 848 a. 
tiri94r9pos 262. 
firiicdafuu 448 D, 24. 361 D. 
^))K^i 80 b. 848 b. 
^iixurrot 222 D. 

/i/yw 422, 13 ; w. ace. 644 a. 
fi€pis om. 609 b. 
fi€pfiripiC» 828 D. 
tiwafifipiri 24 D a. 
fi4ffOr\aT09 224D, 
fitfffififipta 68. 482. 
/i/<rof 221c. 224 D. 648; 

w. art. 636; wt. art. 

680 b; iytU<rfp49Q. 
fi€ffr4s w. gen. 684 b. 
furd 648-6; ad?. 616; 

ILvrafidXSM intrans. 686. 
/A«ra8<8»/u w. gen. 674 a. 
firroXofAfiJiyv w. gen. 674 a. 
fi€rati4\9i w. gen. 676 ; w. 

part 800. [800. 

firrafi4Kofuu 413 ; w. part. 
fiwrc^i w. gen. 626 r ; w. 

part. 796 c. 

fi4ya 498 f ; fi4ya w. gen.Urrttw4tiw mid. 689. 
659 c ; rh ii^funoy 602 b. /tcrorXcur/i^t 199. 


M^Kitfir 163 m. 


laiKoy 77. 

/Ltijir (fuUfOjuoi) 432, 11. 

Ii4iy month 172; w. app 

600 a; gen. 691; 2^9i 

M^yci 816 b. 
M^y m /rtf<A 862, 13. 864, 

6 ; oh ii^y &AX<( 848 e ; 

i( li'hy (^ ti4y) 862, 10. 
ft^wm 848 b. 
fi4tr9 858-9. 110. 
fi^p 178; wt. art. 680 c. 
fAtrruioff 'tofuUf 448 D, 26. 
/;iW 262 ; fifyri 848 a. 
/ihrpms IS2. [399 ff. 

-pulsing. 866 ff. 861. 267. 
/Ja (ffs) 266. [D, 39. 

/;ir7WAu442,7. 896D. 408 
fiucpds 228, 8 ; gen. 676 a. 
MiXicios 468 b. 
fUft4oftai 416. 

Digitized by 




mfiy^<nc» 444, 0. 319 b. 

868 D. 893 a; w. gen, 

676; pf. 712; w. part, 

(inf.) 799. 802. 
filfi¥t»j fufipd(vf 449, 3. 
/trir238D. 106D. 
MlywfUS. 182 D. 197 D. 
fiiayv 447, 12. 442, 7. 
fiur^6» mid. 689 b. 
fiy in div. of syll. 88 a. 
^a 182; fiif4a 182 D. 
/xva (jitfurffffKu) 444, 6. 
fAvdofAOi 370 D a. 
furifiuy 217. 
/Aor230. 70D. 105 a. 
fuitpa om. 609 b. 
fwk {&\i&ffKf») 446, 2. 
/loy (fto/o/xat) 409 D, 9. 
^vdf 258 d. 
fioyaxS 268 c. 
fA6yos 258 c ; /tu^vos ray $X- 

\»y 586 c ; fi6yoy oh 848 

d ; ov /iJyoy — &XA.& (icof) 

Hoyo^yos 221 e. 
ftop (ii/jOTiJj) 53 D ; (/te^po- 

fieu) Z19D, 
'ftos masc. 460 b ; adj. 471. 
fiov 230. 105 a. 
fiovyos 24 D c. 
/i^f«, -e«, -({», 481,7. 
fiv^4ofuu ^70 D b. 
fUfKdofjuu 448 D, 26. 
/ivpi^s 258 d. 
fi^pioi ifivpioi) 258. 257. 
/iSs 158 i. 185. 
fwxotraros 224 D. 
fi6f» 420, 6. 
/u&fityos 484 D, 5. 
fivy (/i^ oSi') 84. 829. 

N, 18. 22; bef. other cons. 

48 ff; bef. < 58. 828 d. 
y doubled after augm. 808 

D; dropped in pf. 886 

c; inserted in 1 aor. 

pass. 896 D. 
r 5th class 829. 407. 485 ff. 
y moTable 78-9. 
y stems in^l 52 m. 
•y neuter f88; ace. sing. 

150. 154. 157. 196 g,i; 

1 sing. 855 ff. 864 D; 8 

pi. 855 ff. 400 Dd; in- 

fin. 859. 

5th class 443 D. 
-ycuinf. 359. 867 c. 400 e. 
1^0/852,14.645. [410 D. 
yairrdn 434 D, 6. 870 Da. 
yatxt 110 a, 
yaiw 484 D, 6. 
ya6s 26. 147. 
ydff<ro9 431, 8. 
yavs 189-90. 
yavcivopos 478 b. 
yav^i 206 D c. 
yi dropped bef. c 49. 
iTff 5th class 329 c. 488. 
ydaros 224 a. 

Wicvf 153 L 
y4fu» 422, 14. 
y4ofAm 430 D, 12. 
y4p»€y 224T>, 
yevpTJ^ 206 D a. 
Ww (yt) 421, 5. 
i'/»(irv)426,2. 808D. 
yt6s 26. 146. 
ytt&soucos 473 b. 
Hi 862, 14. 545. 
y7i6s 146 D. 
yrjcos 188. 
yifvsllDb. 189D. 
iHix»426D,2. [51. 

y^ dropped bef. o* 49. cf. 
yl{» 429, 2. 
ytKdt» If. ace. 544 a; w. 

gen., dat. 681 ; w. part. 

801 ; pr. for pf. 698. 
Wy238D. 105D. 
yiwrw 429, 2. 
yt<r<roftm 430 D, 12. 
ri^f 199D. 
W^ci wt subj. 604 c. 
yofjdC» incomp. pred. 490. 

666 ; w. part. 799. 
y6oSf yovSi 144. 
-yot adj. 471. [708. 

yoirict w. acc. 647 a ; aor. 
y6cos 139 e. 
y6<r<fH{y) 79 D. 
y6Tos dat. 618. 
'{y)au fem. part 860. 862. 

•{y)<ri 3 pi. 865. 862. 

yr dropped bef. <r 49. 60 ; 

stems in, 152 k. 
m 8 pi. 355Da. 400Da. 
rrtfy 8 pi. impr. 868. 
yv (yyv) 6th class 329 d. 

407. 489 ff." 
y^fAtpa 125 D. [867, 8. 

y6iy) 79 D. 106 D. 112. 
i^|16Sr; gen. 691; dat 

613; wt art 680 b. 

^vyos 88. 
yut, y&ty, 233 D. 
ymir^pos 238 D. 

H, 17a.?l-2.47.74b. 
-{ masc.) fem. 152o. 168. 
(ciyo9 24Dc. 
|/» 419, 13. 
|^y = <r^628. 
(^poftoi, ^vpctf, 148,7. 
|tW 421, 10. 

O, TOW. 7ff; interch. w. 

a, «, see a; w. v 27. 
o for a 203. 349 D. 478 a; 

for « 847 D. 
from c, see e. 
to I 27; tooi24Dc. 
toov24Dc. 81. 
to « 28. 156. 221 a. 809. 

836-6. 400 m, n. 
dropped after oi 221 b. 
o conn. TOW. 203. 852. 401 

stems in, 162 b. 193-4. 
-0 gen. slug. 136 c. 140 ; 2 

sing, for -010 863. 
6,1i, r6, 119. 239. 248 D. 

108 a; demonstr. 526; 

6fi4y,6 94, 526 a; 6 94, 

Sydpf 6257; r^ forrtC 

621; iy rois w. sap. 

627 ; TOW w. inf. 692 b. 

5 neut of Bs 248. 68 ; for 

S9 243D; for ^i 868 b. 
oa to w 82. cf. 86. 
-oas to "Ovs 86 b. 
ifiptfjunrdrpfi 218 D. 
ayMf 268d. 
^^09 268 D. 

Digitized by 




iy9oos 258. 87 D. 
89e, fiSff, r<;dff, 239 U1 

110; use 673-9; w. art. 

588 a; 481242. 
Ms 189 c ; om. 509 b ; 

gen. 590; dat. 612. 
^ovs 156c; iSdwJ), 
oSvs 821 D. 

'O8Mr(<r)c^s40D. 189D. 
Off to w 82. [85 c. 

oci to ov 34. 871a; to oi 
•offi84f adj. 481 a. 
oir to « 82 ; to 1} 8'6 a. 
on to 01 85 c ; to r 401 i, 
&»cy 248. 250. 879, 2 ; at- 

traction 811 a. 
2^1 248 D. 879,1. 
6»o^€Ka 869, 8. 72. 
01 1 1 ff; for o 24 D c ; to y 

810 ; interch. w. « 25. 
•01 elided 70 D ; short for 

ace. 95 a. 865. 
-01 voc. fiiog. 194 a. 
Oi (^p«) 450, 6. 
oT pron. 230. 105 a. 
of adv. 248. 250. 879, 8 ; 

w. gen. 589. 
-om fern. 180. [796 d. 

ota conj. 876, 5 ; w. part. 
ofTw, otywfu^ 424 D, 16. 
olSa 409,6. 23 D. 818 D. 

351 D. 864 D; pf. 712; 

w. part, (inf.) 799. 802 ; 

c2 oW Uri 868 a; oTcrd^ 

h tpaao¥ 755. 
ol8i(iw, olUv, 486, 8. 
OMvovi 191. 
ii{vfH&T€pos 221 D. [D a. 
-oiiy for -oiy 140 Da. 154 
or«a8ff 208. 110. 
oIkuos 468 ; w. gen. 587 c. 
tiiKO&9¥ 208. 
oTico^i 208 D. 
o7jcof 28D; om. 509^ 
ohertlfm w. gen. 577 a. 

oiKTp6s compar. 222 D. 
otfu^M 879. 
-otydual 154. 195 b. 
oryos28D; om. 509 b. 
otroxo4t0 S12D, 
-oto gen. sing. 140 D. 
ofo/icu, o7^ia4, 422, 15. 868 

a. 418; w. gen. 570; 

mid. 692 ; hyperb. 885. 

616 ; &s iyi» olfuu 667. 
ofoi 247. 86 D. 681a. 811. 

814 ff ; w. sup. 664 ; ofoy, 

o7a, w. part. 795 d. 
off^rrff 814.856a.110. 
o7s23D. 154Db. 192. 
-oura for -oucm 862 D. 
-OMri(af) dat. pL 140 Db. 
o2xW« 422 D, 16. [698. 
oixo/Mu 422, 16 ; pr. for pf. 
or», 6U, 422, 15. 
Step 247 D. 
oKtfos w. inf. 767. 
Skoios 247 D. 
o\ (fftXci) 482 D, 22. 
6\iydKtt 259. [dat. 610. 
dAi7os228,4; gen. 575 a; 
6\iymp4w w. gen. 576. 
6\ur&d^ 436, 9. 
SAof w. art. 587. 
*0\^fiwtos dat. pi. 613. 
&fu\4M w. dat. 602. 

w. ace. 544 a. 545. 
S^iof , 6fAoi^f w. dat. 603. 
dfuucXdct 870 D a. 
6fAokoy490 w. dat. 602 ; w. 

part. 797 ; w. inf. 777. 
ifUpywfu 442, 10. 
6fwv 590 a; w. dat. 602 b. 
6fA^wfios w. gen. 587 d; 

w. dat. 608. 
Sfiids 864, 8. 
8/«»f 858 b. 864,8. 874 b; 

w. part, 796 f. 
o¥ compar. stems in, 174. 
Upap 201 b. 
Sydff 96fiop9* 208 D. 
Spwtpos 199. [k, n. 

difOfM aoc. 649 b ; dat. 608. 

iroftdCtf w. pred. 640. 656. 


i^^im 891 a. 

iH^s 90. 

00 to ov 82 ; 001 to 01 84. 

-oof a^j. in, 208. 

oov to ov 84; Sou 248D. 

oir {6pdt0) 450, 4. 

6irp 248. 876,6. 879,4. 

^X/jcos 247. 

^vUca 248. 877, 8. 

^urdc(r)79D. 224 D; w. 

gen. 589. 
Ma{a)c» 40 T>. 
Mffrwros 224 D. 
&irK&T9pos^ -roTOf, 224 D. 
^<&^ffy 248. 811a.879«2. 
&w6^i 879, 1. 

8»oi 248. 879, 8. [ff. 

4iroros247. 251. 681b.^26 
^4J(rof 247. 681b. 825 ff: 
imitrros 257. 
H^w 877, 1. 
&w^% 248. 877, 1. 
im&TMpos 247. 
5irov 248. 879, 1. [D. 

^mroiof , 5inr«s, 247 D. 40 
^n6<r9 248 D. 
5ir»s 248. 876, 8 ; fin. 789 

ff; interrog. 825 ff; w. 

fut. 756; hrws fii 748; 

6m(«450,4. 812.822. 868 

D. 866b. 870 Da. 871 D 

c ; w. fi^ 748 ; w. part. 

opy (f'pBi») 428, 14. 
6pyiCofuu w. dat. 695 b; 

w. part. 800. 
opiymr/u, 6p4ywf 442 D, 1 8 ; 

w. gen. 574 c. 
^cof, dp^oTcpof, 221 D. 
5p3/»of wt art 580 b. 
4piK^ w. two acc. 655. 
tfprif 158 f. 169. 202,12. 
KprvMx 442, 11. 811 D. 821 

D. 845D. 849D. 884D. 

408 D, 40. 

Digitized by 




hp{f<r<f» 428, 4. 821. 

6p^ay6s w. gen. 584 f. 

SpXu 153 L 

OS stems in, 181 If. 

-Of neut. 176